Tuberomammillary nucleus

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Tuberomammillary nucleus
Latin Nucleus tuberomamillaris
Part of Hypothalamus
Acronym(s) TMN
NeuroNames ancil-427
NeuroLex ID Tuberomammillary nucleus
TA A14.1.08.932
FMA 62335
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The tuberomammillary nucleus is a subnucleus of the posterior third of the hypothalamus. It consists of, largely, histaminergic neurons (i.e., neurons releasing histamine) and is involved with the control of arousal, learning, memory, sleep and energy balance.

Axons of the tuberomammillary nucleus project primarily to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, basal forebrain, and hypothalamus. The projections to the cerebral cortex directly increase cortical activation and arousal, and projections to acetylcholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and dorsal pons do so indirectly, by increasing the release of acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex.

Histaminergic outputs[edit]

The sole source of histamine pathways in the brain are the projection from the tuberomamillary nucleus, which connect to the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and other parts of the hypothalamus.[1]


  1. ^ Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 175–176. ISBN 9780071481274. Within the brain, histamine is synthesized exclusively by neurons with their cell bodies in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) that lies within the posterior hypothalamus. There are approximately 64000 histaminergic neurons per side in humans. These cells project throughout the brain and spinal cord. Areas that receive especially dense projections include the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hypothalamus.  ... While the best characterized function of the histamine system in the brain is regulation of sleep and arousal, histamine is also involved in learning and memory ... It also appears that histamine is involved in the regulation of feeding and energy balance.