Tuguegarao

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Tuguegarao
Component City
Tuguegarao City
Tuguegarao Cathedral
Ermita de Piedra de San Jacinto Horno
Buntun Bridge Tuguegarao City aerial
From left to right: Main altar of St. Peter Metropolitan Cathedral Parish, Ermita de Piedra de San Jacinto (Stone Chapel of St. Hyacinth), Ruins of the horno (kiln) in Barangay Bagumbayan, Buntun Bridge—country's longest river bridge and Aerial view of the city
Official seal of Tuguegarao
Seal

Nickname(s): Booming City of the North[1]
Gateway to Ilocandia and the Cordilleras[2]
The Premier Ibanag City, the Center of Excellence in Education, Commerce and Culture in Northeastern Philippines[3][4]

Heat City of the Philippines
Map of Cagayan showing the location of Tuguegarao
Map of Cagayan showing the location of Tuguegarao
Tuguegarao is located in Philippines
Tuguegarao
Tuguegarao
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 17°37′N 121°43′E / 17.62°N 121.72°E / 17.62; 121.72Coordinates: 17°37′N 121°43′E / 17.62°N 121.72°E / 17.62; 121.72
Country Philippines
Region Cagayan Valley (Region II)
Province Cagayan
District 3rd District of Cagayan
Township May 9, 1604
Patronal Feast Day August 17
Cityhood December 18, 1999
Barangays 49
Government[5]
 • Type Mayor–council
 • Mayor Jefferson P. Soriano
 • Vice Mayor Bienvenido de Guzman, II
 • City Council
Area[6]
 • Total 144.80 km2 (55.91 sq mi)
Population (2015)[7]
 • Total 153,502
 • Density 1,100/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Tuguegaraoeño (masculine)
Tuguegararoeña (feminine)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 3500
IDD:area code +63 (0)78
Income class 3rd class
Revenue ₱707,365,303.60 (2016)[8]
Website www.tuguegaraocity.gov.ph

Tuguegarao, officially Tuguegarao City (Ibanag: Siudad nat Tuguegarao; Itawes: Siudad yo Tuguegarao; Ilokano: Siudad ti Tuguegarao; Filipino: Lungsod ng Tuguegarao [tʊgɛ̝gäˈɾɐw]), is a 3rd-class component city in the Philippines. It is the capital of the province of Cagayan and the regional and institutional center of Cagayan Valley Region. A major urban center in the Northeastern Luzon and a primary growth center, it is also one of the fastest growing cities in the Philippines.

Dubbed as the “Gateway to the Ilocandia and the Cordilleras,”[2] the city, on the southern border of the province, is located where the Pinacanauan River empties into the Cagayan River and is surrounded by the Sierra Madre Mountains to the east, Cordillera Mountains to the west, and the Caraballo Mountains to the south.

The population of the city as of the 2015 census is 153,502 people, making it the most populous city in the Cagayan Valley region.[7] Most of the inhabitants are Ilocanos, Ibanags and Itawes.[citation needed] Some are of Chinese and Indian descent.

The highest temperature ever recorded in the Philippines -- 42.2 °C (108.0 °F)—was recorded in Tuguegarao on April 29, 1912 and again on May 11, 1969.[9] Average temperature during March and April is 38 °C (100 °F)[10][11] , one of the highest in the country.[citation needed]

History[edit]

The Ermita de Piedra de San Jacinto (Stone Chapel of Saint Hyacinth) established in 1604

The community was governed as a barangay established by the Dominicans as a mission until the Spaniards gave it the status of pueblo (municipality) on May 9, 1604, making it one of the political units of the province of Cagayan. The settlement was a small in terms of population but was big in territory, which then included what would later become the provinces of Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya and Quirino till the 1850s. As a mission pueblo and with assigned encomendero (landlord) to Tuguegarao, the inhabitants (as tenants) were made to pay taxes in the form of poultry products and other food products. Resentments later flared and the people of Tuguegarao revolted in 1605, killing the encomendero. Again, the people of Tuguegarao revolted in 1718 and then 1761 under a leader named Rivera.

The first parochial building of Tugugarao was constructed in 1604, a chapel that became the foundation of what is now the Ermita de Piedra de San Jacinto (Stone Chapel of Saint Hyacinth) dedicated to Saint Hyacinth, the patron saint of Tuguegarao. The present chapel is the latest in a process of rebuilding that started in 1724 when it was rebuilt by Fr. Bernabe de la Magdalena, O.P..

Tuguegarao became the capital of Cagayan province in 1839 when the provincial seat of power was relocated from Lal-lo. The decline of Lal-lo became the transformation of Tuguegarao as the most important town in Cagayan.

World War II[edit]

Tuguegarao was occupied by American troops on December 12, 1899. During World War II, the city and its airfield of some significance was captured by the Japanese Imperial Army on December 12, 1941 as part of the Japanese invasion of Aparri. The General Headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, Philippine Constabulary and the USAFIP-NL units was activated on 1942 to 1946 and stationed in Tuguegarao. The city and airfield were bombed by the US and Philippines regularly between January and May 1945, and attacked by Donald Blackburn's guerrilla forces in June 1945.[12]:299–302 The local recognized guerrillas helped by entering the town, Philippine Commonwealth troops under the Philippine Army and Constabulary units and USAFIP-NL military units came in early June; the town was officially liberated on June 25, 1945.

Provincial and regional capital[edit]

Tuguegarao was once the only first-class municipality in the province of Cagayan. It has served as the provincial capital of Cagayan since 1839 because of the notable socio-economic progress of the town.

Sitio Capatan was elevated into a barrio (or barangay) Capatan of Tuguegarao on April 3, 1959, by Republic Act no. 2107.[13]

In 1975, Tuguegarao was declared as the capital and seat of the regional government of Cagayan Valley (Region II) being the region's geographic center with adequate facilities and amenities needed by such.

New barangays were formed in the 1970s that by 1981, Tuguegarao had 49 barangays, 12 of which were urban. The late 1980s saw the gradual expansion of the urban core of Tuguegarao to the outlying barangays of Ugac, Caritan and Atulayan. With the fast rising prices of real estate in the poblacion (city center), residents found it profitable to sell their properties in the poblacion and buy lots in the surrounding barangay neighborhoods, but still close to avail the amenities of the city.

By 1980, Tuguegarao had a population of 73,507. The increase in population could be attributed to various factors. One is the increasing peace and order problems in the other towns in the region driving the people to Tuguegarao, which is relatively free of the insurgency problem with the visible presence of the military and its geographic location. Another factor is the presence of the schools, whose quality of education is highly comparable to that of Metropolitan Manila. Others come because of the increase in trade and industry. The completion of the Maharlika Highway made Region II more accessible to people from other areas.

1983 marked the quadricentennial celebration of the establishment of the civil government of the Province of Cagayan. In the week-long celebration held in Tuguegarao, several Philippine cabinet ministers visited the town and province.

Of very great consideration[according to whom?] is the town's tremendous improvement in social services and infrastructure facilities since 1975. In the 1980s and 1990s, multistory buildings were constructed in the poblacion greatly changing Tuguegarao's skyline. Other changes included landscaped schools and homes, cable television, air-conditioned buses, jet flights, telegraph and telex services, door-to-door delivery services, domestic and overseas long-distance calls, luxurious social amenities and other trappings of a highly urbanized town.

Cityhood[edit]

Tuguegarao became a component city after it was affirmed in a plebiscite held on December 18, 1999. Randolph Sera Ting is the first mayor of the new city. On July 2, 2007, Delfin Telan Ting (who was then a municipal mayor from 1988 to 1998) was elected to become the second mayor of the city.

Hotel Delfino siege[edit]

The Hotel Delfino siege was a bloody coup attempt that happened on March 4, 1990, when suspended Cagayan governor Rodolfo "Agi" Aguinaldo and his armed men of 200 seized Hotel Delfino in Tuguegarao. Brigader General Oscar Florendo, his driver, four members of the civilian staff, and several other people were held hostage for several hours. A gunfight was launched to kill Aguinaldo and his men but one of the suspended governor's men was found dead in a checkpoint shootout, Brig. Gen. Florendo and 12 others were also dead and 10 more wounded. Aguinaldo was slightly wounded in a car gunfight but eventually escaped and hid in the mountains.

Etymology[edit]

There are several versions of legends looming about the origin of the name of the city of Tuguegarao. One is the abundance of "tarrao" trees in the area. Another is from the word "tuggi" meaning fire. Another recorded version is, the town was formerly called Tuerao by the people of the northern towns. Still another is that the name Tuguegarao comes from two Ibanag words "tuggi" (fire) and "aggao" (day), possibly referring to a daytime fire that happened in the town. The most accepted version of the legend is the Ibanags' reply to the Spaniards when the latter asked for the name of the place - "Tuggi gari yaw", meaning "This used to be fire", or the town was carved out of the wilderness by clearing and burning. On the other hand, a historical evidence that might provide clues to the origin of the city's name comes from the fact that in 1591, the place was listed as a Spanish encomienda (land grant), which was originally a pre-colonial settlement called Tubigarao.[14]

Geography[edit]

Tuguegarao located is in the southern portion of the province. The city is bordered by Iguig to the north; to the west by the Cagayan River alongside Solana; Peñablanca to the east; and to the south by Enrile and San Pablo, Isabela. The city is almost encapsulated by the Cagayan River in the western side and the Pinacanauan River, a tributary of Cagayan River, in the eastern part. Small bodies of waters are found in the city, such as the Balzain Creek which spans the barangays of Caritan Sur and Balzain. Currently, the creek is continuously drying up due to eutrophication and the uncontrollable growth of water lilies.

Historically, the town was inhabited by Irayas and Itawes who lived and mainly relied on fishing, farming, hunting and livestock raising. In addition, ancient natives have ventured on weaving cloth and making of household and farm implements.[15]

Cagayan is divided into three congressional districts, wherein the city is included in the Third District together with the other 6 southern municipalities.[16]

The city is 483 kilometres (300 mi) north of the country's capital, Manila, which is an hour by plane and ten hours of land travel.[16]

Barangays[edit]

The city is politically subdivided into 49 barangays. 31 of these barangays have been classified by the city as urban.[17] Most of the rural barangays have agricultural territories, although some of the urbanized ones have mixed commercial, residential, and agricultural sites.

The 49 barangays of the city:
Barangay Classification Population (2015)
Annafunan East Urban 4,207
Annafunan West Urban 3,310
Atulayan Norte Urban 3,578
Atulayan Sur Urban 4,404
Bagay Rural 3,393
Buntun Urban 4,373
Caggay Urban 7,261
Capatan Rural 3,337
Carig Norte Rural 2,267
Carig Sur Urban 4,536
Caritan Centro Urban 4,872
Caritan Norte Urban 3,093
Caritan Sur Urban 1,833
Cataggaman Nuevo Urban 8,161
Cataggaman Pardo Rural 3,292
Cataggaman Viejo Rural 4,246
Centro 01 (Bagumbayan) Urban 1,158
Centro 02 Urban 553
Centro 03 Urban 339
Centro 04 Urban 566
Centro 05 Urban 1,126
Centro 06 Urban 195
Centro 07 Urban 262
Centro 08 Urban 125
Centro 09 Urban 969
Centro 10 (Riverside) Urban 2,282
Centro 11 (Balzain East) Urban 2,990
Centro 12 (Balzain West) Urban 2,391
Dadda Rural 1,167
Gosi Norte Rural 1,016
Gosi Sur Rural 1,297
Larion Alto Rural 1,856
Larion Bajo Rural 2,345
Leonarda Urban 2,503
Libag Norte Urban 2,384
Libag Sur Urban 2,708
Linao East Rural 6,939
Linao Norte Rural 3,005
Linao West Rural 1,665
Namabbalan Norte Rural 1,433
Namabbalan Sur Rural 746
Pallua Norte Rural 2,450
Pallua Sur Rural 2,683
Pengue-Ruyu Urban 5,629
San Gabriel Urban 6,828
Tagga Rural 1,346
Tanza Urban 5,665
Ugac Norte Urban 9,615
Ugac Sur Urban 10,858
TOTAL 153,502

Climate[edit]

Tuguegarao experiences a tropical climate, with only a slight difference between summer and winter temperatures, and high year-round humidity.

Climate data for Tuguegarao
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37
(99)
37
(99)
40
(104)
42
(108)
41
(106)
41
(106)
41
(106)
38
(100)
37
(99)
38
(100)
36
(97)
38
(100)
42
(108)
Average high °C (°F) 28
(82)
30
(86)
33
(91)
36
(97)
36
(97)
36
(97)
34
(93)
34
(93)
33
(91)
31
(88)
30
(86)
28
(82)
32.4
(90.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23
(73)
24
(75)
26
(79)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
25
(77)
24
(75)
26.5
(79.6)
Average low °C (°F) 19
(66)
18
(64)
20
(68)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
20
(68)
21.2
(70.2)
Record low °C (°F) 12
(54)
13
(55)
14
(57)
17
(63)
17
(63)
18
(64)
18
(64)
19
(66)
18
(64)
18
(64)
12
(54)
12
(54)
12
(54)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 31.2
(1.228)
23.0
(0.906)
27.7
(1.091)
28.1
(1.106)
113.5
(4.469)
141.4
(5.567)
176.4
(6.945)
236.6
(9.315)
224.9
(8.854)
247.7
(9.752)
222.9
(8.776)
178.0
(7.008)
1,651.4
(65.017)
Average rainy days 10 6 5 5 13 12 15 15 15 17 16 15 144
Average relative humidity (%) 82 76 73 71 72 75 79 79 80 82 84 85 78.2
Source #1: World Weather Online[18]
Source #2: Weatherbase[19]

Demographics[edit]

In the 2015 census, the population of Tuguegarao was 153,502 people[7] with a density of 1,100 inhabitants per square kilometre or 2,800 inhabitants per square mile.

Population census of
Tuguegarao
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1903 16,105 —    
1918 19,298 +1.21%
1939 27,643 +1.73%
1948 29,083 +0.57%
1960 43,074 +3.33%
1970 56,956 +2.83%
1975 62,513 +1.88%
1980 73,507 +3.29%
1990 94,787 +2.58%
1995 107,275 +2.35%
2000 120,645 +2.55%
2007 129,539 +0.99%
2010 138,865 +2.56%
2015 153,502 +1.93%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[7][20][21][22]

Economy[edit]

Tuguegarao's Calle Commercio or "Commerce Street" in 2010.

Within the past three decades, its economy gradually shifted from agriculture to secondary and tertiary economic activities such as trading, commerce and services. The shift was ushered by Tuguegarao's role as the provincial and regional government center and one of the centers of commerce in Northern Luzon. Banking, educational, commercial, industrial and tourism-related activities proliferate in the area.

As of 2013, there were 4,210 registered business establishments for which more than half are located in the Poblacion and less than one third are in the urban barangays. Of these registered establishments, 53.48% are wholesale and retail trade establishments. Financing, insurance and real estate firms contributed 8.54%, and the remaining 37.98% consist of service enterprises and social amenities to include business, recreational, personal, utility and other services. At present, there are 43 banks operating in the city.

Retail[edit]

Interior of SM Center Tuguegarao Downtown

Tuguegarao is eyed as a center of exponential growth for commerce, industry and services, strengthening its stature as the capital of the Cagayan Valley Region. Recently, it has witnessed the influx of the country's largest mall and retail operators—each have laid their foundations in various areas of the metropolis.

SM Prime, the largest shopping and retail operator in the country, strengthened its presence as it opened SM Center Tuguegarao Downtown on October 12, 2017. It is the first SM mall in Cagayan and the second in Cagayan Valley. SM plans to open a second shopping mall in the city, the SM City Tuguegarao, by 2018 or 2019.[23]

Rival retailers also plans to set up their own retail centers in the city. Robinsons Land Corporation plans to open its first mall in the province, the Robinsons Place Tuguegarao along Maharlika Highway in Barangay Leonarda by next year.[24] DoubleDragon Properties also plans to set up CityMall Tuguegarao along the same road adjacent to the Tuguegarao Airport area.

Education[edit]

The Our Lady of Chartres Chapel within the campus of St. Paul University Philippines, inspired by French Gothic architecture.
The main building of Cagayan State University, Andrews Campus.

Tuguegarao has been dubbed as the Center of Excellence in Education in Northeastern Philippines and considered as the university capital of Region 02 because it has the most number of universities in the region, and it is home to several prestigious international schools which provide international education to Cagayan Valley residents, such as the St. Paul University Philippines and the University of Saint Louis, which are both located along Mabini Street.

Other schools in the city are the University of Cagayan Valley, John Wesley College, F.L. Vargas College, Maila Rosario College, Credo Domine College, City Technological Institute, Cagayan Metropolitan Institute of Technology, STI College, and AMA Computer College.

The main building of the Cagayan National High School.

Two of the top state universities are also in Tuguegarao City—the CSU Athena (Andrews Campus), and CSU Red Eagle (Carig Campus). Both universities have their own administration and are separated from each other.

The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was established through the enactment of "Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994", which was signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos. This Act aims to encourage the full participation of and mobilize the industry, labor, local government units, and technical-vocational institutions in the skills development of the country's human resource. The TESDA complex and facilities are located at Brgy. Carig Norte, Tuguegarao.

Tuguegarao has one Jesuit educational institution located along Bagay Road—the Global Reformed University.

Other notable schools in the city include Cagayan National High School, the oldest and biggest secondary school in the region in terms of student population, Tuguegarao City Science High School, a state-owned secondary institution, Ke Bing School, a private Chinese school, Methodist Montesorri, a Christian school in Central Business District, and Saint Claire Montesorri, a catholic school in San Gabriel. Also, Tuguegarao City West High School, a state-owned secondary institution started operations on June 4, 2012.

Healthcare[edit]

Being the regional center, Tuguegarao host major hospitals which serves people in the Cagayan Valley region. Cagayan Valley Medical Center, the largest medical facility in the Cagayan Valley with a bed capacity of 500 is situated in the city. The largest privately owned facility in the region is the 250-bed capacity Dr. Ronald P. Guzman Medical Center, a tertiary level hospital.c.[25] The St. Paul University Philippines, has an affiliate hospital in Tuguegarao, the St. Paul Hospital. Cagayan's oldest existing private hospital, Dr. Domingo S. De Leon General Hospital, formerly Clinica De Leon, is also situated in the city.

Other hospitals in the city are government-owned and run Tuguegarao City People's General Hospital and Holy Infant Hospital[25] as well as the privately owned Divine Mercy Wellness Center[26].

Culture[edit]

Streetdancing competition during the Afi festival at the Cagayan Provincial Capitol

The Afi Festival is an annual festival every August, celebrated in commemoration of the city's patron saint, San Jacinto de Polonia whose feast day falls on August 16.[27] It came from the Ybanag word afi, meaning fire.[28]

The concept of the "Afi" started in 2014, renaming the former Pav-vurulun Festival. It reiterates and reaffirms the origins of the city's name. Stories say the place where the city center now stands was once “a wilderness that was cleared by fire” through kaingin (slash and burn farming).[27] The main event of the celebration is its opening day, where thousands of students convene for a field demonstration at night as torchbearers. In 2017, 3500 students from Cagayan National High School and Cagayan State University - College of Human Kinetics danced with torches at the sports complex. The city is attempting to beat Indonesia's world record of 3,777 torchbearers in the festival's next edition.[29]

Other highlights of the weeklong celebration include the street dancing competition and drum and lyre competition, where various elementary and secondary schools participate, everyone clad in vibrant costumes and props. Both are usually held at the city's central business district on Bonifacio Street (Calle Commercio). Other events include the Bangkarera competition, a rowing competition in two categories which aims to promote sustainable fishing along the Pinacanauan River, which flows to the Cagayan River, a pansit festival featuring a pansit-eating contest, a Nuang Karera (Carabao race), a Kabayu Karera (Horse race), among others.[30]

Before the additions and revisions to the native festival, there was Maskota Festival. Also called the Dance of Lovemaking, it features Maskota, a wedding dance prevalent in the provinces of Cagayan and Isabela, with movements described as "spontaneous, lively and extravagantly expressive." It was danced to the rhythm of the verso with the sincosinco accompaniment. Back then, indigenous materials were utilized for the costumes. Materials come from various local harvests such as coconut sprouts, betel nuts, corn leaves and atchuetes, which serves as natural coloring.[31]

Local government[edit]

The Tuguegarao City Hall along Enrile Boulevard, Regional Government Center, Barangay Carig Sur.

Last February 10, 2017, then City Mayor Atty. Jefferson P. Soriano stepped down from office following an order from the Ombudsman to dismiss him for grave misconduct. Soriano voluntarily called the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) to facilitate the turn over of the mayoralty office to then Vice Mayor Bienvenido de Guzman II.[32]

City Officials (CY 2016-2019)
Position Name
City Mayor Bienvenido C. De Guzman II (NPC)
City Vice Mayor Danilo L. Baccay (NPC)
City Councilors Jude T. Bayona (NPC)
Kendrick S. Calubaquib (NPC)
Maila S. Ting-Que (NUP)
Arnel T. Arugay (NPC)
Gilbert S. Labang (NPC)
Winnoco R. Abraham (NP)
Claire Callangan (NPC)
Atty. Marjorie P. Martin-Chan (LP)
Atty. Raymund P. Guzman (LP)
Grace B. Arago (NPC)
Anthony C. Tuddao (NPC)

Following the order of the Court of Appeals Fourth Division (CA) for "immediate" reinstatement of Mayor Jefferson P. Soriano, on September 6, 2017, Soriano took oath before Judge Maita Deray Israel at the Tuguegarao City Hall . The CA disagreed to the Ombudsman's dismissal order—stating that he committed grave misconduct—and that the mayor only committed simple misconduct. According to the decision, he should only be penalized with three months suspension instead of dismissal from service. [33]

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

An Air Philippines A320 at the Tuguegarao Airport

The Tuguegarao Airport is a facility serving the general area of Tuguegarao and is capable of handling Boeing-737-sized aircraft. Classified by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines as a Principal Class 1 domestic airport, small aircraft, helicopters and army cargo aircraft also utilize the airport. Cebu Pacific, Sky Pasada and PAL Express are the domestic airlines which operate routes to and from the city. As of 2017, the airport is undergoing rehabilitation and expansion consisting of terminal upgrades and widening of runway, for night landing capabilities, and taxiway. The upgrades cost ₱56.65 million which are part of the Tuguegarao Airport Development Project by the Department of Transportation and Communications.[34]

A proposed international airport, serving the Cagayan Valley Region, will be constructed at the eastern portion of the city—somewhere in barangays Dadda or Tagga—as suggested by City Mayor Bienvenido de Guzman II and former mayor Atty. Jefferson Soriano. Originally, as proposed by the Cagayan Governor Manuel Mamba, the airport was to be located at the tri-boundary area of Tuao, Piat and Solana towns but was later shelved after a forum.[35]

Land[edit]

Tuguegarao's main transportation vehicle is the tricycle

Tuguegarao serves as a vital transportation and communication hub. It can be reached using buses with en route to Tuguegarao, Baggao, Aparri, and also Santiago.

There are also some vans that ply Claveria, Santa Praxedes, Aparri, Santa Ana, Alcala, Lasam and Junction Luna, Abulug in Cagayan, Santiago, Roxas, Ilagan and Cauayan in Isabela, Luna and Kabugao in Apayao. There are also mini buses plying to Lasam, Allacapan, Claveria, Santiago and Roxas. There are jeeps with routes to Iguig, Tuao, Enrile, Tabuk and Rizal in Kalinga and some mountainous barrios in Cagayan.

Tricycles, kalesas and jeepneys are common modes of public transport in the city.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://avidaland.com/avida-settings-tuguegarao
  2. ^ a b http://www.rdc2.gov.ph/invest/tuguegarao/index.php/basicfacts/reasons-to-invest
  3. ^ http://www.oocities.org/mytugcity/childfriendly.html
  4. ^ http://ibanagcity.blogspot.com/2008/08/tuguegarao-city-premier-ibanag-city.html
  5. ^ "Official City/Municipal 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 11 September 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  6. ^ "Province: CAGAYAN". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c d Census of Population (2015). "Region II (Cagayan Valley)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  8. ^ "Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index - Cagayan Province". National Competitiveness Council, Philippines. 
  9. ^ (2013-04-04). "PAGASA: Hottest day so far this year in NCR at 35.2 degrees Celsius". GMA News Online. Retrieved on 2013-08-02.
  10. ^ "March Climate History for Tuguegarao". myweather2.com. 
  11. ^ "April Climate History for Tuguegarao". myweather2.com. 
  12. ^ Harkins, P., 1956, Blackburn's Headhunters, London: Cassell & Co. LTD
  13. ^ "An Act Creating the Barrio of Capatan in the Municipality of Tuguegarao, Province of Cagayan". LawPH.com. Retrieved 2011-04-13. 
  14. ^ Taken from the City's Official Website as written by Maria Fe B. Agu-Villania, CPA, CSEE, the City's Planning and Development Coordinator
  15. ^ "Tuguegarao City". Department of Tourism - Region 2. 
  16. ^ a b http://cagayano.tripod.com/geography.html
  17. ^ http://tuguegaraocity.gov.ph/barangays/
  18. ^ "Tuguegarao, Philippines: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". World Weather Online. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  19. ^ "Tuguegarao, Philippines Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  20. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region II (Cagayan Valley)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 
  21. ^ Census of Population (1995, 2000 and 2007). "Region II (Cagayan Valley)". Total Population by Province, City and Municipality. NSO. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. 
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