The Tuareg rebellion of 1962–1964, sometimes called the First Tuareg Rebellion or the Alfellaga, was a short lived insurgency by populations of what is now northern Mali begun shortly after the nation achieved independence from France in 1960. Many in the sparsely populated and ethnically distinct north of Mali along with some in southern Algeria and northern Niger expected an independent Tuareg, Berber, and Arab nation to be formed by the Sahara desert regions when French Colonialism ended. This combined with dissatisfaction over the new government led some Tuareg in Northern Mali to rebel in 1963. This rebellion was short-lived as the military response of the new Malian government was swift and harsh. No more than 1,500 anti-government fighters were ever active following the larger rising on 1963 but the response of the Malian Armed Forces, occupying much of what is now Kidal region, Gao Region, and Tomboctou Region resulted in a refugee crisis, as thousands fled to what is now Algeria (the southern reaches of which were still under French control). The military occupation, deaths, torture and imprisonment of suspected rebels has left deep resentment in much of the northern population. The area has seen three successive major rebellions in the decades since, and remains a source of conflict.