|Phonemic representation||sˤ (t͡s)|
|Position in alphabet||18|
|Alphabetic derivatives of the Phoenician|
|Greek||Ϻ (Ͷ), Ͳ (Ϡ), Ϸ?, Ψ?|
|Latin||𐌑 (Old Italic)|
|Cyrillic||Ц, Ч, Ћ, Џ, Ѱ?|
Tsade (also spelled ṣade, ṣādē, ṣaddi, ṣad, tzadi, sadhe, tzaddik) is the eighteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician ṣādē , Hebrew ṣādi צ, Aramaic ṣāḏē , Syriac ṣāḏē ܨ, Ge'ez ṣädäy ጸ, and Arabic ṣād ص. Its oldest phonetic value is debated, although there is a variety of pronunciations in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. It represents the coalescence of three Proto-Semitic "emphatic consonants" in Canaanite. Arabic, which kept the phonemes separate, introduced variants of ṣād and ṭāʾ to express the three (see ḍād, ẓāʾ). In Aramaic, these emphatic consonants coalesced instead with ʿayin and ṭēt, respectively, thus Hebrew ereṣ ארץ (earth) is araʿ ארע in Aramaic.
The corresponding letter of the Ugaritic alphabet is 𐎕 ṣade.
The letter is named "tsadek" in Yiddish, and Hebrew speakers often give it a similar name as well. This name for the letter probably originated from a fast recitation of the alphabet (i.e., "tsadi, qoph" → "tsadiq, qoph"), influenced by the Hebrew word tzadik, meaning "righteous person".
The origin of ṣade is unclear. It may have come from a Proto-Sinaitic script based on a pictogram of a plant, perhaps a papyrus plant, or a fish hook (in Modern Hebrew, צד tsad means "[he] hunt[ed]", and in Arabic صاد ṣād means "[he] hunted").
|Various print fonts||Modern Cursive
Hebrew spelling: צָדִי or צָדֵי.
In Hebrew, the letter's name is tsadi or ṣadi, depending on whether the letter is transliterated as Modern Israeli "ts" or Tiberian "ṣ". Alternatively, it can be called tsadik or ṣadik, spelled צָדִּיק, influenced by its Yiddish name tsadek and the Hebrew word tzadik.
In Modern Hebrew, צ tsade represents a voiceless alveolar affricate /t͡s/. This is the same in Yiddish. Historically, it likely represented a pharyngealized /sˤ/; which became [t͡s] in Ashkenazi pronunciation. A geresh can also be placed after tsade (צ׳ ; ץ׳), giving it the sound [t͡ʃ] (or, in a hypercorrected pronunciation, a pharyngealized [ʃˤ]), e.g. צִ׳יפְּס chips.
As an abbreviation, it stands for ṣafon, north.
It is written in several ways depending in its position in the word:
|Position in word||Isolated||Final||Medial||Initial|
|Unicode name||HEBREW LETTER TSADI||HEBREW LETTER FINAL TSADI||ARABIC LETTER SAD||SYRIAC LETTER SADHE||SAMARITAN LETTER TSAADIY|
|UTF-8||215 166||D7 A6||215 165||D7 A5||216 181||D8 B5||220 168||DC A8||224 160 145||E0 A0 91|
|Numeric character reference||צ
|Unicode name||UGARITIC LETTER SADE||IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER SADHE||PHOENICIAN LETTER SADE|
|UTF-8||240 144 142 149||F0 90 8E 95||240 144 161 145||F0 90 A1 91||240 144 164 145||F0 90 A4 91|
|UTF-16||55296 57237||D800 DF95||55298 56401||D802 DC51||55298 56593||D802 DD11|
|Numeric character reference||𐎕