In between the Sertoli cells are spermatogenic cells, which differentiate through meiosis to sperm cells. Sertoli cells function to nourish the developing sperm cells. They secrete testis-determining factor, a binding protein which increases the concentration of testosterone inside the seminiferous tubules. Embryologically, they also secrete the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) necessary for the female Müllerian ducts to regress.
There are two types: convoluted and straight, convoluted toward the lateral side, and straight as the tubule comes medially to form ducts that will exit the testis.
Spermatogenesis, the process for producing spermatozoa, takes place in the seminiferous tubules. During spermatogenesis, the DNA of spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules is subject to damage from such sources as reactive oxygen species. The genomic integrity of spermatogenic cells is protected by DNA repair processes. Deficiencies in the enzymes employed in these repair processes may lead to infertility.
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