Sineus and Truvor
|Sineus and Truvor|
Sineus and Truvor, according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, were the brothers of Rurik of the Varangian Rus tribe. For a long time two names were believed to be a Slavic misunderstanding based on the Scandinavian expressions Trú vor ("our faithful") and Sine hus ("his households" or "his clan"). However, modern researches of old Scandinavian dialects demonstrate fallibility of that interpretation.
According to the Primary Chronicle, which dates their settlement between 860 and 862 AD, Rurik settled in Novgorod, while Sineus established himself at Belo Ozero, on the shores of lake Beloye, and Truvor at Izborsk, although archaeological findings have also suggested that his residence was in Pskov. Truvor and Sineus died shortly after the establishment of their territories, and like this Rurik consolidated these lands into his own territory, thus laying the foundations for the Kievan Rus'.
The popular in 20th century scholarly interpretation, for instance, summarized in the textbook by Katsva and Yurganov, is that "Rurik, Sineus, en Truvor" should be read "Rurik, sine hus, en tro(gna) vär(ingar)" (Rurik, his house/relatives, and true companions). However modern linguistical expertize shows that "sine hus" and "thru varing" contradict basic morphology and syntax of old Scandinavian dialects, and could never be translated as "our faithful" and "his households". On the other hand, historians of 19th century (A.Kunik, N.Belyaev, et al.) had already found common old Scandinavian names Signjótr and Þórvar[ð]r, which fit well with "Sineus" and "Truvor" by Nestor's transcription.
- Мельникова Е. А. (2000). Древнейшие государства Восточной Европы. 1998 г. Восточная литература РАН. pp. 148–149. ISBN 5-02-018133-1.
- Mike Dixon-Kennedy (1998). Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic Myth and Legend. ABC-CLIO. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-57607-063-5. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- The Scots magazine, or, General repository of literature, history, and politics. Printed by Alex Chapman and for James Watson. 1802. p. 339. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Wladyslaw Duczko (2004). Viking Rus: Studies on the Presence of Scandinavians in Eastern Europe. BRILL. p. 111. ISBN 978-90-04-13874-2. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Gwyn Jones (19 July 2001). A History of the Vikings. Oxford University Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-19-280134-0. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Thomas Schaub Noonan; Kathryn Reyerson (2006). Pre-Modern Russia and Its World: Essays in Honor of Thomas S. Noonan. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 161. ISBN 978-3-447-05425-6.
- Кацва, Л. А.; Юрганов, А. Л. (1996). История России VIII-XV вв. (in Russian). Moscow: Вентана-Граф. pp. 21–22. ISBN 5708401028.
- Рюрик - Синеус - Трувор. Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
- Media related to Sineus and Truvor at Wikimedia Commons
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