tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) is a group of cytokine receptors characterized by the ability to bind tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) via an extracellular cysteine-rich domain. [2 ] With the exception of [3 ] nerve growth factor (NGF), all TNFs are homologous to the archetypal TNF-alpha. In their active form, the majority of TNF receptors form trimeric complexes in the plasma membrame. Accordingly, most TNF receptors contain [4 ] transmembrane domains (TMDs), although some can be cleaved into soluble forms (e.g. TNFR1), and some lack a TMD entirely (e.g. DcR3). In addition, most TNF receptors require specific adaptor protein such as TRADD, TRAF, RIP and FADD for downstream signalling. TNF receptors are primarily involved in apoptosis and inflammation, but they can also take part in other signal transduction pathways, such as proliferation, survival, and differentiation. TNF receptors are expressed in a wide variety of tissues in mammals, especially in leukocytes. [4 ]
death receptor refers to those members of the TNF receptor superfamily that contain a death domain, such as TNFR1, Fas receptor, DR4 and DR5. They were named after the fact that they seemed to play an important role in apoptosis (programmed cell death), although they are now known to play other roles as well. [4 ] [5 ]
In the strict sense, the term TNF receptor is often used to refer to the archetypal members of the superfamily, namely TNFR1 and
TNFR2, which recognize TNF-alpha.
Members [ edit ]
There are 27 family members, numerically classified as TNFRSF#, where # denotes the member number, sometimes followed a letter.
Protein (member #)
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (1A) CD120a
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (1B) CD120b
Lymphotoxin beta receptor (3) CD18
Lymphotoxin beta (TNF-C)
OX40 (4) CD134
CD40 (5) Bp50
Fas receptor (6) Apo-1, CD95
Decoy receptor 3 (6B) TR6, M68
CD27 (7) S152, Tp55
CD30 (8) Ki-1
4-1BB (9) CD137
Death receptor 4 (10A) TRAILR1, Apo-2, CD261
Death receptor 5 (10B) TRAILR2, CD262
Decoy receptor 1 (10C) TRAILR3, LIT, TRID, CD263
Decoy receptor 2 (10D) TRAILR4, TRUNDD, CD264
RANK (11A) CD265
Osteoprotegerin (11B) OCIF, TR1
TWEAK receptor (12A) Fn14, CD266
TACI (13B) IGAD2, CD267
APRIL, BAFF, CAMLG
BAFF receptor (13C) CD268
Herpesvirus entry mediator (14) ATAR, TR2, CD270
Nerve growth factor receptor (16) p75NTR, CD271
NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4
B-cell maturation antigen (17) TNFRSF13A, CD269
Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related (18) AITR, CD357
TROY (19) TAJ, TRADE
Death receptor 6 (21) CD358
Death receptor 3 (25) Apo-3, TRAMP, LARD, WS-1
Ectodysplasin A2 receptor (27) XEDAR
References [ edit ]
^ Banner DW, D'Arcy A, Janes W, et al. (May 1993). "Crystal structure of the soluble human 55 kd TNF receptor-human TNF beta complex: implications for TNF receptor activation". Cell 73 (3): 431–45. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90132-A. PMID 8387891.
^ a b Locksley RM, Killeen N, Lenardo MJ (2001). "The TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology". Cell 104 (4): 487–501. doi: 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00237-9. PMID 11239407.
^ Hehlgans T, Pfeffer K (2005). "The intriguing biology of the tumour necrosis factor/tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily: players, rules and the games". Immunology 115 (1): 1–20. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2005.02143.x. PMC 1782125. PMID 15819693.
^ a b c Gravestein, LA; Borst, J (December 1998). "Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members in the immune system.". Seminars in immunology 10 (6): 423–34. PMID 9826575.
^ Ashkenazi, A.; Dixit, VM (1998). "Death Receptors: Signaling and Modulation". Science 281 (5381): 1305–8. doi: 10.1126/science.281.5381.1305. PMID 9721089.
Further reading [ edit ]
External links [ edit ]