Skyline of Tulchyn
|• Total||9.26 km2 (3.58 sq mi)|
|Elevation||208 m (682 ft)|
|• Density||1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)|
|Area code(s)||+380 4335|
Tulchyn (Ukrainian: Тульчин, translit. Tul’chyn, old name Nesterwar (from Hungarian Nester - Dniester and war -town), Latin Tulcinum, Polish: Tulczyn, Yiddish: טולטשין, Romanian: Tulcin) is a town in Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, former Podolia. It is the administrative center of Tulchyn Raion (district), and was the chief centre of the Southern Society of the Decembrists, Pavel Pestel was located there during planning of the rebellion. The city is also known for being the home to Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych who produced several of this choral masterpieces (including world famous "Carol of the bells") when he lived here. An important landmark of the city is the palace of the Potocki family, built according to the principles of Palladian architecture according to the plans drafted by Joseph Lacroix during the 1780s. Polish patriot Józef Wysocki (general) was born in Tulchin in 1809, author of Pamietnik Jenerala Wysockiego, Dowodcy Legionu Polskiego Na Wegrzech Z Czasu Kampanii Wegierskiej W Roku 1848 i 1849. Population: 15,763 (2015 est.)
Possession of the Duchy of Lithuania Tulchin came into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569 as royal town and only in 1609 king Sigismund III Vasa granted the town to Walenty Aleksander Kalinowski, Kalinowa coat of arms. Until 1728 Tulchin was part of the estates of the Polish magnates of the Kalinowski family (other distinguished members of Tulchin family were Adam Kalinowski and Marcin Kalinowski), and then passed into the hands of Stanisław Potocki bypassing other Kalinowskis' branch, then in 1734 to Franciszek Salezy Potocki and his son Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki, who was the most memorable and infamous member of the Tulczyn branch of the Potocki family. During the Targowica confederation Tulchin was the headquarters of the confederates. Mieczysław Potocki sold Tulchin to his brother-in-law Grzegorz Strogonow, who sold it to Piotr Oldenburski, who in turn sold it to Russian Imperial Treasury. Ancient archives of the Polish magnate families of Struś, Łaszcz, Mniszech, Modrzewski, Potocki, and Tarło collected at the palace, were lost during these transfers in ownership, while furniture and art collections were shipped to Paris where Mieczysław Potocki resided. After the Kiev-Odessa train line had been built Tulchin went into economic decay. There were instances when the Polish soldiers would purposely leave town, abandoning the Jews to the mercy (or lack thereof) of the Ukrainians. This happened, for example, in 1648 in the city of Tulchin. The Polish soldiers made a deal with the Cossacks and left town. The Jews defended the city by themselves until it fell and they were all slaughtered. Prior to October Revolution Tulchin was home a large Jewish population, and there were two trade fairs, July 24 and October 1 each year, and separate 26 market days annually. The current estimated population is around 13,500 (as of 2005).
- Stanisław Trembecki (1739–1812), Polish poet
- Włodzimierz Potocki (1789-1812), Polish Count, artillery colonel
- Mieczysław Potocki (1799-1878), Polish magnate, owner of estates in Tulczyn, one of the richest Poles in the 19th century
- Alexander Veltman (1800-1870), the Russian writer, was stationed here for some years (and met Pushkin here)
- Józef Wysocki (1809-1873), Polish military commander, general of Polish Army, participant of Polish National Uprisings and the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
- Marian Dziewicki (1872-1935), Polish lawyer, President of Wilno, local government activist
- Bronisław Matyjewicz-Maciejewicz (1882-1911), Polish aviator
- Mykola Leontovych (1877-1921), the Ukrainian composer (who composed the Carol of the Bells), lived here
- Sophie Tucker, Ukrainian-born American singer, comedian, actress, and radio personality
- "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich,(1880–1914) Tom (vol.) XII, pages 611-613.