Tsou (Cou) is a divergent Austronesian language spoken by the Tsou people of Taiwan. Tsou is a threatened language; however, this status is uncertain. Its speakers are located in the west-central mountains southeast of the Chiayi/Alishan area in Taiwan.
Tsou has traditionally been considered part of a Tsouic branch of Austronesian. However, several recent classifications, such as Chang (2006) and Ross (2009) dispute the Tsouic branch, with Tsou more divergent than the other two languages, Kanakanabu and Saaroa.
Tsou does not have much dialectal variation. There are four recorded dialects: Tapangʉ, Tfuya, Duhtu and Iimcu, of which Tapangʉ and Tfuya are still spoken. Iimcu has not been well described. The grammar of the other three dialects is nearly identical, and phonological variation is marginal: In certain environments, Tapangʉ /i/ corresponds to Tfuya and Duhtu /z/ or /iz/, and Duhtu had /r/ for Tfuya and Tapangʉ /j/ (Actually, older speakers had been recorded to vary between [ɹ] and [j], but at that point the dialect was moribund.).
Tsou is spoken in the following villages: All of the villages are located in Alishan Township, Chiayi County except for Mamahavana (Jiumei), which is located in Hsinyi/Xinyi Township, Nantou County. Both the native Tsou names and Chinese names are given.
- Tapangʉ 達邦 (Dabang)
- Nia'ucna/Nibiei 里佳 (Lijia)
- Saviki 山美 (Shanmei)
- Sinvi 新美 (Xinmei)
- Cayamavana 茶山 (Chashan)
- Dadauya 樂野 (Leye)
- Ranguu/Pnguu/Dadangia 來吉 (Laiji)
- Mamahavana 久美 (Jiumei)
Iimucu – extinct
The description of Tsou phonology below is from Wright & Ladefoged (1994).
Tsou has six vowels, /i ɨ u e o ɑ/. Vowel sequences occur, including sequences of like vowels (/ii/ etc.), but these are separate moras rather than long vowels or diphthongs. Vowels, especially back vowels, are centralized when flanked by voiceless alveolar consonants (/t, ts, s/). This may involve a central offglide, so that /o/ is pronounced as a diphthong [öə̯] or [ɵə̯] in this environment. The sound /ɨ/ ~ /ʉ/ has been written <x>, possibly the only case in the world of x representing a vowel.
|implosive||ɓ||ɗ ~ ˀl|
|Affricate||ts ~ tʃ|
|Fricative||voiceless||f||s ~ ʃ||h|
|voiced||v||z ~ ʒ|
|Approximant||w||ɹ ~ j|
The approximants /w/ and /j/ may surface as non-syllabic mid vowels [e̯] and [o̯], even (for /j/) in initial position (/jo~joskɨ/ [e̯oˈe̯oskɨ] "fishes"; /w/ does not occur in initial position), explaining the spelling Tfuea (/tfuja/) for the name of the dialect. However, stress assignment ([ˈtfue̯a]) and restrictions on consonant clusters (see stress and phonotactics below) demonstrate that they behave as consonants.
The plosives are not aspirated. Phonetically aspirated stops are actually sequences of stop plus /h/, as can be seen by the fact that they cannot cluster with a third consonant (see phonotactics below), and by morphological alternations such as /phini/ ~ /mhini/ "to trade".
According to spectrum analysis, /h/ appears to be a glottal fricative in most environments, but approaches a velar [x] next to the central vowel /ɨ/, as in /tsaphɨ/ 'palm, sole'. However, the fact that the sequences /hʔ/ and /ʔh/ occur, when no other homorganic sequence is allowed, suggests that /h/ and /ʔ/ may not both be glottal. (Additional evidence that /h/ might best be analyzed as velar is the fact that */kh/ is not found, and that /hk/ is only found medially, in the single known word /kuhku/ "fox".)
The voiceless sibilants, /ts/ and /s/, are palatalized to [tʃ] and [ʃ] before the front vowels /i/ and /e/. However, the voiced sibilant /z/ is not affected by this environment.
The implosives /ɓ/ and /ɗ/ are uncommon. Both may be glottalized ([ʔɓ], [ʔɗ] or maybe [ʔb], [ʔd]) in intervocalic position. In addition, alveolar /ɗ/ has some unusual allophony: About a third of speakers pronounce it with a lateral release, or before /a/ as a lateral approximant [l], as in /ɗauja/ [lauja] "maple". Indeed, Tsuchida (1976) transcribed it as a preglottalized lateral, [ˀl].
With a few exceptions, stress is not only predictable, but shifts when suffixes are added to a word. It falls on the penultimate vowel, or on the penultimate mora if a moraic analysis is adopted. That is, a final heavy syllable (double vowel) receives stress ([eˈmoo] "house"); otherwise, stress falls on the penultimate syllable ([oˈkosi] "his child"). Additional stress falls in a trochaic pattern: Every other light syllable (single vowel) also receives stress. Unstressed vowels are deleted, except at word boundaries (initial or final vowel) and unless doing so would create a forbidden consonant cluster (see below).
For example, the verb //seʔe-nətəh-a// "to cut with a bolo" takes stress on the syllables //tə// and //ʔe//, and is realized as [sʔenˈtəha]. However, this does not explain all consonant clusters, many of which are lexically determined.
The most complex syllable in Tsou is CCVV. Tsou is unusual in the number of consonant clusters that it allows. Homorganic clusters are not allowed, unless one is a nasal consonant, and a maximum of two consonants may occur together, but otherwise about half of possible sequences are known to occur. For example, all non-homorganic sequences starting with /t/ and /ts/ are found. Missing clusters may not be allowed, or may simply be accidental gaps due to limited knowledge of the lexicon.
Initial or medial Medial only /pt, pts, ps, pn, pk, pŋ, pʔ, ph/ /pz/ /ft, fts, fk, fŋ, fʔ/ /fn/ /vts, vh/ /vn, vʔ/ /ɓn/ /ɓk/ /mp, mf, mts, ms, mz, mn, mʔ, mh/ /mɓ, mt/ /tp, tf, tv, tm, tn, tk, tŋ, tʔ, th/ /tɓ/ /tsp, tsf, tsv, tsm, tsn, tsk, tsŋ, tsʔ, tsh/ /tsɓ/ /sp, sv, sɓ, sm, sn, sk, sŋ, sʔ/ — — /zʔ/ /nm, nt, ns/ /np, nv, nts, nz, nk, nʔ, nh/ /ks, kn/ /kts, kʔ/ /ŋv, ŋh/ /ŋm, ŋt, ŋts, ŋs, ŋz, ŋk/ /ʔp, ʔv, ʔm, ʔt, ʔts, ʔs/ /ʔf, ʔɗ, ʔn, ʔk, ʔh/ /hp, hv, hm, ht, hts, hn, hŋ, hʔ/ /hs, hz, hk, hŋ/
In clusters of oral stops, both have an audible release burst. This is true even between vowels, an environment where the first stop has no audible release in most languages, supporting an analysis of these clusters as part of the syllable onset, with no syllable codas occurring in the language.
Stops, oral or nasal, may or may not have a release burst before a nasal stop, depending on the speaker. The initial clusters /hp, ht, hʔ/ are unusual cross-linguistically. The spectrum shows that the tongue moves towards an alveolar articulation during the /h/ of /ht/, demonstrating that it is not articulated as a velar. The initial clusters /pʔ/ and /tʔ/ are sometimes realized as two released stops, but sometimes with a single release, resembling ejective consonants in other languages. (/kʔ/ is again notably missing, except intervocalically, despite the fact that [kʼ] is the most common ejective cross-linguistically.)
Like most other Austronesian languages, Tsou displays a predicate-initial syntax.
Tsou has three main types of questions.
- Yes–no questions
- Alternative questions
- Wh-questions (information questions)
Tsou has the following types of clauses:
- (Verbal) interrogative
- Existential (no auxiliary verbs are allowed)
Important function words are:
- zou – "to be"
- 'a – "it is in case that"
- o'ta – (it is) not (in case that)"
- pan – "there is" / existential
- uk'a – negative existential (usually followed by ci)
- o'a – negation of a fact or event
- ci – relativizer
- 'o – prohibition (AV constructions)
- av'a – prohibition (UV constructions)
Case markers are as follows, with nominative forms placed before slashes and oblique forms placed after them (Zeitoun 2005:274). The nominative form is given when there are no slashes.
- 'e – visible and near speaker
- si / ta – visible and near hearer
- ta – visible but away from speaker
- 'o / to – invisible and far away, or newly introduced to discourse
- na / no ~ ne – non-identifiable and non-referential (often when scanning a class of elements)
Tsou nouns are distinguished from verbs by the presence of case markers and suffixed genitive pronouns, both of which cannot be applied to verbs. Verbs, on the other hand, have elaborate voice marking. Adjectives and certain adverbs actually function as verbs, since they also undergo voice inflection and are placed at the same positions within clauses as verbs (i.e., predicate-initial).
Tsou is unique for not having any preposition-like elements, instead using nouns or verbs to express these notions.
- Actor voice: m-, b-, <m>, or ø
- Patient voice: -a
- Locative voice: -i
- Instrumental/benefactive voice: -(n)eni
Tsou verbs can be divided into five major classes (I, II, III-1, III-2, IV, V-1, V-2) based on morphological alternations (Zeitoun 2005:285). Tsou verbs do not have as many morphological distinctions as other Formosan languages do, since the Tsou language makes more extensive use of auxiliary verbs. For instance, there are no temporal/aspectual distinctions, separate markings for imperatives, and stative/dynamic distinctions. Nevertheless, Tsou still preserves the causative poa- (allomorphs: p-, pa-).
Tsou auxiliary verbs can carry temporal/aspectual and modal information as well as voice. They are marked for the following voices:
- Actor voice (AV)
- Undergoer voice (UV), or sometimes referred to as non-actor voice (NAV)
These auxiliary verbs can be divided into three classes:
- AV constructions – mio, mo, mi-, moso, mo(h)-
- UV constructions – i-, o(h)-
- AV/UV constructions – te, ta, tena, nte, ntoso, nto(h)-, la
Tsou has the following aspectual suffixes:
- -cu/-c'u – already
- -n'a – still, just, about to
- -la – once
The personal pronouns below are from the Tfuya dialect of Tsou, and are sourced from Zeitoun (2005:265). Note that third-person pronouns are distinguished between those that are visible or non-visible.
Tfuya Tsou numerals are:
- coni ; 10. m-as-kʉ
- yuso ; 20. m-pus-ku
- tuyu ; 30. m-tuyu-hu
- sʉptʉ ; 40. m-sʉptʉ-hʉ
- eimo ; 50. m-eimo-hʉ
- nomʉ ; 60. m-onmʉ-hʉ
- pitu ; 70. m-pʉtvʉ-hʉ
- voyu ; 80. m-voyvʉ-hʉ
- sio ; 90. m-sio-hʉ
Tens are derived with the circumfix (confix) m- -hʉ. There is also a u/ʉ vowel harmony phenomenon.
These people live in the mountainous areas because dominating colonizers were in Taiwan for over 380 years. Outsiders have killed the indigenous people, burned villages, and forced them to move as the colonizers claimed more and more spaces. Some such colonizers were the Dutch, Spanish, Japanese, and Chinese. The outside rulers imposed their own education systems on the indigenous people, but the most notable influence came from the Kuomintang era, where Taiwanese people were forced to use Mandarin and where children were punished at school if they used their own indigenous language. This forced the original Taiwanese people to give up their language in order to survive in the new, imposed environment.
Due to globalization, people are always in search of finding better lives if they're not completely happy, and young people are leaving the villages and looking for jobs in big cities. Because of this, children are not using the language and are not getting exposed to the culture as frequently, which means the language is not getting passed down to future generations.
One survey from 1999 found that only 9% of the indigenous children could speak their native language, and most children preferred to use Mandarin, which is the official Taiwan language. Tsou is mostly used by community elders in ceremonies and certain gatherings. Unfortunately, since the parents are not fluent and do not view the language as practical for children, the language is rarely spoken at home. The language is found more in school settings where children attend cultural learning programs.
The Tsou language is recognized by the government. The government has allocated money dedicated to bring language programs to elementary and junior high schools, but the funds are sometimes inconsistent, which negatively affects the programs. It helped that the Martial law was lifted in 1987 and that people could freely speak their native languages again, however, so many other dominant languages were used that several native indigenous languages disappeared.
The elders care about their language and worry that it may not survive in the future, so they welcome any help linguists may provide. In addition, the community has programs to maintain the language. One example is when children get to sing Tsou folk songs in kindergarten and continue to become exposed to other cultural programs through elementary school. People are relying heavily on these kids to keep the language, music, and culture alive. There are programs for elementary and middle school kids to learn the language. Community members are very willing to get involved with events. It is difficult to teach the language because there is a lack of good teaching materials. Schools do not make learning the indigenous language a priority because if an event deemed more important occurs, teachers are likely to put off the language lesson. In addition, students have to worry about studying English, Mandarin, and entrance exam materials, so time is limited and the ethnic language is not a priority in the minds of the younger generation.
- Tsou at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
- "Tsou". Endangered Languages Project. Archived from the original on 2020-08-04. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
- Chang, Henry Yungli. 2006. "Rethinking the Tsouic Subgroup Hypothesis: A Morphosyntactic Perspective." In Chang, H., Huang, L. M., Ho, D. (eds.). Streams converging into an ocean: Festschrift in honor of Professor Paul Jen-Kuei Li on his 70th birthday. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
- Ross, Malcolm. 2009. "Proto Austronesian verbal morphology: A reappraisal." In Alexander Adelaar and Andrew Pawley (eds.). Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history: a festschrift for Robert Blust. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
- Li (1979), Zeitoun (2005)
- In the text of Wright & Ladefoged, /fn/ is listed as an initial cluster, but the appendix only has an example for medial position.
- Wright and Ladefoged list the additional medial cluster /ŋʔ/ in their appendix, but their example ⟨anʔosɨ⟩ "two friends ganging up on a third" is typed with an ⟨n⟩.
- Zeitoun (2005):282
- Zeitoun (2005):264
- Zeitoun (2005):284
- Chang and Pan (2018):49
- Zeitoun (2005):265
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- Wright, Richard; Ladefoged, Peter (1994), "A Phonetic Study of Tsou", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 87: Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages II
- Zeitoun, Elizabeth (2005). "Tsou". In Adelaar, K. Alexander; Himmelmann, Nikolaus (eds.). The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar. London: Routledge. pp. 259–290.
- Chang, Yungli 張永利; Pan, Chia-jung 潘家榮 (2018). Zōuyǔ yǔfǎ gàilùn 鄒語語法概論 [Introduction to Tsou Grammar] (in Chinese). Xinbei Shi: Yuanzhu minzu weiyuanhui. ISBN 978-986-05-5688-9 – via alilin.apc.gov.tw.
- Tung, T'ung-ho (1964). A Descriptive Study of the Tsou Language, Formosa (PDF). Taipei: Academia Sinica, Institute of History and Philology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-11-06. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
- Miyake, Marc. "Tsou fŋ-".
- Miyake, Marc. "Uchinaaguchi part 40: in the fustz-teps of Nevsky".
- Nevskij, N. A. 聶甫斯基 (1993). Táiwān Zōuzú yǔ diǎn 臺灣鄒族語典 (in Chinese). Translated by Bai, Sihong 白嗣宏; Li, Fuqing 李福清; Pu, Zhongcheng 浦忠成. Taibei Shi: Taiyuan. ISBN 957-9261-41-5.
- Pan, Chia-jung (2010). The Grammatical Realization of Temporal Expressions in Tsou. LINCOM Studies in Austronesian Linguistics 07. München: Lincom Europa.
- Pan, Chia-jung (2015). "Reported Evidentials in Saaroa, Kanakanavu, and Tsou". In Zeitoun, Elizabeth; Teng, Stacy F.; Wu, Joy J. (eds.). New Advances in Formosan Linguistics. Asia-Pacific Linguistics 017 / Studies on Austronesian Languages 003. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics. pp. 341–362. hdl:1885/14354. ISBN 978-1-922185-17-4.
- Tsuchida, Shigeru (1976). Reconstruction of Proto-Tsouic Phonology. Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series, no. 5. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.
- Ogawa's Vocabulary of Formosan Dialects 小川尚義 (臺灣蕃語蒐録) Archived 2013-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
- Tsou radio recordings (RB1-009, RB1-010) archived with the Robert Blust collection at Kaipuleohone
- Yuánzhùmínzú yǔyán xiànshàng cídiǎn 原住民族語言線上詞典 (in Chinese) – Tsou search page at the "Aboriginal language online dictionary" website of the Indigenous Languages Research and Development Foundation
- Tsou teaching and leaning materials published by the Council of Indigenous Peoples of Taiwan (in Chinese)