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Tuban is a town located on the north coast of Java, in Tuban Regency, approximately 100 km west of Surabaya, the capital of East Java. Tuban is surrounded by Lamongan in the east, Bojonegoro in the south and Rembang, Central Java in the west.
As an ancient town, Tuban is of considerable historical and cultural value. The most prominent feature is the beauty of the scenery such as beaches, caves, and forests, especially the teak forest.
Tuban was formerly an important port in the Majapahit era and is mentioned in Chinese records from the eleventh century. An ancient anchor from one of Kublai Khan's ships is preserved in the historical museum. Tuban is believed to have been Islamised before its conquest by Demak c. 1527. Even following its Islamisation, it remained loyal to Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit in the interior. The grave of Sunan Bonang, a sixteenth-century Islamic missionary - one of the Wali Sanga involved in the initial spread of Islam in Java, is located in Tuban. This site is an important destination for Muslim pilgrims.
The Dutch name of the city is 'Toeban'.
The town's name has been derived from the following story: a mythical pair of birds flying from Majapahit to Demak dropped a precious heirloom stone on the town thereafter named Tuban based on the Javanese phrase "waTU tiBAN atau meTU BANyu", which means "stone fallen from the sky". Another explanation refers to flooding ("TU BANyu" meaning "water streaming out") that occurred when the aristocratic Islamic scholar Raden Dandang Wacana entered the Papringan Forest, discovering an old well near the seaside that miraculously contained freshwater. The name has furthermore been derived from "Tubo", meaning poison, in keeping with the name of a Tubanese subdistrict named Jenu to this day, which carries the same meaning.
The official history of Tuban began in the Majapahit era in the 13th century. There was once an important ceremony when the king of Majapahit crowned Ronggolawe as the principal of the Tuban region. It was held on 12 November 1293 and that date has become the anniversary of Tuban, making it more ancient than Surabaya. Tuban's 700th anniversary was celebrated with a grand parade of decorated floats in 1993. The spread of Islam was pioneered by Sunan Bonang and his follower named Sunan Kalijaga, who was the son of the Tubanese principal in the 13th century.
Tuban is famous for tobacco and hardwood teak production. PT Semen Gresik, a major state-owned cement company, opened the largest cement factory in Indonesia in Tuban in 1994. A petrochemical plant operated by Trans-Pacific Petrochemical Indotama (TPPI) opened in 2006 after several years of delays. in 2010 also will be built in Tuban Holcim cement plant & Coal Fired Power Station to be built in Jenu.
There are four universities in Tuban, Universitas Sunan Bonang and the recently established Universitas Ronggolawe (UNIROW), which started as a Teacher Training College named IKIP PGRI TUBAN, STITMA and STIKES NU (College of Health Sciences Nahdlatul Ulama Tuban)which was inaugurated by Health Minister Hj. Siti Fadilah Supari . Voluntary Service Overseas posted a number of ELT volunteers to train local counterparts from 1989 onwards, followed by teachers from Volunteers in Asia, all warmly received as the only Westerners (called Londo, derived from the Javanese word for Belanda = Dutch) in town.
Tuban is famous for its unique batik, locally known as Batik Gedog. Typical motifs are sea animals in dark colours such as blue and purple. There is a traditional Chinese temple named Klenteng "Kwan Sing Bio" by the beach, which is visited by many local tourists from Surabaya and environs, especially when Imlek, the Chinese New Year is celebrated.
Tuban is known as the "City of a Thousand Caves" since there are so many caves in the area, containing both stalagtites and stalagmites. Famous caves such as Goa Akbar and Goa Maharani (which contains sophisticated pre-formed statues believed to be natural by young and old) are located near the city. Besides, there are many recreational sites worth visiting, such as Goa Ngerong, a natural swimming pool called Pemandian Alam Bektiharjo, a waterfall named Air Terjun Nglirip, and the beach and pier for young couples, Pantai Boom.
Tuban is also well known for its beverage tuak, strong palm wine taken from the Aren tree (called uwit bogor) served in large bamboo mugs called centak. Historically, the Tubanese used tuak as a strategic weapon against the colonial invaders, who were unable to fight when inebriated. Its non-alcoholic variety named Legen is drunk by women and children. Tuak and a kind of gin named arak are also served at traditional dance parties known as Tayuban or Sindiran, at which heavily made-up and padded female entertainers called Waranggono sing satirical songs and dance with paying males till the break of dawn, accompanied by a small gamelan orchestra. The dance movements are a vulgarised version of the Central Javanese palatial dance style known as Srimpi. One of the most notable of these entertainers, Nyi Sumini, was selected as one of five representatives to perform at Jakarta's Taman Mini Indonesia Indah park. One of Indonesia's most famous and prolific pop bands, Koes Plus, hailed from Tuban.
The most luxurious hotel in town, the Hotel Mustika was burnt to the ground when riots broke out after one of the candidates accused his opponents of having framed the outcome of the local elections to decide who would become the next regent or Bupati. The first female candidate in Tuban's history, Haeny Relawati, won and the instigator of the riots has been imprisoned.
- Maria Kristin Yulianti, badminton player
- Ricklefs, M.C. 1991. A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300. 2nd Edition, Stanford: Stanford University Press. page 37, ISBN 0-333-57690-X