Tumor promotion

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Tumor promotion is a process in carcinogenesis by which various factors permit the descendants of a single initiated cell to survive and expand in number, i.e. to resist apoptosis and to undergo clonal growth. This is a step toward tumor progression.[1][2]

In order for a tumor cell to survive, it must decrease its expression of tumor suppressor genes such as p53, BRCA1, BRCA2, RB1, or the fas receptor.[3][4] A tumor suppressor would trigger an apoptotic pathway in a cancer cell if there were DNA damage, polyploidy, or uncontrolled cell growth.

Simultaneously, tumor cells need to upregulate oncogenes, which promote or cause downstream activation of growth factors and cell survival signals such as RAS,[5] Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, VEGF, or Akt.[6]

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  1. ^ Seth Rakoff-Nahoum (Dec 2006). "Why Cancer and Inflammation?". Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 79 (3–4): 123–130. PMC 1994795. PMID 17940622.
  2. ^ "NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms:Tumor promotion". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 10 Nov 2012.
  3. ^ "Tumor Suppressor Genes".
  4. ^ "Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Cancer" (PDF). American Cancer Society.
  5. ^ Cancer Genes: RAS
  6. ^ "Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Cancer" (PDF). American Cancer Society.