Tughral Tughan Khan

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Tughral Tughan Khan (also known as Mughisuddin Tughral) ruled Bengal during 1236-1246 CE and again during 1272-1281 CE. He was also a governor of Bihar and Oudh.


First term (1236-1246)[edit]

He was a Kara-Khitai Turk and was originally a slave of Sultan Shamsuddin Iltutmish. He was appointed as the governor of Bihar. Following the chaotic period of the Delhi sultanate, Tughan Khan invaded Bengal and defeated Awar Khan Aibak, the governor of Bengal, in 1236. Immediately after assuming power, Tughan Khan led an eastward expedition. He established his dominance in Bengal, Bihar and Oudh but he acknowledged the overlordship of Razia Sultana.

During the reign of Tughan Khan, the Hindu king of Orissa, Narasimhadeva I, invaded southern Bengal. Tughan Khan repulsed the Oriya army and captured the Katasin fort of Orissa. But when the Muslim army was celebrating its victory, the Oriya soldiers attacked and defeated them. The Oriya army pursued the Muslims all the way to Lakhnauti, the capital of Bengal, and besieged the city. All the Muslims of Lakhnauti were slain.[citation needed]

Tughan Khan sought assistance from the Delhi sultan, Alauddin Masud Shah, who sent Malik Karakash Khan of Kara and Malik Tughlaq Tamar Khan of Oudh to help Tughan Khan. Hearing the approach of the Delhi army, the Oriya army retreated to Orissa. But Tughlaq Tamar Khan himself assumes the power of Bengal which forced Tughan Khan to flee to Delhi. Thus Tughan Khan's ten year ruling of Bengal ended in 1246 CE.[1]

Tughan Khan was later appointed as the governor of Oudh by Sultan Alauddin Masud Shah.

Second term (1272-1281)[edit]

In 1272 Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban appointed Amin Khan as the governor and Tughan Khan as the sub-governor of Bengal. But soon Tughan Khan deposed Amin Khan and declared himself the independent ruler of Bengal. He took the name Mughisuddin Tughral.

Tughan defeated the Sena king Vishwarup Sen of eastern Bengal (present-day Assam) and established Muslim dominance in that region for the first time. He established a powerful fort called Narikella in Sonargaon. Tughan invaded Jajnagar (present-day Orissa).

Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban sent a huge army led by Malik Turmati the ruler of Oudh against Tughan. But the Delhi army was thoroughly defeated by Tughan's army. Balban sent another army against Tughan. But this time once again Balban's army was defeated by Tughan's army.

Infuriated by repeated defeats Balban himself invaded Bengal in 1280. His son, Nasiruddin Bughra Khan, assisted him in this mission.[2] There were about three hundred thousand soldiers in Balban's army. This massive army was accompanied with a huge navy. Tughan fled to Jajnagar by river. Balban split his army into smaller groups. One such small group led by Malik Sher Andaz attacked Tughan's army and Tughan was defeated and killed in the battle.[1]

After Tughan's death, Balban put his son in charge of Bengal.[3] Thus the separatist Mameluk ruling of Bengal ended in 1281.

Preceded by
1stAwar Khan Aibak
2ndAmin Khan
Mamluk Delhi Sultanate Governor of Bengal
1246-1247 (1st Term)
1272-1281 (2nd Term)
Succeeded by
1stTughlaq Tamar Khan
2ndNasiruddin Bughra Khan

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b KingListsFarEast
  2. ^ Ali, Muhammad Ansar (2012). "Bughra Khan". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 
  3. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 76–79. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.