Tuber magnatum

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Tuber magnatum
White truffle washed and cut
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Pezizomycetes
Order: Pezizales
Family: Tuberaceae
Genus: Tuber
T. magnatum
Binomial name
Tuber magnatum
Picco, 1788
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Glebal hymenium
No distinct cap
Hymenium attachment is not applicable
Lacks a stipe
Ecology is mycorrhizal
Edibility is choice

Tuber magnatum,[1] the white truffle (Italian: tartufo bianco d'Alba), is a species of truffle in the order Pezizales and family Tuberaceae. It is found in southern Europe and north Africa (south Tunisia, Tataouin).


Fruiting in autumn, they can reach 12 centimetres (4+12 inches) diameter and 500 grams (18 ounces), though are usually much smaller. The flesh is pale cream or brown with white marbling.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

It is found mainly in the Langhe and Montferrat areas[3] of the Piedmont region in northern Italy and, most famously, in the countryside around the cities of Alba and Asti.[4] Acqualagna, in the northern part of the Marche near Urbino is another center for the production and commercialization of white truffles, and its annual festival is one of the most important in Italy.[5]

In recent years, the search for truffles became very popular in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[6] Especially abundant occurrence is recorded in the regions of Vlašić, Lisina and Kozara,[7] and lately, after discovery of its presence, in the western part of the Herzegovina region, around the village of Služanj and the town of Čitluk.[8]

White truffles can also be found in Molise, Abruzzo and in the hills around San Miniato, in Tuscany. They are also found on the Istria peninsula, in Croatia in the Motovun forest along the Mirna river,[9] and in Slovenia along the Dragonja and Rizana river,[10] as well as in the Drome area in France.

They grow symbiotically with oak, hazel, poplar and beech.[2]


Plans for cultivation were taking shape[when?] around Bosnia, with foreign companies, considering the country's adequate climate, investing in local agriculture.[11]


Italian white truffles are very highly esteemed and are the most valuable on the market. The white truffle market in Alba is busiest in the months of October and November when the Fiera del Tartufo (truffle fair) takes place.[12] In 2001, Tuber magnatum truffles sold for between $2,200–$4,800 per kilogram ($1,000–$2,200 per pound);[13] as of December 2009, they were being sold at $14,203.50/kg.[citation needed]

In November 1999, what was then the largest truffle in the world was found near Buje, Croatia.[14] The truffle weighed 1.31 kg (2 lb 14 oz) and was entered into the Guinness Book of Records.[15]

The record price paid for a single white truffle was set in December 2007, when Macau casino owner Stanley Ho paid $330,000 (£165,000) for a specimen weighing 1.5 kg (3 lb 5 oz). One of the largest truffles found in decades, it was unearthed near Pisa, Italy, and sold at an auction held simultaneously in Macau, Hong Kong, and Florence.[16] This record was then matched on November 27, 2010, when Ho again paid $330,000 for a pair of white truffles, including one weighing nearly a kilogram.

In December 2014, a white truffle weighing 1.89 kg (4 lb 2+12 oz) was unearthed in the Umbrian region of Italy. It was auctioned by Sabatino Truffles at Sotheby's in New York.[17][18] While some had expected it to sell for $1 million,[18] it was sold for $61,000 to a Taiwanese buyer.[19] In 2021, a white truffle from Piedmont weighing 830 g was sold for €103,000 at auction.[20]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pico (1788) Meleth. bot. 79.
  2. ^ a b Carluccio, Antonio (2003). The Complete Mushroom Book. Quadrille. ISBN 978-1-84400-040-1.
  3. ^ "White truffles from Alba". Retrieved 2012-06-16.
  4. ^ "Wine and Truffles Adventure - Piemonte". Archived from the original on 2017-09-04. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
  5. ^ "Acqualagna Truffle Town".
  6. ^ "Milioni eura propadaju u bh. šumama". Al Jazeera Balkans (in Bosnian). 16 April 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Kozara planina tartufa". (in Serbian (Latin script)). Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  8. ^ "Nakon smilja, Hercegovina se okreće bijelim tartufima". Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  9. ^ Čeština. "". Archived from the original on 2008-01-20. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
  10. ^ "istrias gold truffles of the slovenian istria are the best in the world". Retrieved 2013-10-16.
  11. ^ "Odgovarajuća klima: Uzgoj tartufa – posao budućnosti u BiH". Nezavisni Kalesijski Portal (in Bosnian). Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  12. ^ "International Alba White Truffle Fair". Fiera Internazionale del Tartufo Bianco d'Alba (in Italian). Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  13. ^ "Education & Networking | National Restaurant Association | National Restaurant Association". Archived from the original on 2011-08-17. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
  14. ^ Farley, David (August 16, 2018). "36 Hours in Istria". The New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2018. But all that changed on Nov. 2, 1999, when a local Croatian truffle hunter, Giancarlo Zigante, and his dog, Diana, unearthed a nearly three-pound white truffle, at the time the biggest one ever found.
  15. ^ "Largest truffle". 1999-11-02. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
  16. ^ "Giant truffle sets record price". BBC News. 2007-12-02. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
  17. ^ "World's Largest White Truffle - Sotheby's". Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  18. ^ a b Daniela Galarza (2 December 2014). "World's Largest White Truffle Unearthed in Italy". Eater. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  19. ^ Nicola Twilley (8 December 2014). "The World's Largest Truffle Goes to Auction". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  20. ^ "Italian white truffle sold at auction for €103,000". RTE. 15 November 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021.