|Native to||Botswana, Zimbabwe|
|4,100 of both Tshwa and Shua (2008)|
Official language in
|Zimbabwe (as 'Koisan')|
Tsoa or Tshwa, also known as Kua and Hiechware, is an East Kalahari Khoe dialect cluster spoken by several thousand people in Botswana and Zimbabwe. (This language group is not to be confused with Tswa (Xitswa), a Bantu language in Mozambique which has the alternate spelling Tshwa.)
One of the dialects is Tjwao (formerly Tshwao), the only Khoisan language in Zimbabwe, where "Koisan" is a language officially recognised in the constitution.
Tsoa–Kua is a dialect cluster, which is still poorly studied but seems to include:
- Tsoa, also known as Hiechware and as various other combinations of Hio-, Hie-, Hai- + Chwa, Tshwa, Chuwau, Tshuwau + -re, -ri; also as Sarwa, Sesarwa (the Tswana name), Gǁabake-Ntshori, Tati, and Kwe-Etshori Kwee. Zimbabwean Tshwao apparently belongs here.
- Kua, also spelled Cua and Tyhua. That is, both Tsoa and Kua may be pronounced something like [tʃwa], and it's not clear that they are distinct dialects.
- Cire Cire [tʃire tʃire], spoken in the area around Nata in Botswana.
The Cire-cire (not cited) dialect has the following consonant inventory:
|Oral click||ǀ ᶢǀ ǀʰ||(ǃ ᶢǃ ǃʰ)||ǁ ᶢǁ ǁʰ||(ǂ ᶢǂ ǂʰ)|
|Oral stop||p b||t d||k ɡ||q||ʔ|
The clicks have a very uneven distribution: Only a dozen words begin with one of the palatal clicks (ǂ), and these are replaced by dental clicks (ǀ) among younger speakers. Only half a dozen words start with one of the alveolar clicks (ǃ), and half a dozen more with one of the affricated clicks. These rather marginal sounds are placed in parentheses in the chart.
Tsoa has the five vowels /a e i o u/. It is not clear if Tsoa has long vowels, or simply sequences of identical vowels /aa ee ii oo uu/.
There are two tones, high and low, plus a few cases of mid tone.
In the northern dialect of Kua, like all other East Kalahari Khoe languages, the palatal click series has become palatal stops. Southern Kua has retained the palatal clicks, but the dental stops have palatalized, as they have in Gǀui and ǂ’Amkoe. Thus northern Kua has /ɟua/ 'ash' and /d̪u/ 'eland', whereas southern Kua has ᶢǂua 'ash' and /d̪ʲu/ (or perhaps /ɟu/) 'eland'.
- Brenzinger, Matthias (2011) "The twelve modern Khoisan languages." In Witzlack-Makarevich & Ernszt (eds.), Khoisan languages and linguistics: proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium, Riezlern / Kleinwalsertal (Research in Khoisan Studies 29). Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tshwa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Gerlach, Linda (2015) "Phonetic and phonological description of the Nǃaqriaxe variety of ǂ’Amkoe and the impact of language contact". PhD dissertation, Humboldt University, Berlin
Vossen, Rainer (ed.). 2013a. The Khoesan Languages. London & New York: Routledge.
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