Tuguegarao

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Tuguegarao
Component City
Tuguegarao City Scenery.jpg
Official seal of Tuguegarao
Seal
Nickname(s): Tugue
Location in the province of Cagayan
Location in the province of Cagayan
Tuguegarao is located in Philippines
Tuguegarao
Tuguegarao
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 17°37′N 121°43′E / 17.617°N 121.717°E / 17.617; 121.717Coordinates: 17°37′N 121°43′E / 17.617°N 121.717°E / 17.617; 121.717
Country Philippines
Region Cagayan Valley (Region II)
Province Cagayan
Congr. district 3rd District of Cagayan
Township May 9, 1604
Patronal Feast Day August 17
Cityhood December 18, 1999
Barangays 49
Government[1]
 • Type Mayor–council
 • Mayor Jefferson P. Soriano
 • Vice-Mayor Bienvenido De Guzman II
 • City Council
Area[2]
 • Total 144.80 km2 (55.91 sq mi)
Population (2015)[3]
 • Total 153,502
 • Density 1,100/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Tuguegaraoeño (masculine)
Tuguegararoeña (feminine)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 3500
Dialing code 78
Income class 3rd class (CYs 2004-2007)[2]
Website www.tuguegaraocity.gov.ph

Tuguegarao, (Ibanag: Siudad nat Tuguegarao; Ilocano: Ciudad ti Tuguegarao; Filipino: Lungsod ng Tuguegarao) is a 3rd-class (CYs 2004-2007) component city in the Philippines. It is the capital of the province of Cagayan[2] and the regional and institutional center of Cagayan Valley Region.

The city, on the southern border of the province, is located where the Pinacanauan River empties into the Cagayan River and is surrounded by the Sierra Madre Mountains to the east, Cordillera Mountains to the west, and the Caraballo Mountains to the south.

The population of the city as of the 2015 census is 153,502 people.[3] Most of the inhabitants are Ilocanos, Ibanags and Itawes.[citation needed] Some are of Chinese and Indian descent.

The highest temperature ever recorded in the Philippines -- 42.2 °C (108.0 °F)—was recorded in Tuguegarao on April 29, 1912 and again on May 11, 1969.[4] Average temperature during March and April is 38 °C (100 °F), one of the highest in the country.[citation needed]

Barangays[edit]

The city is politically subdivided into 49 barangays.[2] 31 of these barangays have been classified by the city as urban. Most of the rural barangays have agricultural territories, although some of the urbanized ones have mixed commercial, residential, and agricultural sites.

The 49 barangays of the city:
Barangay Classification Population (2015)
Annafunan East Urban 4,207
Annafunan West Urban 3,310
Atulayan Norte Urban 3,578
Atulayan Sur Urban 4,404
Bagay Rural 3,393
Buntun Urban 4,373
Caggay Urban 7,261
Capatan Rural 3,337
Carig Norte (Reyes) Rural 2,267
Carig Sur Urban 4,536
Caritan Centro Urban 4,872
Caritan Norte Urban 3,093
Caritan Sur Urban 1,833
Cataggaman Nuevo Urban 8,161
Cataggaman Pardo Rural 3,292
Cataggaman Viejo Rural 4,246
Centro 01 Urban 1,158
Centro 02 Urban 553
Centro 03 Urban 339
Centro 04 Urban 566
Centro 05 Urban 1,126
Centro 06 Urban 195
Centro 07 Urban 262
Centro 08 Urban 125
Centro 09 Urban 969
Centro 10 Urban 2,282
Centro 11 (Balzain East) Urban 2,990
Centro 12 (Balzain West) Urban 2,391
Dadda Rural 1,167
Gosi Norte Rural 1,016
Gosi Sur Rural 1,297
Larion Alto Rural 1,856
Larion Bajo Rural 2,345
Leonarda Urban 2,503
Libag Norte Urban 2,384
Libag Sur Urban 2,708
Linao East Rural 6,939
Linao Norte Rural 3,005
Linao West Rural 1,665
Namabbalan Norte Rural 1,433
Namabbalan Sur Rural 746
Pallua Norte Rural 2,450
Pallua Sur Rural 2,683
Pengue Urban 5,629
San Gabriel Urban 6,828
Tagga Rural 1,346
Tanza Urban 5,665
Ugac Norte Urban 9,615
Ugac Sur Urban 10,858
TOTAL 153,502

Etymology[edit]

There are several versions of legends looming about the origin of the name of the city of Tuguegarao. One is the abundance of "tarrao" trees in the area. Another is from the word "tuggi" meaning fire. Another recorded version is, the town was formerly called Tuerao by the people of the northern towns. Still another is that the name Tuguegarao comes from two Ibanag words "tuggi" (fire) and "aggao" (day), possibly referring to a daytime fire that happened in the town. The most accepted version of the legend is the Ibanags' reply to the Spaniards when the latter asked for the name of the place - "Tuggi gari yaw", meaning "This used to be fire", or the town was carved out of the wilderness by clearing and burning. On the other hand, a historical evidence that might provide clues to the origin of the city's name comes from the fact that in 1591, the place was listed as a Spanish encomienda (land grant), which was originally a pre-colonial settlement called Tubigarao.[5]

History[edit]

The Ermita de Piedra de San Jacinto (Stone Chapel of Saint Hyacinth) established in 1604

The community was governed as a barangay established by the Dominicans as a mission until the Spaniards gave it the status of pueblo (municipality) on May 9, 1604, making it one of the political units of the province of Cagayan. The settlement was a small in terms of population but was big in territory, which then included what would later become the provinces of Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya and Quirino till the 1850s. As a mission pueblo and with assigned encomendero (landlord) to Tuguegarao, the inhabitants (as tenants) were made to pay taxes in the form of poultry products and other food products. Resentments later flared and the people of Tuguegarao revolted in 1605, killing the encomendero. Again, the people of Tuguegarao revolted in 1718 and then 1761 under a leader named Rivera.

The first parochial building of Tugugarao was constructed in 1604, a chapel that became the foundation of what is now the Ermita de Piedra de San Jacinto (Stone Chapel of Saint Hyacinth) dedicated to Saint Hyacinth, the patron saint of Tuguegarao. The present chapel is the latest in a process of rebuilding that started in 1724 when it was rebuilt by Fr. Bernabe de la Magdalena, O.P..

Tuguegarao became the capital of Cagayan province in 1839 when the provincial seat of power was relocated from Lal-lo. The decline of Lal-lo became the transformation of Tuguegarao as the most important town in Cagayan.

Tuguegarao was occupied by American troops on December 12, 1899. During World War II, the city and its airfield of some significance was captured by the Japanese Imperial Army on December 12, 1941 as part of the Japanese invasion of Aparri. The General Headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, Philippine Constabulary and the USAFIP-NL units was activated on 1942 to 1946 and stationed in Tuguegarao. The city and airfield were bombed by the US and Philippine regularly between January and May 1945, and attacked by Donald Blackburn's guerrilla forces in June 1945.[6]:299–302 The local recognized guerrillas helped by entering the town, Philippine Commonwealth troops under the Philippine Army and Constabulary units and USAFIP-NL military units came in early June; the town was officially liberated on June 25, 1945.

Sitio Capatan was elevated into a barrio (or barangay) Capatan of Tuguegarao on April 3, 1959, by Republic Act no. 2107.[7]

Tuguegarao was once the only first-class municipality in the province of Cagayan. It has served as the provincial capital of Cagayan since 1839 because of the notable socio-economic progress of the town. In 1975, Tuguegarao was declared as the capital and seat of the regional government of Cagayan Valley (Region II) being the region's geographic center with adequate facilities and amenities needed by such.

New barangays were formed in the 1970s that by 1981, Tuguegarao had 49 barangays, 12 of which were urban. The late 1980s saw the gradual expansion of the urban core of Tuguegarao to the outlying barangays of Ugac, Caritan and Atulayan. With the fast rising prices of real estate in the poblacion (city center), residents found it profitable to sell their properties in the poblacion and buy lots in the surrounding barangay neighborhoods, but still close to avail the amenities of the city.

By 1980, Tuguegarao had a population of 73,507. The increase in population could be attributed to various factors. One is the increasing peace and order problems in the other towns in the region driving the people to Tuguegarao, which is relatively free of the insurgency problem with the visible presence of the military and its geographic location. Another factor is the presence of the schools, whose quality of education is highly comparable to that of Metropolitan Manila. Others come because of the increase in trade and industry. The completion of the Maharlika Highway made Region II more accessible to people from other areas.

1983 marked the quadricentennial celebration of the establishment of the civil government of the Province of Cagayan. In the week-long celebration held in Tuguegarao, several Philippine cabinet ministers visited the town and province.

Of very great consideration[according to whom?] is the town's tremendous improvement in social services and infrastructure facilities since 1975. In the 1980s and 1990s, multistory buildings were constructed in the poblacion greatly changing Tuguegarao's skyline. Other changes included landscaped schools and homes, cable television, air-conditioned buses, jet flights, telegraph and telex services, door-to-door delivery services, domestic and overseas long-distance calls, luxurious social amenities and other trappings of a highly urbanized town.

Tuguegarao became a component city after it was affirmed in a plebiscite held on December 18, 1999. Randolph Sera Ting is the first mayor of the new city. On July 2, 2007, Delfin Telan Ting (who was then a municipal mayor from 1988 to 1998) was elected to become the second mayor of the city.

Hotel Delfino siege[edit]

The Hotel Delfino siege was a bloody coup attempt that happened on March 4, 1990, when suspended Cagayan governor Rodolfo "Agi" Aguinaldo and his armed men of 200 seized Hotel Delfino in Tuguegarao. Brigader General Oscar Florendo, his driver, four members of the civilian staff, and several other people were held hostage for several hours. A gunfight was launched to kill Aguinaldo and his men but one of the suspended governor's men was found dead in a checkpoint shootout, Brig. Gen. Florendo and 12 others were also dead and 10 more wounded. Aguinaldo was slightly wounded in a car gunfight but eventually escaped and hid in the mountains.

Education[edit]

Tuguegarao City is home to several prestigious international schools which provide international education to Cagayan Valley residents, such as the St. Paul University Philippines and the University of Saint Louis, which are both located along Mabini Street.

Other schools in the city are the University of Cagayan Valley, John Wesley College, F.L. Vargas College, Maila Rosario College, Credo Domine College, City Technological Institute, Cagayan Metropolitan Institute of Technology, STI College, and AMA Computer College.

Two of the top state universities are also in Tuguegarao City—the Cagayan State University Andrews Campus, and Cagayan State University Carig Campus. Both universities have their own administration and are separated from each other.

The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was established through the enactment of "Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994", which was signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos. This Act aims to encourage the full participation of and mobilize the industry, labor, local government units, and technical-vocational institutions in the skills development of the country's human resource. The TESDA complex and facilities are located at Brgy. Carig Norte, Tuguegarao City.

Tuguegarao City has one Jesuit educational institution located along Bagay Road—the Global Reformed University.

Other notable schools in the city include Cagayan National High School, Tuguegarao City Science High School, a state-owned secondary institution, the Chinese private Ke Bing School, Methodist Montesorri, a Christian school in Centro, and Saint Claire Montesorri, a Catholic school in San Gabriel. Tuguegarao City West High School started operations on June 4, 2012.

Demographics[edit]

Population of
Tuguegarao City
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1918 17,000 —    
1939 19,300 +0.61%
1948 10,500 −6.54%
1960 27,600 +8.39%
1970 59,200 +7.92%
1980 73,507 +2.19%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 94,787 +2.58%
1995 107,275 +2.35%
2000 120,645 +2.55%
2007 129,539 +0.99%
2010 138,865 +2.56%
2015 153,502 +1.93%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

Climate[edit]

Tuguegarao experiences a topical climate, with only a slight difference between summer and iwinter temperatures, and high year-round humidity

Climate data for Tuguegarao City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37
(99)
37
(99)
40
(104)
42
(108)
41
(106)
41
(106)
41
(106)
38
(100)
37
(99)
38
(100)
36
(97)
38
(100)
42
(108)
Average high °C (°F) 28
(82)
30
(86)
33
(91)
36
(97)
36
(97)
36
(97)
34
(93)
34
(93)
33
(91)
31
(88)
30
(86)
28
(82)
32.4
(90.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23
(73)
24
(75)
26
(79)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
25
(77)
24
(75)
26.5
(79.6)
Average low °C (°F) 19
(66)
18
(64)
20
(68)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
20
(68)
21.2
(70.2)
Record low °C (°F) 12
(54)
13
(55)
14
(57)
17
(63)
17
(63)
18
(64)
18
(64)
19
(66)
18
(64)
18
(64)
12
(54)
12
(54)
12
(54)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 31.2
(1.228)
23.0
(0.906)
27.7
(1.091)
28.1
(1.106)
113.5
(4.469)
141.4
(5.567)
176.4
(6.945)
236.6
(9.315)
224.9
(8.854)
247.7
(9.752)
222.9
(8.776)
178.0
(7.008)
1,651.4
(65.017)
Average rainy days 10 6 5 5 13 12 15 15 15 17 16 15 144
Average relative humidity (%) 82 76 73 71 72 75 79 79 80 82 84 85 78.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 11.6 11.9 12.4 12.9 13.4 13.6 13.5 13.1 12.6 12.1 11.7 11.5 12.52
Source #1: World Weather Online[8]
Source #2: Weatherbase[9]

Economy[edit]

Tuguegarao City's Calle Commercio (commercial street) in 2010.

Within the past three decades, its economy gradually shifted from agriculture to secondary/tertiary economic activities such as trading, commerce and services. The shift was ushered by Tuguegarao's role as the provincial and regional government center and one of the centers of commerce in Northern Luzon. Banking, educational, commercial, industrial and tourism-related activities proliferate in the area.

As of 2013, there were 4,210 registered business establishments for which more than half are located in the Poblacion and less than one-third (1/3) are in the urban barangays. Of these registered establishments, 53.48% are wholesale and retail trade establishments. Financing, insurance and real estate firms contributed 8.54%, and the remaining 37.98% consist of service enterprises and social amenities to include business, recreational, personal, utility and other services. At present, there are 43 banks operating in the city.

Local government[edit]

City Officials (CY 2016-2019)
Position Name
City Mayor Jefferson P. Soriano
City Vice-Mayor Bienvenido De Guzman II
City Councilors Danilo Baccay
Jude T. Bayona
Kendrick Calubaquib
Maila Ting Que
Arnel Arugay
Gilbert Labang
Winnoco Abraham
Claire Callangan
Marj Martin
Raymund Guzman
Grace Arago
Anthony C. Tuddao
Hilario Larry S. Ting (Ex-Officio, Liga ng mga Barangay)

Transportation[edit]

Tuguegarao City's main transportation vehicle is the tricycle

Tuguegarao serves as a vital transportation and communication hub. It can be reached using buses with en route to Tuguegarao, Baggao, Aparri, and also Santiago.

There are also some vans that plies to Claveria, Santa Praxedes, Aparri, Santa Ana, Alcala, Lasam and Junction Luna, Abulug in Cagayan, Santiago City, Roxas, Ilagan City and Cauayan City in Isabela, Luna and Kabugao in Apayao. There are also mini buses plying to Lasam, Allacapan, Claveria, Santiago City and Roxas. There are jeeps with routes to Iguig, Tuao, Enrile, Tabuk and Rizal in Kalinga and some mountainous barrios in Cagayan. The tricycle and calesa are common modes of public transport in the city.

The Tuguegarao Airport is a facility located 21.036 meters or 69 feet above sea level and is capable of handling Boeing-737-sized aircraft. Small aircraft, helicopters and army cargo aircraft also utilize the airport. Cebu Pacific, Sky Pasada and PAL Express are the domestic airlines which operates routes to and from the city.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Official City/Municipal 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 11 September 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Province: CAGAYAN". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  3. ^ a b PSA; Census of Population (2015), "Region II (CAGAYAN VALLEY)", Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay, retrieved 20 June 2016 
  4. ^ (2013-04-04). "PAGASA: Hottest day so far this year in NCR at 35.2 degrees Celsius". GMA News Online. Retrieved on 2013-08-02.
  5. ^ Taken from the City's Official Website as written by Maria Fe B. Agu-Villania, CPA, CSEE, the City's Planning and Development Coordinator
  6. ^ Harkins, P., 1956, Blackburn's Headhunters, London: Cassell & Co. LTD
  7. ^ "An Act Creating the Barrio of Capatan in the Municipality of Tuguegarao, Province of Cagayan". LawPH.com. Retrieved 2011-04-13. 
  8. ^ "Tuguegarao, Philippines: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". World Weather Online. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  9. ^ "Tuguegarao, Philippines Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 

External links[edit]