|Name meaning||The small mound.|
|Population||340 (together with Husayniyya) (1945)|
|Date of depopulation||late April 1948|
Tulayl (Arabic: تليل) was a Palestinian Arab village in the Safad Subdistrict located 14.5 kilometers (9.0 mi) northeast of Safad. It was situated on small, sandy hill on the southwestern shore of Lake Hula, near the merging of two wadis. Together with the nearby village of al-Husayniyya, it had a population of 340 in 1945. Tulayl was depopulated during the 1948 Palestine War.
Scholars identify the mound upon which Tulayl was built with the Roman town of "Thella". Its hilltop location protected it from floods. The 1st-century historian, Josephus, mentions the village in his day with reference to the extent of Upper Galilee and which stretched "in length from Meroth to Thella, a village near Jordan."
Under the Ottoman Empire, in 1596, Tulayl was a part of the nahiya ("subdistrict") of Jira, under the administration of Safad Sanjak, with a population of 215, or 36 households and 3 bachelors, all Muslims. They paid a fixed tax-rate of 25% on agricultural products, including wheat, barley, bees, and water buffalos; a total of 3,107 Akçe. 1/12 of the revenue went to a Waqf.
In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described the place as having "modern cattle-sheds and traces of ruins of basaltic stone". Its houses, closely packed together, were constructed from adobe and cane. In the second half of the 19th century, after the Algerian followers of Abdelkader El Djezairi had been defeated by the French in Algeria, they sought refuge in another part of the Ottoman Empire, and were given lands in various locations in Ottoman Syria, including Tulayl, and the nearby villages of Dayshum, Ammuqa, Al-Husayniyya and Marus.
British Mandate era
In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Tulail had a population of 196; all Muslims. In the 1931 census it was counted with al-Husayniyya, and together they had a population of 274, still all Muslims, in a total of 64 houses.
During this period Tulayl expanded westward and by the 1940s approached the village of al-Husayniyya, itself having expanded eastward. Thus, the two virtually had become one village sharing the same services, including the only school. The entire population, engaged mostly in agriculture, raising water buffalo, and fishing, was Muslim.
|Irrigated and plantation||22||0|
1948, and aftermath
Like most villages in the area, Tulayl was captured by Israel during its offensive Operation Yiftach in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Israeli historian Benny Morris speculates it was seized in April 1948. According to Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi in 1992, "The village site is thickly covered with grass and other vegetation, including some eucalyptus and palm trees. Only one old stone house, with an arched doorway, remains standing.
- Palmer, 1881, p. 96
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 71
- Morris, 2004, p. xvi, village #37. Morris gives date and cause of depopulation with "?"
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 500
- Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 209
- M. Aviam & P. Richardson, "Josephus' Galilee in Archaeological Perspective", published in: Steve Mason, Flavius Josephus: translation and commentary, vol. 9, Leiden ; Boston : Brill 2000–2008, pp. 177–201
- Josephus, De Bello Judaico (Wars of the Jews) III, 35 (Wars of the Jews 3.3.1)
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 178. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 500
- Note that Rhode, 1979, p. 6 writes that the register that Hütteroth and Abdulfattah studied was not from 1595/6, but from 1548/9
- Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 257
- Abbasi, 2007 (Hebrew). Non-Hebrew version in The Maghreb Review, 28(1), 2003 pp. 41-59.
- Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Safad, p. 41
- Mills, 1932, p. 107
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 121
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 171
- Abbasi, Mustafa (2007). "From Algeria to the Holy Land: Algerian communities in the Galilee, from the late Ottoman period to 1948 / הקהילה האלג'יראית בגליל משלהי השלטון העות'מני עד שנת 1948". Horizons in Geography / אופקים בגאוגרפיה (68/69): 56–72. ISSN 0334-3774. JSTOR 23716446.
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, C.R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Hadawi, S. (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Khalidi, W. (1992). All That Remains:The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Morris, B. (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6.
- Palmer, E.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Rhode, H. (1979). Administration and Population of the Sancak of Safed in the Sixteenth Century. Columbia University.