Tuber (fungus)

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Tuber gibbosum 85547.jpg
Tuber gibbosum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Pezizomycetes
Order: Pezizales
Family: Tuberaceae
Genus: Tuber
P.Micheli ex F.H.Wigg.
Type species
Tuber aestivum[1]
  • Tuber P.Micheli
  • Tuberium Raf.
  • Aschion Wallr.
  • Ensaluta Zobel
  • Lespiaultinia Zobel
  • Oogaster Corda
  • Tuber subg. Vittadinion Zobel
  • Vittadinion Zobel
  • Terfeziopsis Harkn.
  • Delastreopsis Mattir.
  • Mukagomyces S.Imai
Desert truffle, Iran, in Yamchi town

Tuber is a genus in the Tuberaceae family of fungi, with estimated molecular dating to the end of the Jurassic period (156 Mya).[3] It includes several species of truffles that are highly valued as delicacies.


According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (2008), this widespread genus contains 86 species.[4]

Name Authority  Year Distribution
The binomial name of the Tuber species. The author citation—the person who first described the species using an available scientific name, eventually combined with the one who placed it in Tuber, and using standardized abbreviations. The year in which the species was named, or transferred to the genus Tuber. Where the actual year of publication (as defined for the purpose of priority) differs from the date given in the material, the latter date is given in quotes. The distribution of the species.
Tuber aestivum (Wulfen) Pers. 1801 Europe, from Spain to eastern Europe and from Sweden to North Africa
Tuber affine Corda 1854
Tuber albidum Fr. 1823
Tuber album Bull. 1789
Tuber anniae W.Colgan & Trappe[5] 1997 United States Pacific Northwest
Tuber arenaria Moris 1829
Tuber argenteum Gilkey 1916
Tuber argentinum Speg. 1909
Tuber asa-foetida Lesp. 1889
Tuber atrorubens (Wallr.) Tul. 1851
Tuber australe Speg. 1880
Tuber aztecorum G. Guevara, Bonito & M.E. Sm. 2018
Tuber bellisporum G.Bonito & Trappe[6] 2010
Tuber belonei Quél. 1888
Tuber berkeleyanum (Corda) Tul. 1851
Tuber bernardinii Gori 2003
Tuber besseyi Gilkey 1939
Tuber beyerlei Trappe, Bonito & Guevara[7] 2012 Oregon, USA
Tuber bisporum Gilkey 1925
Tuber bituminatum Berk. & Broome 1851
Tuber blotii Eudes-Desl.
Tuber bomiense K.M.Su & W.P.Xiong[8] 2013 Tibet
Tuber bonnetii Roum. 1882
Tuber borchianum Zobel 1854
Tuber borchii Vittad.[9] 1831
Tuber brumale Vittad.[9] 1831 Southern Europe
Tuber californicum Harkn. 1899
Tuber canaliculatum Gilkey 1920
Tuber candidum Harkn. 1899
Tuber caroli H.Bonnet 1885
Tuber castaneum (Wallr.) Corda 1854
Tuber castellanoi G.Bonito & Trappe[6] 2010
Tuber castilloi Guevara, Bonito & Trappe[7] 2012 Mexico
Tuber cervinum (L.) Nees 1817
Tuber cibarium With. 1792
Tuber cinereum Tul.
Tuber cistophilum P.Alvarado, G.Moreno, J.L.Manjón, C.Gelpi & J.Muñoz[10] 2012 Spain
Tuber citrinum Harkn. 1899
Tuber clarei Gilkey 1963
Tuber croci Dubois 1803
Tuber culinare Zobel 1854
Tuber debaryanum R.Hesse 1891
Tuber donnagotto Božac, Širić & Kos[11] 2012 Croatia
Tuber dryophilum Tul. & C.Tul. 1844
Tuber echinatum Sacc. & Paol. 1888
Tuber eisenii Harkn. 1899
Tuber esculentum Sacc. 1889
Tuber excavatum Vittad.[9] 1831
Tuber exiguum R.Hesse 1891
Tuber ferrugineum Vittad.[9] 1831
Tuber filamentosum (Wallr.) Tul. 1851
Tuber foetidum Vittad.[9] 1831
Tuber fulgens Quél. 1880
Tuber furfuraceum H.T.Hu & Y.I.Wang 2005
Tuber fuscum (Wallr.) Corda 1837
Tuber gallicum Corda 1854
Tuber gardneri Gilkey 1916
Tuber gibbosum Harkn. 1899 Pacific Northwest region of the United States
Tuber giganteum Gilkey 1925
Tuber gigantosporum Y.Wang & Z.P.Li 1991
Tuber griseum Borch ex Pers. 1801
Tuber guevarai Bonito & Trappe[7] 2012 Mexico
Tuber gulonum (Corda) Paol. 1889
Tuber gulosorum (Scop.) F.H.Wigg. 1780
Tuber guzmanii Trappe & Cázares 2006
Tuber harknessii Gilkey 1954
Tuber hiemalbum Chatin 1892
Tuber himalayense B.C.Zhang & Minter 1988
Tuber hiromichii (S.Imai) Trappe 1979
Tuber huidongense Y.Wang 2002
Tuber huizeanum L.Fan & C.L.Hou[12] 2011 China
Tuber indicum Cooke & Massee 1895
Tuber intermedium Bucholtz 1901
Tuber irradians Gilkey 1916
Tuber lacunosum Mattir. 1900
Tuber lannaense S.Lumyong[13] 2016 Chiang Mai, Thailand
Tuber lapideum Mattir. 1887
Tuber latisporum Juan Chen & P.G.Liu 2007
Tuber lauryi Trappe, Bonito & Guevara[7] 2012 Oregon, USA
Tuber lespiaultii (Corda) Tul. 1851
Tuber levissimum Gilkey 1916
Tuber liaotongense Y.Wang 1990
Tuber lignarium (Harkn.) Gilkey 1916
Tuber lijiangense L.Fan & J.Z.Cao[14] 2011 China
Tuber linsdalei Gilkey 1954
Tuber liui A S.Xu 1999
Tuber longisporum Gilkey 1925
Tuber lucidum Vittad. 1884
Tuber lucidum H.Bonnet 1884
Tuber lutescens Lázaro Ibiza 1908
Tuber luteum Regel 1888
Tuber lyonii Butters 1903 northern Mexico states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas into Québec, Canada
Tuber macrosporum Vittad.[9] 1831
Tuber maculatum Vittad.[9] 1831
Tuber magnatum Picco 1788 All Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania
Tuber malacodermum E.Fisch. 1923
Tuber malenconii Donadini, Riousset, G.Riousset & G.Chev. 1979
Tuber maresa Font Quer 1931
Tuber meandriformis (Vittad.) Massee ined.
Tuber melanosporum Vittad.[9] 1831 Spain, France, and Italy
Tuber mesentericum Vittad.[9] 1831
Tuber mexiusanum Guevara, Bonito & Cázares.[7] 2012 Mexico, USA
Tuber michailowskianum Bucholtz 1908
Tuber microspermum L.Fan & Y.Li[15] 2012 China
Tuber microsphaerosporum L.Fan & Y.Li[16] 2012 China
Tuber microspiculatum L.Fan & Yu Li[15] 2012 China
Tuber microsporum Vittad. 1831 Mexico
Tuber microverrucosum L.Fan & C.L.Hou[12] 2011 China
Tuber minimum Bornh. 1889
Tuber miquihuanense Guevara, Bonito & Cázares[7] 2012
Tuber mixtum Risso 1889
Tuber monosporum (Mattir.) Vizzini 2008
Tuber montagnei Zobel 1854
Tuber montanum Chatin 1892
Tuber monticola Harkn. 1899
Tuber moravicum Velen. 1947
Tuber moretii Maire 1926
Tuber moschatum Bull. 1790
Tuber mougeotii Quél. 1881
Tuber multimaculatum Parladé, Trappe & I.F.Alvarez 1993
Tuber murinum R.Hesse 1891
Tuber mutabile Quél. 1881
Tuber nigrum Bull. 1788
Tuber nitidum Vittad.[9] 1831
Tuber niveum Desf. 1799
Tuber nuciforme Corda 1854
Tuber obtextum Spreng. 1815
Tuber occidentale Corda 1854
Tuber oligospermum (Tul. & C.Tul.) Trappe[17] 1979
Tuber oligosporum Vittad. 1831
Tuber olivaceum Harkn. 1899
Tuber oregonense Trappe, Bonito & P.Rawl.[6] 2010 Washington, south to southwestern Oregon
Tuber pacificum Trappe, Castellano & Bushnell[18] 2000
Tuber pallidum Lázaro Ibiza 1908
Tuber panniferum Tul. 1851
Tuber panzhihuanense X.J.Deng & Y.Wang[19] 2012 China
Tuber phlebodermum (Gilkey) Trappe 1979
Tuber piperatum H.Bonnet 1884
Tuber polyspermum L.Fan & C.L.Hou[20] 2011 China
Tuber pseudoexcavatum Y.Wang, G.Moreno, Riousset, Manjón & G.Riousset[21] 1998
Tuber pseudohimalayense G.Moreno, Manjón, J.Díez & García-Mont.[22] 1997
Tuber puberulum Berk. & Broome 1846
Tuber queletianum Bataille 1921
Tuber quercicola J.L.Frank, D.Southworth & Trappe[23] 2006
Tuber rapaeodorum Tul. & C.Tul. 1843
Tuber regianum Montecchi & Lazzari 1987
Tuber regimontanum Guevara, Bonito & Julio Rodríguez[24] 2008
Tuber renati H.Bonnet 1884
Tuber requienii Tul. 1843
Tuber rhenanum Fuckel 1870
Tuber rufum Pollini 1816
Tuber rutilum R.Hesse 1891
Tuber scleroneuron Berk. & Broome 1851
Tuber scruposum R.Hesse 1891
Tuber separans Gilkey 1916
Tuber shearii Harkn. 1920
Tuber sinense X.L.Mao 2000
Tuber sinoaestivum J.P.Zhang & P.G.Liu[25] 2012 China
Tuber sinoalbidum L.Fan & J.Z.Cao[20] 2011 China
Tuber sinoexcavatum L.Fan & Yu Li[14] 2011 China
Tuber sinuosum Lázaro Ibiza 1908
Tuber solidum With. 1792
Tuber sphaerospermum (Malençon) P.Roux, Guy Garcia & M.C.Roux[26] 2006
Tuber sphaerosporum Gilkey 1939
Tuber spinoreticulatum Uecker & Burds.[27] 1977
Tuber suecicum Wittr. 1889
Tuber taiyuanense B.Liu 1985
Tuber texense Heimsch 1959
Tuber thailandicum S.Lumyong[28] 2015 Chiang Mai, Thailand
Tuber umbilicatum Juan Chen & P.G.Liu[29] 2006
Tuber uncinatum Chatin 1892
Tuber unicolor Gilkey 1920
Tuber vacini Velen. 1947
Tuber venturii (Corda) Tul. 1851
Tuber verii Pacioni & Lalli[30] 1989
Tuber virens Alb. & Schwein. 1805
Tuber virens Schwein. 1822
Tuber walkeri Healy, Bonito & Guevara[7] 2012 Iowa, USA
Tuber whetstonense J.L.Frank, D.Southworth & Trappe[23] 2006
Tuber xizangense A S.Xu[31] 1999
Tuber zeylanicum Berk. & Broome 1875
Tuber zhongdianense X.Y.He, Hai M.Li & Y.Wang[32] 2004

New discoveries[edit]

In 2015 a new species Tuber petrophilum (close relative to Tuber melanosporum and Tuber brumale) was discovered in the Dinaric Alps (Southeastern Europe, Serbia).[33] In 2016, two new species were discovered in Brazil. Tuber floridanum (with the commercial name Trufa Sapucaya meaning 'The last Guarany breath') and Tuber brennemanii grow in association with pecan rootlets.[34][35]


  1. ^ "Record Details: Tuber P. Micheli ex F.H. Wigg". Index Fungorum. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  2. ^ "Tuber P. Micheli ex F.H. Wigg. 1780". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
  3. ^ Maccarrone, Mauro (2020-12-01). "Phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids: different in nature". Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali. 31 (4): 931–938. doi:10.1007/s12210-020-00957-z. ISSN 1720-0776.
  4. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI. p. 708. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  5. ^ Colgan W III, Trappe JM. (1997). "NATS truffle and truffle-like fungi 7: Tuber anniae sp. nov. (Ascomycota)". Mycotaxon. 64: 437–42.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ a b c Castellanoi G, Trappe JM, Rawlinson P, Vilgalys R. (2010). "Improved resolution of major clades within Tuber and taxonomy of species within the Tuber gibbosum complex". Mycologia. 102 (5): 1042–57. doi:10.3852/09-213. PMID 20943504. S2CID 27719272.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Guevara G, Bonito G, Trappe JM, Cázares E, Williams G, Healy RA, Schadt C, Vilgalys R. (2013). "New North American truffles (Tuber spp.) and their ectomycorrhizal associations" (PDF). Mycologia. 105 (1): 194–209. doi:10.3852/12-087. PMID 22962353. S2CID 11367346.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ Su K-M, Xiong W-P, Wang Y, Li S-H, Xie R, Baima D. (2013). "Tuber bomiense, a new truffle species from Tibet, China". Mycotaxon. 126: 127–32. doi:10.5248/126.127.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) open access
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Vittadini C. (1831). Monographia Tuberacearum. Milan: Ex Typographia F. Rusconi. p. 44.
  10. ^ Alvarado P, Moreno G, Manjón JL. (2012). "Comparison between Tuber gennadii and T. oligospermum lineages reveals the existence of the new species T. cistophilum (Tuberaceae, Pezizales)". Mycologia. 104 (4): 894–910. doi:10.3852/11-254. PMID 22314593. S2CID 9823200.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  11. ^ Božac R, Širić I. (2012). "Tuber donnagotto, a new winter truffle species from Istria, Croatia". Acta Botanica Croatica. 71 (2): 279–84. doi:10.2478/v10184-011-0068-z.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) open access
  12. ^ a b Fan L, Cao J-Z, Li Y. (2012). "Tuber microverrucosum and T. huizeanum — two new species from China with reticulate ascospores". Mycotaxon. 122: 161–9. doi:10.5248/122.161.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) open access
  13. ^ Suwannarach N, Kumla J, Vadthanarat S, Raspé O, Lumyong S. (2016). "Morphological and molecular evidence support a new truffle, Tuber lannaense, from Thailand". Mycological Progress. 15 (8): 827–834. doi:10.1007/s11557-016-1212-x. S2CID 17024146.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ a b Fan L, Cao JZ, Li Y. (2011). "Two new species of the genus Tuber from China". Mycotaxon. 116: 349–54. doi:10.5248/116.349.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  15. ^ a b Fan L, Cao J-Z, Zheng Z-H, Li Y. (2012). "Tuber in China: T. microspermum and T. microspiculatum spp. nov". Mycotaxon. 119: 391–5. doi:10.5248/119.391.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) open access
  16. ^ Fan L, Cao J-Z, Li Y. (2012). "Tuber microsphaerosporum and Paradoxa sinensis spp. nov". Mycotaxon. 120: 471–5. doi:10.5248/120.471.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) open access
  17. ^ Trappe JM. (1979). "The orders, families, and genera of hypogeous Ascomycotina (truffles and their relatives)". Mycotaxon. 9 (1): 297–340.
  18. ^ Trappe JM, Castellano MA. (2000). "New sequestrate Ascomycota and Basidiomycota covered by the Northwest Forest Plan". Mycotaxon. 75: 153–79.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  19. ^ Deng XJ, Liu PG, Liu CY, Wang Y. (2012). "A new white truffle species, Tuber panzhihuanense from China". Mycological Progress. 12 (3): 557–61. doi:10.1007/s11557-012-0862-6. S2CID 6787446.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  20. ^ a b Fan L, Cao JZ. (2011). "Tuber sinoalbidum and T. polyspermum – new species from China". Mycotaxon. 118: 403–10. doi:10.5248/118.403.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  21. ^ Wang Y, Moreno G, Riousset LJ, Manjón JL, Riousset G, Fourré G, Di Massimo G, García-Montero LG, Díez J. (1998). "Tuber pseudoexcavatum sp. nov. - a new species from China commercialized in Spain, France and Italy with additional comments on Chinese truffles". Cryptogamie, Mycologie. 19 (1–2): 113–120.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  22. ^ Moreno G.Manjón JL, Díez J, García-Montero LG, Di Massimo G. (1997). "Tuber pseudohimalayense sp. nov. An Asiatic species commercialized in Spain, similar to the "Perigord" truffle". Mycotaxon. 63: 217–24.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  23. ^ a b Frank JL, Southworth D, Trappe JM. (2006). "NATS truffle and truffle-like fungi 13: Tuber quercicola and T. whetstonense, new species from Oregon, and T. candidum redescribed". Mycotaxon. 95: 229–40.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  24. ^ Guevara G, Bonito G, Cázares E, Rodríguez J, Vilgalys R, Trappe JM. (2008). "Tuber regimontanum, una nueva especie de trufa de México". Revista Mexicana de Micología (in Spanish). 26: 17–20.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  25. ^ Zhang J-P, Liu P-G, Chen J. (2012). "Tuber sinoaestivum sp. nov., an edible truffle from southwestern China". Mycotaxon. 122: 73–82. doi:10.5248/122.73. S2CID 87715249.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  26. ^ Roux P. (2006). Mille et Un Champignons. p. 13.
  27. ^ Uecker FA, Burdsall HH Jr. (1977). "Tuber spinoreticulatum, a new truffle from Maryland". Mycologia. 69 (3): 626–30. doi:10.2307/3758567. JSTOR 3758567.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  28. ^ Suwannarach N, Kumla J, Lumyong S. (2015). "A new whitish truffle, Tuber thailandicum from northern Thailand and its ectomycorrhizal association". Mycological Progress. 14 (10/83): 1–12. doi:10.1007/s11557-015-1107-2. S2CID 16145850.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. ^ Chen J, Liu P-G, Wang Y. (2006). "Tuber umbilicatum, a new species from China, with a key to the spinose-reticulate spored Tuber species". Mycotaxon. 94: 1–6.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  30. ^ Pacioni G, Lalli G. (1990). "Novità micologiche dei Monti Simbruini". Micologia e Vegetazione Mediterranea (in Italian). 4 (2): 29–32.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
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  32. ^ He X-Y, Li H-M, Wang Y. (2004). "Tuber zhongdianense sp. nov. from China". Mycotaxon. 90 (1): 213–16.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  33. ^ Milenković, Miroljub; Grebenc, Tine; Marković, Miroslav; Ivančević, Boris (October–December 2015). "Tuber petrophilum, a new truffle species from Serbia". Mycotaxon. 130 (4): 1141-1152. doi:10.5248/130.1141.
  34. ^ Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher, Jonas Janner Hamann, Diniz Fronza, Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques, Admir José Giachini, Tine Grebenc, Zaida Inês Antoniolli (2019). "FUNGOS ECTOMICORRÍZICOS EM PLANTAÇÕES DE NOGUEIRA-PECÃ E O POTENCIAL DA TRUFICULTURA NO BRASIL". Ciênc. Florest. 29–2 (2): 975–987. doi:10.5902/1980509827581.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  35. ^ Arthur C Grupe 2nd, Marcelo A Sulzbacher, Tine Grebenc, Rosanne Healy, Gregory Bonito, Matthew E Smith (2018). "Tuber brennemanii and Tuber floridanum: Two new Tuber species are among the most commonly detected ectomycorrhizal taxa within commercial pecan (Carya illinoinensis) orchards". Mycologia. 110 (4): 780–790. doi:10.1080/00275514.2018.1490121. PMID 30130456. S2CID 52056622.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)

External links[edit]