Tula Arms Plant

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Tula Arms Plant
Native name
Тульский оружейный завод
Public limited company
Industry Defence
Founded 1712
Founder Peter the Great
Headquarters Tula, Tula Oblast, Russia
Key people
Sergey Pariyskiy (CEO)[1]
Products Firearms, Ammunition, ATGMs, grenade launchers
Decrease US$ -9,913,000 (2009)[2]
Total assets Decrease US$ 11,334,000 (2009)[2]
Number of employees
3600 (August 2010)[3]
Parent High Precision Systems (Rostec)
Website en.tulatoz.ru

Tula Arms Plant (Russian: Тульский оружейный завод, translit. Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod) is a Russian weapons manufacturer founded by Tsar Peter I of Russia in 1712[4] in Tula, Tula Oblast as Tula Arsenal. Throughout its history, it has produced weapons for the Russian state. Its name was changed from Tula Arsenal to Tula Arms Plant during the Soviet era.

History of the plant[edit]

Historically, the plant produced a wide variety of arms and sports weapons for the Imperial Russian Army.

Originally, the plant was created to provide arms to the citizens of Tula in order to defend against nomads' invasions, because they did not have enough weapons, which were produced in Moscow. The plant was created by decree by Peter the Great in 1712. The factory was equipped with then-progressive equipment such as: water machines, "trochanteric" machines for drilling shafts, grapes, hammers, machines for "scrubbing" - exterior and interior finishes trunks.

18th century[edit]

In the 18th century this plant was recognized as etalon of Russian Arms Production. In 1720, for the weaponry of Russian army, the plant produced 22 thousand light infantry and dragoon rifles, pistols flintlock. In 1749, the plant started mass production of cold weapons- knives, sabers, broadswords and swords. The flourishing of Tula Arms Plant had in the second half of 18th century, when in that time, rapidly increased a demand on the artistically decorated weapons. A unique, remarkable for its elegance invention Tula’s plant - "Diamond Line" on the metal, and many other secrets of decoration on metal and wood are rooted precisely in this era. By the end of 18th century, becoming known names such fine gunsmiths as Ivan Pushkin, Ivan Lialin - creator of the double-barreled breech-loading flintlock, Ivan Pauline - the designer who created one of the first examples of a multiply-charged weapons shop.

19th and early 20th century[edit]

Reconstructed in the 19th century Tula Arms Factory became one of the most prominent arms factories in Europe. In 1879 the plant started production of the famous Berdan rifle with an improved bolt. Workshop was organized by a model where created their own models of small arms and hunting weapons. Increased production of various products: single- and double-barrel muzzle-loading shotguns, breech-loading center-fire rifles. Designer Sergei Ivanovich Mosin took part in devising damascus steel technology used in production of barrels. He also designed a bolt-action rifle which was put to testing along with a rifle developed by Émile Nagant. In 1891, as a result of complex tests Mosin's entry was chosen over the Belgian design and it was adopted by the Imperial Russian Army as the three-line rifle of 1891.

In 1902 the factory was re-organized, fully mechanized mass production of hunting rifles (first hammerless shotguns model "B", and then Ivashentsev’s trigger gun system). In 1910 the factory started the production of Maxim machine gun. In 1920s the plant had developed and produced a range of different firearms, such as: hunting shotgun model "P" and carbine NK-8,2 (designed by Kochetov), small-caliber rifles TOZ-1 and TOZ-2, single-shot rifles TOZ-7 and TOZ-8, and sporting shotgun TOZ-10.

In 1927 planning and design office was established in order to improve the work of all of the plant's designers, the result of which was the development of aircraft machine guns - PV-1 and ShKAS. Between 1927 and 1938 the plant built the country's first spinning machines. Between 1932 and 1939 the plant mastered the production of milling machines, and started to massively produce three models of them (versatile, horizontal and vertical). In 1939 Fedor Tokarev (rus. Фёдор Васильевич Токарев) created a self-loading rifle SVT-38, which served as a basis for the SVT-40. In the years 1927–1939 besides producing SVT-38 rifles, UB and ShKAS machine guns, the factory also produced B-2 cannons.

Importance during World War II[edit]

During World War II, the Nazi Germany invaded Russia as part of Operation Barbarossa. By December 5th 1941, the German 2nd Panzer Division had advanced to within a few kilometers of Tula, forcing the Soviets to evacuate Tula Arms Plant. As a result, far fewer weapons were produced there than at other Soviet factories such as Izhevsk Mechanical Plant. Consequently, Tula weapons of World War II are considered more valuable by collectors.

In 1941-1945, working under the slogan "Everything for the front, everything for victory", Tula gunsmiths produced Mosin–Nagant 91/30 rifles, SVT-40 self-loading rifles, ShVAK aircraft guns, Nagant revolvers and Tokarev pistols.

Cold War[edit]

Tula was strategically important to the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Significant ore deposits were situated relatively close to it and it had access to ample transportation routes like the Upa River and many rail lines coming in and out of the city.

The Cold War period was a period of fruitful work in a different kinds of sporting and hunting weapons. In this years were established models of guns such as a double-barreled hammerless T03-25, a double trigger "BM", small-caliber rifle TOZ-8M, TOZ-12, TOZ-16, TOZ-18. At the same time, the plant also produced the Simonov SKS carbine.

In 1965 constructors N. I. Korovyakov and V.P. Ochneva created a reliable double-barreled over-and-under shotgun TOZ-34.

During 1961–1982, the plant received an order for production of the world-famous Kalashnikov assault rifles (six variants), anti-tank guided missiles - 9M14 Malyutka, 9M133 Kornet, 9M113 Konkurs and the Bonfire underslung grenade launcher. It also began producing the TOZ-35 competition "free pistol" used in 50m pistol events at the Olympics.

Products[edit]

During the early to mid Soviet era, Tula Arms Plant produced a variety military rifles, including the Mosin–Nagant, SVT-40, SKS, and AK-47. It also produced the Nagant M1895 revolver.

From the early 1980s, the factory continued to produce the AK-47 as well as AK-74, and also manufactured the VSS Vintorez, AS Val, OTs-14 Groza, and TOZ rifle weapons designed by TsNIITochMash. The plant also produces large quantities of small arms ammunition for the military as well as for commercial sale.

The factory has also manufactured a number of pistols over the years such as the Korovin pistol, TT pistol, Stechkin automatic pistol, SPP-1 underwater pistol, and MSP Groza silent pistol.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "New director at Tula Arms Plant". Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  2. ^ a b "Annual report of Tula Arms Plant". Archived from the original on 2011-10-03. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  3. ^ "Tula Arms Plant paid salary for May to its employees". Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  4. ^ "TOZ Information". Archived from the original on 2008-07-16. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 54°12′02″N 37°36′53.4″E / 54.20056°N 37.614833°E / 54.20056; 37.614833