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Aliases TSC2, LAM, PPP1R160, TSC4, tuberous sclerosis 2, TSC complex subunit 2
External IDs MGI: 102548 HomoloGene: 462 GeneCards: TSC2
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 16 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 16 (human)[1]
Chromosome 16 (human)
Genomic location for TSC2
Genomic location for TSC2
Band 16p13.3 Start 2,047,465 bp[1]
End 2,089,487 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TSC2 215735 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)


Location (UCSC) Chr 16: 2.05 – 2.09 Mb Chr 17: 24.6 – 24.63 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2), also known as Tuberin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TSC2 gene.


Mutations in this gene lead to tuberous sclerosis. Its gene product is believed to be a tumor suppressor and is able to stimulate specific GTPases. The protein associates with hamartin in a cytosolic complex, possibly acting as a chaperone for hamartin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms of the protein.[5] Together with tuberous sclerosis, mutations in TSC2 can cause Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, a disease caused by the enlargement of tissue in the lungs, creating cysts and tumours and causing difficulty breathing. Because Tuberin regulates cell size, along with the protein Hamartin coded by the gene TSC1, mutations to these genes may prevent the control of cell growth in the lungs of individuals.[6]

Signaling Pathways[edit]

Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 restores GSK3β activity and protein synthesis levels in a model of tuberous sclerosis.[7]


TSC2 functions within a multi-protein complex knowns as the TSC complex which consists of the core proteins TSC2, TSC1,[8][9] and TBC1D7.

TSC2 has been reported to interact with several other proteins that are not a part of the TSC complex including:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000103197 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000002496 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: TSC2 tuberous sclerosis 2". 
  6. ^ "Lymphangioleiomyomatosis". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  7. ^ Pal R, Bondar VV, Adamski CJ, Rodney GG, Sardiello M (2017). "Inhibition of ERK1/2 Restores GSK3β Activity and Protein Synthesis Levels in a Model of Tuberous Sclerosis". Sci. Rep. 7 (1): 4174. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-04528-5. PMC 5482840Freely accessible. PMID 28646232. 
  8. ^ Orlova KA, Crino PB (2010). "The tuberous sclerosis complex". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1184: 87–105. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05117.x. PMC 2892799Freely accessible. PMID 20146692. 
  9. ^ Li Y, Inoki K, Guan KL (2004). "Biochemical and functional characterizations of small GTPase Rheb and TSC2 GAP activity". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (18): 7965–75. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.18.7965-7975.2004. PMC 515062Freely accessible. PMID 15340059. 
  10. ^ Dan HC, Sun M, Yang L, Feldman RI, Sui XM, Ou CC, Nellist M, Yeung RS, Halley DJ, Nicosia SV, Pledger WJ, Cheng JQ (2002). "Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway regulates tuberous sclerosis tumor suppressor complex by phosphorylation of tuberin". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (38): 35364–70. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205838200. PMID 12167664. 
  11. ^ a b Roux PP, Ballif BA, Anjum R, Gygi SP, Blenis J (2004). "Tumor-promoting phorbol esters and activated Ras inactivate the tuberous sclerosis tumor suppressor complex via p90 ribosomal S6 kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (37): 13489–94. doi:10.1073/pnas.0405659101. PMC 518784Freely accessible. PMID 15342917. 
  12. ^ a b Mak BC, Takemaru K, Kenerson HL, Moon RT, Yeung RS (2003). "The tuberin-hamartin complex negatively regulates beta-catenin signaling activity". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (8): 5947–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200473200. PMID 12511557. 
  13. ^ a b Cao Y, Kamioka Y, Yokoi N, Kobayashi T, Hino O, Onodera M, Mochizuki N, Nakae J (2006). "Interaction of FoxO1 and TSC2 induces insulin resistance through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 S6K pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (52): 40242–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.M608116200. PMID 17077083. 
  14. ^ Inoki K, Ouyang H, Zhu T, Lindvall C, Wang Y, Zhang X, Yang Q, Bennett C, Harada Y, Stankunas K, Wang CY, He X, MacDougald OA, You M, Williams BO, Guan KL (2006). "TSC2 integrates Wnt and energy signals via a coordinated phosphorylation by AMPK and GSK3 to regulate cell growth". Cell. 126 (5): 955–68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.055. PMID 16959574. 
  15. ^ Ma L, Chen Z, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Pandolfi PP (2005). "Phosphorylation and functional inactivation of TSC2 by Erk implications for tuberous sclerosis and cancer pathogenesis". Cell. 121 (2): 179–93. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.031. PMID 15851026. 
  16. ^ Gan B, Yoo Y, Guan JL (2006). "Association of focal adhesion kinase with tuberous sclerosis complex 2 in the regulation of s6 kinase activation and cell growth". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (49): 37321–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M605241200. PMID 17043358. 
  17. ^ Murthy V, Han S, Beauchamp RL, Smith N, Haddad LA, Ito N, Ramesh V (2004). "Pam and its ortholog highwire interact with and may negatively regulate the TSC1.TSC2 complex". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2): 1351–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M310208200. PMID 14559897. 
  18. ^ Inoki K, Zhu T, Guan KL (2003). "TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival". Cell. 115 (5): 577–90. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00929-2. PMID 14651849. 
  19. ^ Shaw RJ, Bardeesy N, Manning BD, Lopez L, Kosmatka M, DePinho RA, Cantley LC (2004). "The LKB1 tumor suppressor negatively regulates mTOR signaling". Cancer Cell. 6 (1): 91–9. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2004.06.007. PMID 15261145. 
  20. ^ a b Castro AF, Rebhun JF, Clark GJ, Quilliam LA (2003). "Rheb binds tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and promotes S6 kinase activation in a rapamycin- and farnesylation-dependent manner". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (35): 32493–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.C300226200. PMID 12842888. 
  21. ^ Yamamoto Y, Jones KA, Mak BC, Muehlenbachs A, Yeung RS (2002). "Multicompartmental distribution of the tuberous sclerosis gene products, hamartin and tuberin". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 404 (2): 210–7. doi:10.1016/S0003-9861(02)00300-4. PMID 12147258. 
  22. ^ Inoki K, Li Y, Xu T, Guan KL (2003). "Rheb GTPase is a direct target of TSC2 GAP activity and regulates mTOR signaling". Genes Dev. 17 (15): 1829–34. doi:10.1101/gad.1110003. PMC 196227Freely accessible. PMID 12869586. 
  23. ^ Garami A, Zwartkruis FJ, Nobukuni T, Joaquin M, Roccio M, Stocker H, Kozma SC, Hafen E, Bos JL, Thomas G (2003). "Insulin activation of Rheb, a mediator of mTOR/S6K/4E-BP signaling, is inhibited by TSC1 and 2". Mol. Cell. 11 (6): 1457–66. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00220-X. PMID 12820960. 
  24. ^ Zhang Y, Gao X, Saucedo LJ, Ru B, Edgar BA, Pan D (2003). "Rheb is a direct target of the tuberous sclerosis tumour suppressor proteins". Nat. Cell Biol. 5 (6): 578–81. doi:10.1038/ncb999. PMID 12771962. 
  25. ^ Long X, Lin Y, Ortiz-Vega S, Yonezawa K, Avruch J (2005). "Rheb binds and regulates the mTOR kinase". Curr. Biol. 15 (8): 702–13. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.02.053. PMID 15854902. 
  26. ^ Rolfe M, McLeod LE, Pratt PF, Proud CG (2005). "Activation of protein synthesis in cardiomyocytes by the hypertrophic agent phenylephrine requires the activation of ERK and involves phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)". Biochem. J. 388 (Pt 3): 973–84. doi:10.1042/BJ20041888. PMC 1183479Freely accessible. PMID 15757502. 
  27. ^ Lu Z, Hu X, Li Y, Zheng L, Zhou Y, Jiang H, Ning T, Basang Z, Zhang C, Ke Y (2004). "Human papillomavirus 16 E6 oncoprotein interferences with insulin signaling pathway by binding to tuberin". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (34): 35664–70. doi:10.1074/jbc.M403385200. PMID 15175323. 
  28. ^ Zheng L, Ding H, Lu Z, Li Y, Pan Y, Ning T, Ke Y (2008). "E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP-mediated TSC2 turnover in the presence and absence of HPV16 E6". Genes Cells. 13 (3): 285–94. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2008.01162.x. PMID 18298802. 
  29. ^ Nellist M, Goedbloed MA, de Winter C, Verhaaf B, Jankie A, Reuser AJ, van den Ouweland AM, van der Sluijs P, Halley DJ (2002). "Identification and characterization of the interaction between tuberin and 14-3-3zeta". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (42): 39417–24. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204802200. PMID 12176984. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]