Tuchengzi Formation

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Tuchengzi Formation
Stratigraphic range: Tithonian-Berriasian, 154–139 Ma
Type Geological formation
Underlies Zhangjiakou Formation
Overlies Tiaojishan Formation
Thickness 870-2900 meters[2]
Primary Shale
Other Sandstone
Region Asia
Country  China

The Tuchengzi Formation (simplified Chinese: 土城子组; traditional Chinese: 土城子組; pinyin: Tǔchéngzǐ Zǔ) is a geological formation in China whose strata spans the Tithonian (Late Jurassic) to Berriasian (Early Cretaceous) ages.[1] Dinosaur fossils, particularly footprints, have been found from the formation.[3]

Vertebrate paleofauna[edit]

The Tuchengzi Formation was deposited during a time of transition between the Daohugou Biota and the Jehol biota. The Tuchengzi represents a poorer, more arid climate that appears to have caused much of the Daohugou fauna to become extinct. They would later be replaced by the Jehol biota when conditions became more favorable to a diversity of terrestrial animal life.[1]

Indeterminate sauropod remains formerly attributed to the Mamenchisauridae and Brachiosauridae have been found in Liaoning, China.[3] Theropod tracks, including those made by avialans, have been found in Liaoning, China.[3]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes Images



C. youngi


"Partial skull with mandible, cervicals, humerus, and scapula."[4]

A primitive ceratopsian[3]


Grallator isp.


Footprints belonging to the Grallator form taxon, made by an unknown small theropod.[5]


M. sinensis


Footprints belonging to the Menglongipus sinensis form taxon, made by an unknown small (~65 cm long) deinonychosaur[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Liu Y.-Q. Kuang H.-W., Jiang X.-J., Peng N., Xu H. & Sun H.-Y. (2012). "Timing of the earliest known feathered dinosaurs and transitional pterosaurs older than the Jehol Biota." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (advance online publication).
  2. ^ Wang, Y.; Ken, S.; Zhang, W.; Zheng, S. (2006). "Biodiversity and palaeoclimate of the Middle Jurassic floras from the Tiaojishan Formation in western Liaoning, China". Progress in Natural Science 16 (1): 222–230. doi:10.1080/10020070612330087. 
  3. ^ a b c d Weishampel, David B; et al. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic, Asia)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 550–552. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  4. ^ "Table 22.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 480.
  5. ^ a b Xing, L.; Harris, J.D.; Sun, D.; Zhao, H. (2010). "The earliest known deinonychosaur tracks from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in Hebei Province, China". Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 48 (4): 662–671. 

Cretaceous Period
Lower/Early Cretaceous Upper/Late Cretaceous
Berriasian | Valanginian | Hauterivian
Barremian| Aptian | Albian
Cenomanian | Turonian | Coniacian
Santonian |Campanian | Maastrichtian
Preceded by Proterozoic Eon Phanerozoic Eon
Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era
Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Paleogene Neogene 4ry