Tuktoyaktuk

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Tuktoyaktuk
Tuktuyaaqtuuq
formerly Port Brabant
Hamlet
North Warning System radar station at Tuktoyaktuk
North Warning System radar station at Tuktoyaktuk
Nickname: 
Tuk
Tuktoyaktuk is located in Northwest Territories
Tuktoyaktuk
Tuktoyaktuk
Tuktoyaktuk is located in Canada
Tuktoyaktuk
Tuktoyaktuk
Coordinates: 69°27′03″N 133°02′09″W / 69.45083°N 133.03583°W / 69.45083; -133.03583[1]Coordinates: 69°27′03″N 133°02′09″W / 69.45083°N 133.03583°W / 69.45083; -133.03583[1]
CountryCanada
TerritoryNorthwest Territories
RegionInuvik Region
Electoral districtNunakput
Census divisionRegion 1
Settled1928
Incorporated1 April 1970
Government
 • MayorErwin Elias
 • Senior Administrative OfficerLucy Kuptana
 • MLAJackie Jacobson
 • Member of ParliamentMichael McLeod
 • SenatorMargaret Dawn Anderson
Area
 • Land12.66 km2 (4.89 sq mi)
Elevation5 m (15 ft)
Population
 (2021)[2]
 • Total937
 • Density74.0/km2 (192/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−07:00 (MST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
Canadian Postal code
X0E 1C0
Area code867
Telephone exchange977
– Living cost (2018)162.5A
– Food price index (2019)157.8B
Websitehttp://www.tuktoyaktuk.ca
Sources:
Department of Municipal and Community Affairs,[4]
Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre,[5]
Canada Flight Supplement[3]
Northwestel[6]
Natural Resources Canada[7]
^A 2018 figure based on Edmonton = 100[8]
^B 2019 figure based on Yellowknife = 100[8]

Tuktoyaktuk English: /tʌktəˈjæktʌk/, or Tuktuyaaqtuuq IPA: [təktujaːqtuːq] (Inuvialuktun: it looks like a caribou),[5] is an Inuvialuit hamlet located in the Inuvik Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, at the northern terminus of the Inuvik–Tuktoyaktuk Highway.[9][10] Tuktoyaktuk, one of six Inuvialuit communities in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, is commonly referred to simply by its first syllable, Tuk /tʌk/.[11] The settlement lies north of the Arctic Circle on the shores of the Arctic Ocean, and is the only community in Canada on the Arctic Ocean that is connected to the rest of Canada by road.[9] Formerly known as Port Brabant, the community was renamed in 1950 and was the first place in Canada to revert to the traditional Indigenous name.[12]

History[edit]

Trans Canada Trail sign in Tuk
Pingo near Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories
Tuktoyaktuk Community Cooler
Tuktoyaktuk, aerial photo 1987

Tuktoyaktuk is the anglicized form of the native Inuvialuit place-name, meaning "resembling a caribou". According to legend, a woman looked on as some caribou, common at the site, waded into the water and turned into stone, or became petrified. Today, reefs resembling these petrified caribou are said to be visible at low tide along the shore of the town.[13]

No formal archaeological sites exist today, but the settlement has been used by the native Inuvialuit for centuries as a place to harvest caribou and beluga whales. In addition, Tuktoyaktuk's natural harbour was historically used as a means to transport supplies to other Inuvialuit settlements.

Between 1890 and 1910, a sizeable number of Tuktoyaktuk's native families were wiped out in flu epidemics brought in by American whalers. In subsequent years, the Dene people, as well as residents of Herschel Island, settled here. By 1937, the Hudson's Bay Company had established a trading post. On 9 September 1944, a serious fall windstorm blew through the community and severely damaged several buildings and schooners docked at the harbour, also killing 11 people en route back from a reindeer station on the Anderson River on the schooner Cally.[14]

Radar domes were installed beginning in the 1950s as part of the Distant Early Warning Line, to monitor air traffic and detect possible Soviet intrusions during the Cold War. The settlement's location (and harbour) made Tuk important in resupplying the civilian contractors and Air Force personnel along the DEW Line. In 1947, Tuktoyaktuk became the site of one of the first government day schools, designed to forcibly assimilate Inuit youth into 'mainstream' Canadian culture.[15][16]

The community of Tuktoyaktuk eventually became a base for the oil and natural gas exploration of the Beaufort Sea. Large industrial buildings remain from the busy period following the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries 1973 oil embargo and 1979 summertime fuel shortage. This brought many more outsiders into the region.

In late 2010, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency announced that an environmental study would be undertaken on a proposed all-weather road between Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk.[17] Work on the Inuvik–Tuktoyaktuk Highway officially started on 8 January 2014, and the highway was officially opened on 15 November 2017.[9]

Geography[edit]

Tuktoyaktuk is set on Kugmallit Bay, near the Mackenzie River Delta, and is located on the Arctic tree line.

Tuktoyaktuk is the gateway for exploring Pingo National Landmark, an area protecting eight nearby pingos in a region which contains approximately 1,350 of these Arctic ice-dome hills. The landmark comprises an area roughly 16 km2 (6.2 sq mi), just a few miles west of the community, and includes Canada's highest, the world's second-highest, pingo, at 49 m (161 ft).[18]

Employment[edit]

Many locals still hunt, fish, and trap. Locals rely on caribou in the autumn, ducks and geese in both spring and autumn, and fishing year-round. Other activities include collecting driftwood, berrypicking, and reindeer herding. Most wages today, however, come from tourism and transportation. Marine Transportation Services (MTS) is a major employer in this region. In addition, the oil and gas industry continues to employ explorers and other workers.

Demographics[edit]

In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Tuktoyaktuk had a population of 937 living in 285 of its 334 total private dwellings, a change of 4.3% from its 2016 population of 898. With a land area of 12.66 km2 (4.89 sq mi), it had a population density of 74.0/km2 (191.7/sq mi) in 2021.[2]

The average annual personal income in 2015 was $21,984 Canadian and the average family income was $55,424. Local languages are Inuinnaqtun (Inuvialuktun) and English with a few North Slavey and Tłı̨chǫ (Dogrib) speakers. Tuktoyaktuk is predominately Indigenous (90.8%) with Inuit (Inuvialuit) making up 88.0%, 9.2% non-Aboriginal, 1.7% First Nations and 1.1% giving multiple Indigenous backgrounds.[19]

Federal census population history of Tuktoyaktuk
YearPop.±%
1971597—    
1976590−1.2%
1981772+30.8%
1986929+20.3%
1991918−1.2%
1996943+2.7%
2001930−1.4%
2006870−6.5%
2011854−1.8%
2016898+5.2%
2021937+4.3%
Source: Statistics Canada
[2][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]
Annual population estimates
YearPop.±%
1996971—    
1997964−0.7%
1998981+1.8%
1999982+0.1%
2000977−0.5%
2001998+2.1%
2002986−1.2%
2003966−2.0%
2004956−1.0%
2005941−1.6%
2006906−3.7%
2007898−0.9%
YearPop.±%
2008910+1.3%
2009876−3.7%
2010876+0.0%
2011877+0.1%
2012893+1.8%
2013894+0.1%
2014923+3.2%
2015975+5.6%
20161,000+2.6%
20171,026+2.6%
2018993−3.2%
2019995+0.2%
Sources: NWT Bureau of Statistics (2008–2019),[8] NWT Bureau of Statistics (2001–2017)[28]

Climate[edit]

Tuktoyaktuk displays a subarctic climate (Dfc), bordering on a tundra climate (ET), as the July mean temperature is barely above 10 °C (50 °F). Since the Arctic Ocean freezes over for much of the year, the maritime influence is minimized, resulting in cold winters and a strong seasonal lag in spring. This results in April being much colder than October and May much colder than September. March is also colder than December, and is the only month yet to not record a temperature above freezing at any point. Due to the dominance of cold air, Tuktoyaktuk has a lower precipitation rate than many desert climates. In spite of this, the cold temperatures mean it receives more than a metre of snow a year on average. Owing to the thousands of kilometers of land to the south of Tuktoyaktuk, southerly winds can sometimes push warmer air into the region. Rex blocks can cause an exceptionally strong ridge of high pressure to form at higher latitudes, allowing heat to build consistently.[29] As a result, temperatures well above average can occur in summer in spite of the cold surrounding waters. During a bout of exceptionally hot Arctic weather,[30] Tuktoyaktuk was among the numerous northern communities that recorded a new high temperature, reaching a high of 29.9°C (85.8°F) on July 4th, 2022.[31] Tuktoyaktuk's climate stands in stark contrast to those of Northern Norway at similar latitudes, but is in many ways less extreme in comparison with Eastern Canada at lower latitudes, where summers are cooler, moderated by the cool waters of the Hudson Bay.

Climate data for Tuktoyaktuk (Tuktoyaktuk/James Gruben Airport)
Climate ID: 2203912; coordinates 69°29′00″N 133°01′35″W / 69.48333°N 133.02639°W / 69.48333; -133.02639 (Tuktoyaktuk/James Gruben Airport); elevation: 4.3 m (14 ft); 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1948-2022
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 3.8 0.7 −0.5 6.4 23.3 29.6 34.1 32.9 21.6 16.4 2.1 0.6 34.1
Record high °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
0.7
(33.3)
−0.5
(31.1)
4.8
(40.6)
20.9
(69.6)
28.2
(82.8)
29.9
(85.8)
27.6
(81.7)
20.9
(69.6)
17.4
(63.3)
2.2
(36.0)
0.8
(33.4)
29.9
(85.8)
Average high °C (°F) −23.0
(−9.4)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−21.1
(−6.0)
−11.3
(11.7)
−1.1
(30.0)
11.0
(51.8)
15.1
(59.2)
12.3
(54.1)
5.8
(42.4)
−4.7
(23.5)
−17.3
(0.9)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−6.4
(20.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −26.6
(−15.9)
−26.4
(−15.5)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−15.7
(3.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
6.4
(43.5)
11.0
(51.8)
8.9
(48.0)
3.3
(37.9)
−7.4
(18.7)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−23.8
(−10.8)
−10.1
(13.8)
Average low °C (°F) −30.4
(−22.7)
−30.6
(−23.1)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−8.2
(17.2)
1.7
(35.1)
6.9
(44.4)
5.4
(41.7)
0.7
(33.3)
−9.9
(14.2)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−13.8
(7.2)
Record low °C (°F) −48.9
(−56.0)
−46.6
(−51.9)
−45.5
(−49.9)
−42.8
(−45.0)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−8.9
(16.0)
−1.7
(28.9)
−2.5
(27.5)
−12.8
(9.0)
−28.5
(−19.3)
−40.1
(−40.2)
−46.7
(−52.1)
−48.9
(−56.0)
Record low wind chill −70.8 −61.2 −58.1 −55.5 −40.1 −16.5 −6.5 −8.9 −20.9 −46.9 −50.8 −58.9 −70.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10.5
(0.41)
8.9
(0.35)
7.2
(0.28)
8.3
(0.33)
6.8
(0.27)
11.0
(0.43)
22.3
(0.88)
25.7
(1.01)
23.3
(0.92)
18.4
(0.72)
9.6
(0.38)
8.7
(0.34)
160.7
(6.33)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.4
(0.06)
9.7
(0.38)
22.2
(0.87)
24.4
(0.96)
15.5
(0.61)
1.3
(0.05)
0.0
(0.0)
0.3
(0.01)
74.9
(2.95)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 13.4
(5.3)
10.2
(4.0)
9.0
(3.5)
9.4
(3.7)
6.2
(2.4)
1.3
(0.5)
0.1
(0.0)
1.2
(0.5)
8.9
(3.5)
20.1
(7.9)
12.1
(4.8)
11.2
(4.4)
103.1
(40.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 8.4 7.3 7.1 5.5 4.9 5.1 10.1 12.7 12.7 13.3 9.6 8.9 105.6
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 4.3 10.0 12.4 9.0 1.1 0.0 0.1 38.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 8.6 7.4 7.5 5.8 4.2 1.0 0.1 0.9 5.0 13.0 9.9 9.1 72.5
Average relative humidity (%) 74.2 73.0 73.9 81.5 81.5 68.4 68.7 73.9 77.9 85.7 79.5 76.1 76.2
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada[32]

Transportation[edit]

Satellite image of Liverpool Bay, the Husky Lakes, and the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula

Tuktoyaktuk/James Gruben Airport links Tuktoyaktuk to Inuvik. This 30-minute flight costs a few hundred dollars per passenger. Formerly in winter time, the Tuktoyaktuk Winter Road provided road access to Inuvik. The $300-million Inuvik–Tuktoyaktuk Highway opened in November 2017,[33][9] which provides all-season access to Inuvik, which connects to the rest of the highway networks in Canada.[34]

Tuktoyaktuk Panorama

In popular culture[edit]

  • In the third episode of Jesse James Is a Dead Man, originally aired on 14 June 2009 on Spike TV, Jesse James rides his motorcycle from Inuvik to Tuktoyaktuk to drop off medical supplies.[35]
  • Tuktoyaktuk is mentioned often as familiar territory to Benton Fraser in the TV show Due South. At one point, Ray Vecchio, Fraser's partner, confuses the name of this real town with a fictitious town he calls "Runamokluk".
  • Tuktoyaktuk is referenced numerous times in the Stompin' Tom Connors song "Mukluk Shoe".
  • The song "Canadian Girls" by Dean Brody briefly mentions Tuktoyaktuk.
  • Tuktoyaktuk is the subject of the song "Time Before Bones", Dana Sipos's winning song from CBC Radio 2's 2009 Great Canadian Song Quest competition.
  • On 3 September 1995, the Molson Brewing Company arranged for several popular rock bands to give a concert in Tuktoyaktuk as a publicity stunt promoting their new ice-brewed beer. During the months leading up to concert, radio stations across North America ran contests in which they gave away free tickets. Dubbed The Molson Ice Polar Beach Party, it featured Hole, Metallica,[36] Moist, Cake and Veruca Salt. Canadian filmmaker Albert Nerenberg made a documentary about this concert, Invasion of the Beer People.[37]
  • Tuktoyaktuk is featured in the Discovery Channel TV show Ice Road Truckers.[38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tuktoyaktuk". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  2. ^ a b c d "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), Northwest Territories". Statistics Canada. 9 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  3. ^ a b Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 16 July 2020 to 0901Z 10 September 2020.
  4. ^ "NWT Communities - Tuktoyaktuk". Government of the Northwest Territories: Department of Municipal and Community Affairs. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre – official names" (PDF). Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  6. ^ Northwestel 2008 phone directory
  7. ^ Canadian Geographical Names Database – Native names for Native places Archived 1 October 2006 at archive.today
  8. ^ a b c Tuktoyaktuk – Statistical Profile at the GNWT
  9. ^ a b c d Montgomery, Marc. "Canada now officially connected by road-coast to coast to coast", CBC Radio, 15 November 2017. Retrieved on 15 November 2017.
  10. ^ Lamb, David. "Driving to the top of the world: Exploring Canada's new Arctic highway", CBC, 18 April 2017. Retrieved on 15 November 2017.
  11. ^ Welcome To The Hamlet of Tuktoyaktuk Website
  12. ^ "Infofile Detail – Native Names for Native Places". Edmonton Public Library. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  13. ^ "Tourist guide". Tuk.ca. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008.
  14. ^ The Moccasin Telegraph, March 1945
  15. ^ Crowe, Keith J. (1991) [1974]. A History of the Original Peoples of Northern Canada (revised ed.). McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-0880-4.
  16. ^ Brant, Jennifer (1 May 2020). "Racial Segregation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada.
  17. ^ "Canadian Environmental Assessment Registry – Environmental Assessment Home Page". Ceaa.gc.ca. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  18. ^ Parks Canada (2005). "Pingo National Landmark". Archived from the original on 3 June 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
  19. ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Northwest Territories)". Statistics Canada. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  20. ^ "1976 Census of Canada: Population - Geographic Distributions" (PDF). Statistics Canada. June 1977. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  21. ^ "1981 Census of Canada: Census subdivisions in decreasing population order" (PDF). Statistics Canada. May 1992. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  22. ^ "1986 Census: Population - Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions" (PDF). Statistics Canada. September 1987. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  23. ^ "91 Census: Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions - Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 1992. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  24. ^ "96 Census: A National Overview - Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 1997. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  25. ^ "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Canada, Provinces and Territories, and Census Subdivisions (Municipalities), 2001 and 1996 Censuses - 100% Data (Northwest Territories)". Statistics Canada. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  26. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data (Northwest Territories)". Statistics Canada. 20 August 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  27. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Northwest Territories)". Statistics Canada. 25 July 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  28. ^ Population Estimates By Community from the GNWT
  29. ^ Inc, Pelmorex Weather Networks. "Arctic Circle snags some of Canada's hottest weather to start July". www.theweathernetwork.com. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  30. ^ "Records may fall as impressive heat wave roasts the Arctic Circle". theweathernetwork.com. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  31. ^ "Tuktoyaktuk". Daily Data Report for July 2022. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Climate ID: 2203914. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  32. ^ "Tuktoyaktuk A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Climate ID: 2203912. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  33. ^ "Official Opening Ceremonies". Inuvik Tuktoyaktuk Highway. Government of Northwest Territories. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  34. ^ Stewart, Brian (23 October 2017). "New Arctic coast highway opens up remote Tuktoyaktuk". CBC News.
  35. ^ "Arctic Bike Journey". IMDb.
  36. ^ "It took heart surgery for this man to open this giant bottle of wine after 2 decades | CBC News". CBC. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  37. ^ "Website for Invasion of the Beer People". Nutaaq.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2021.
  38. ^ Kaplan, Don (2 April 2008). "Back on the 'ice road'". New York Post. Retrieved 22 October 2022.

External links[edit]