Tuakau (Māori: Tūākau) is a town in the Waikato region, formerly part of the Auckland Region until 2010, when it became part of Waikato District in the North Island of New Zealand. The town serves to support local farming, and is the residence of many employees of New Zealand Steel at Glenbrook.
The place name is believed to be a geographical reference to the high bluff nearby that offers views down the Waikato river. In Māori the word tū can mean 'to stand' and ākau 'river bank'.
History and culture
The area was first used as a trading centre for passing waka that would transport goods up and down the Waikato River.
A flour mill was built in 1855.
In 1863 war broke out because the British Crown forced the Waikato people out of their lands just south of the river and the New Zealand Government stationed in Tuakau Imperial troops brought over from Great Britain.[clarification needed] To help defend the area the Alexandra Redoubt was built as a defensive fort on the bluff near the river. The existing town which was originally intended to be built closer to the Waikato River was subsequently built in an area 2 km further inland.
The railway from Auckland reached Tuakau in 1875, when the Tuakau Railway Station was opened.
By 1914 the people of Tuakau had formed their own town district which went on to achieve borough status on 1 January 1955. During its 44 years as a borough, Tuakau had seven mayors:
Amalgamations since 1989 has seen it first become part of the Franklin District governed by a district council and then in 2010 with border changes saw it became part of Waikato district when present-day Auckland Council boundaries were created.
Tuakau has two marae (Maori sacred or communal place), affiliated with the hapū (Maori sub-tribe or clan) of Waikato Tainui (a tribal confederation based in the Waikato Region). Ngā Tai e Rua Marae and its Ngā Tai e Rua meeting house are a meeting place Ngāti Āmaru, Ngāti Koheriki and Ngāti Tiipa. Tauranganui Marae and its Rangiwahitu meeting house are a meeting place for Ngāti Āmaru Ngati Rangiwahitu , Ngati Kaiaua and Ngāti Tiipa.
The town's 'Tuakau Bridge' replaced the need for a ferry from November 1902. A span of the original wooden bridge collapsed on 23 August 1929 and was replaced by the current £24,000 ($2.9m at 2015 prices), 750 ft (230 m) bridge from 22 June 1933, designed by Jones & Adams, who also built Horotiu (1921), Te Aroha (1926), Ngamuwahine River (1930) and Fairfield bridges (1937). It was once part of State Highway 22.
Gas pipeline aerial crossing
About 3 km (1.9 mi) upstream from Tuakau Bridge, at the end of Brown Rd, the river is crossed by the First Gas 400-line gas transmission pipe, which supplies gas from the Maui gas pipeline at Rotowaro to Auckland and Northland. The 350 mm (14 in) pipe crosses on a 376 m (411 yd), 11 pier, truss bridge, 14 m (46 ft) above the water, which was built in 1980 and renovated in 2007.
Tuakau, comprising the statistical areas of Tuakau North and Tuakau South, had a population of 5,013 at the 2018 New Zealand census, an increase of 741 people (17.3%) since the 2013 census, and an increase of 1,404 people (38.9%) since the 2006 census. There were 1,632 households. There were 2,457 males and 2,559 females, giving a sex ratio of 0.96 males per female, with 1,293 people (25.8%) aged under 15 years, 1,041 (20.8%) aged 15 to 29, 2,094 (41.8%) aged 30 to 64, and 582 (11.6%) aged 65 or older.
Ethnicities were 69.1% European/Pākehā, 32.6% Māori, 8.4% Pacific peoples, 8.5% Asian, and 1.2% other ethnicities (totals add to more than 100% since people could identify with multiple ethnicities).
The proportion of people born overseas was 18.0%, compared with 27.1% nationally.
Although some people objected to giving their religion, 54.1% had no religion, 32.6% were Christian, 2.1% were Hindu, 0.4% were Muslim, 0.7% were Buddhist and 3.7% had other religions.
Of those at least 15 years old, 423 (11.4%) people had a bachelor or higher degree, and 852 (22.9%) people had no formal qualifications. The employment status of those at least 15 was that 2,019 (54.3%) people were employed full-time, 495 (13.3%) were part-time, and 177 (4.8%) were unemployed. The 2013 census showed 4,182 people usually live in Tuakau. This is an increase of 681 people, or 19.5 percent, since the 2006 census. The ethnic makeup of the town and surrounding areas is predominately European and Māori.
- "Population estimate tables - NZ.Stat". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
- "Tuakau Travel Guide". Jasons Travel Media.
- Tuakau, nzhistory.net.nz
- "Maori Mills. (Maori Messenger: Te Karere Maori, 1855-03-01)". paperspast.natlib.govt.nz National Library of New Zealand. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "Timeline of Auckland mayors". Auckland Council Archives. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- "Te Kāhui Māngai directory". tkm.govt.nz. Te Puni Kōkiri.
- "Māori Maps". maorimaps.com. Te Potiki National Trust.
- C W Vennell & Susan Williams: Raglan County Hills and Sea 1876–1976 p. 158
- "Bridge Over Waikato (New Zealand Herald, 1933-03-28)". paperspast.natlib.govt.nz National Library of New Zealand. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- "Papers Past — Auckland Star — 24 August 1929 — Page 9". paperspast.natlib.govt.nz (with 2 photos). Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- Bank of New Zealand inflation calculator Archived 30 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Waikato District Council: Tuakau Structure Plan Built Heritage Assessment 2014 – with photos
- "Proposed New Concrete Bridge Across The Waikato River at Tuakau. The Raglan County Council Has Decided To Adopt The Proposal To Re-erect The Tuakau Bridge at an Estimated Cost Of £24,000. The Structure Will Be The First Reinforced Concrete Bowstring Girder Type of Bridge To Be Erected in This Country. The Engineers Are Messrs. Jones And Adams. (with photo)". The New Zealand Herald. 30 May 1930. p. 8. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- "Search the List | Fairfield Bridge | Heritage New Zealand". www.heritage.org.nz. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- "New Zealand Topographic Map – NZ Topo Map". NZ Topo Map. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- "Gas Transmission Asset Management Plan – 2016" (PDF). First Gas.
- "Case Study: Waikato River Aerial Crossing. New Zealand" (PDF). Vector Gas. 2007.
- "Statistical area 1 dataset for 2018 Census". Statistics New Zealand. March 2020. Tuakau North (170000) and Tuakau South (170300). 2018 Census place summary: Tuakau North 2018 Census place summary: Tuakau South
- Scholefield, Guy, ed. (1940). A Dictionary of New Zealand Biography : M–Addenda (PDF). II. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs. p. 172. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
- "Tuakau Official Schools Website". tuakau.school.nz.
- "Tuakau School Ministry of Education School Profile". educationcounts.govt.nz. Ministry of Education.
- "Tuakau School Education Review Office Report". ero.govt.nz. Education Review Office.
- "Tuakau College Ministry of Education School Profile". educationcounts.govt.nz. Ministry of Education.
- "Tuakau College Education Review Office Report". ero.govt.nz. Education Review Office.