Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary
|Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary|
|Santuario Nacional Manglares de Tumbes|
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
|Area||29.72 km2 (11.47 sq mi)|
Santuario Nacional Manglares de Tumbes (in Spanish)
|Official name||Santuario Nacional Los Manglares de Tumbes|
|Designated||20 January 1997|
This protected area is located in Zarumilla Province, Tumbes; close to the border with Ecuador. With an area of 29.72 square kilometres (11.47 sq mi), it harbors the largest mangrove forest in Peru.
Five species of mangrove dominate the area: black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), button mangrove (Conocarpus erectus) and two species of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora harrisonii). Seasonally dry forest and scrubland can also be found in some parts of the sanctuary; tree species representative of this ecosystem being: Pithecellobium excelsum, Cordia lutea, Mimosa acantholoba, Parkinsonia praecox, Ceiba trischistandra, Loxopterygium huasango, Bursera graveolens, Cochlospermum sp., Prosopis pallida, Capparis scabrida; and some seasonal herbaceous species also found here are: Aristida adscencionis, Bouteloua aristidoides, Stylosanthes sp., Crotalaria sp.,Tephrosia cinerea, Cyperus sp., Scirpus sp., Distichlis spicata, Antephora hermaphrodita, Paspalum racemosum, Ipomoea sp., Bidens pilosa, among others.
The sanctuary also protects 105 fish species, plus some other 40 migrant species.
Also, 33 snail species, 34 crustacean species, 24 bivalve species and 9 reptile species are found in the sanctuary.
It is possible to navigate, by kayak or canoe, the waterways inside the mangrove forest in the zone accessible to tourists (137,5 hectares = 4,61% of the sancturary). In this area activities like walking on beaches, birdwatching and observation of the use of the mangrove ecosystem by the locals are also permitted.
The clearance of mangrove forests and nearby seasonally dry forests to open land for shrimp farming and agriculture has an enormous impact on local ecosystems. Shrimp farms also capture and grow larva of local shrimp species from the mangrove forests with help of local inhabitants. These farms and agricultural lands also pollute the area with industrial waste and agricultural runoff.
Illegal extraction of edible crustaceans and bivalves; conflicts over land use rights with nearby villages and litter and wastewater discharge from nearby towns into the mangrove forest canals are also environmental issues affecting the sanctuary.
- "Los Manglares de Tumbes - Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado". www.sernanp.gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-05-02.
- "Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary - Park Profile - General information". www.parkswatch.org. Retrieved 2017-05-04.