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{{Taxobox
 
| name = Tuna
 
| image = tuna.jpg
 
| image_width = 300px
 
| image_caption = [[Yellowfin tuna]], ''Thunnus albacares''
 
| regnum = [[Animal]]ia
 
| phylum = [[Chordate|Chordata]]
 
| classis = [[Actinopterygii]]
 
| ordo = [[Perciformes]]
 
| familia = [[Scombridae]]
 
| genus = '''''[[Thunnus]]'''''
 
| genus_authority = South, 1845
 
| subdivision_ranks = [[Species]]
 
| subdivision = See text.
 
|alt=Photo of three swimming fish
 
}}
 
'''Tuna''' are [[fish]] from the family [[Scombridae]], mostly in the genus ''[[Thunnus]]''. Tuna are fast swimmers—they have been clocked at {{convert|70|km/h|mph}}—and include several [[warm-blooded]] species. Unlike most fish, which have white flesh, tuna flesh is pink to dark red, which could explain their odd nick-name, "rose of the sea." The red coloring comes from tuna muscle tissue's greater quantities of [[myoglobin]], an [[oxygen]]-binding molecule. Some of the larger species, such as the [[bluefin tuna]], can raise their blood temperature above water temperature through muscular activity. This ability enables them to live in cooler waters and to survive in a wide range of ocean environments.
 
 
While many stocks are managed sustainably, it is widely accepted that bluefin have been severely [[overfishing|overfished]], with some stocks at risk of collapse.<ref>{{cite web
 
|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7040011.stm
 
|title=Last rites for a marine marvel?
 
|first=Richard |last=Black
 
|publisher=BBC News Online
 
|date=17 October 2007
 
|accessdate=2007-10-17
 
}}</ref> According to the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (a global, non-profit partnership between the tuna industry, scientists, and the [[World Wide Fund for Nature]]), Indian Ocean yellowfin tuna, Pacific Ocean (eastern & western) [[bigeye tuna]], and North Atlantic [[albacore]] tuna are all overfished. In April 2009 no stock of [[skipjack tuna]] (which makes up roughly 60 percent of all tuna fished worldwide) was considered to be overfished.<ref>{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.iss-foundation.org/files/e71afd66-086a-41c7-a71c-c2935687dcef/ISSF_A-2%20Summary%20(3).pdf
 
|title=Status of the World Fisheries for Tuna
 
|publisher=ISSF
 
|date= 10 November 09
 
|accessdate=2009-11-10
 
}}</ref>
 
 
== Taxonomy ==
 
 
[[Image:Tuna all sizes Pengo.svg|thumb|350px|Maximum reported sizes of tuna species|alt=Bar chart that states ''Thunnus thynnus'' is the largest tuna, at {{convert|458|cm|in}} followed by ''Thunnus orientalis'' at {{convert|300|cm|in}}, ''Thunnus obsesus'' at {{convert|250|cm|in}}, ''Gymnosarda unicolor'' at {{convert|248|cm|in}}, ''Thunnus maccoyii'' at {{convert|245|cm|in}}, ''Thunnus albacares'' at {{convert|239|cm|in}}, ''Gasterochisma melampus'' at {{convert|164|cm|in}}, ''Thunnus tonggol'' at {{convert|145|cm|in}}, ''Thunnus alalunga'' at {{convert|140|cm|in}}, ''Euthynnus alletteratus'' at {{convert|122|cm|in}}, ''Kanbcznmbazdmnbdfmbdmnmn.jgnbtsuwonus pelamis'' at {{convert|108|cm|in}}, ''Thunnus atlanticus'' at {{convert|108|cm|in}}, ''Allothunnus fallai'' at {{convert|105|cm|in}}, ''Euthynnus affinis'' at {{convert|100|cm|in}}, ''Auxis thazard thazard'' at {{convert|65|cm|in}},''Auxis rochei rochei'' at {{convert|50|cm|in}}, and ''Auxis rochei eudorax'' '' at {{convert|36.5|cm|in}}]]
 
 
There are over 48 different tuna species. The ''[[Thunnus]]'' genus includes 9 species:
 
* [[Albacore]], ''Thunnus alalunga'' <small>([[Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre|Bonnaterre]], 1788)</small>. {{convert|105|cm|in}}
 
* [[Yellowfin tuna]], ''Thunnus albacares'' <small>([[Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre|Bonnaterre]], 1788)</small>.
 
* [[Blackfin tuna]], ''Thunnus atlanticus'' <small>([[René-Primevère Lesson|Lesson]], 1831)</small>.
 
* [[Southern bluefin tuna]], ''Thunnus maccoyii'' <small>([[François Louis Nompar de Caumat de Laporte Castelnau|Castelnau]], 1872)</small>.
 
* [[Bigeye tuna]], ''Thunnus obesus'' <small>(Lowe, 1839)</small>.
 
* [[Pacific bluefin tuna]], ''Thunnus orientalis'' <small>([[Coenraad Jacob Temminck|Temminck]] & [[Hermann Schlegel|Schlegel]], 1844)</small>.
 
* [[Northern bluefin tuna]], ''Thunnus thynnus'' <small>([[Carolus Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], 1758)</small>.
 
* [[Longtail tuna]], ''Thunnus tonggol'' <small>([[Pieter Bleeker|Bleeker]], 1851)</small>.
 
* [[Karasick tuna]], ''Thunnus karasicus'' <small>([[René-Primevère Lesson|Lesson]], 1831)</small>.
 
Species of several other genera (all in the family [[Scombridae]]) have common names containing "tuna":
 
* [[Slender tuna]] ''Allothunnus fallai'' <small>(Serventy, 1948) </small>
 
* [[Bullet tuna]] ''Auxis rochei'' <small>(Risso, 1810)</small>
 
* [[Terriowipet tuna]] ''Auxis tongolis'' <small>([[Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre|Bonnaterre]], 1788)</small>.
 
* [[Frigate tuna]] ''Auxis thazard'' <small>(Lacepede, 1800)</small>
 
* [[Kawakawa (fish)|Kawakawa]] (little tuna or mackerel tuna) ''Euthynnus affinis'' <small>(Cantor, 1849)</small>
 
* [[Little tunny]] (little tuna) ''Euthynnus alletteratus'' <small>(Rafinesque, 1810)</small>
 
* [[Black skipjack tuna]] ''Euthynnus lineatus'' <small>(Kishinouye, 1920)</small>
 
* [[Dogtooth tuna]] ''Gymnosarda unicolor'' <small>([[Edward Rüppell|Rüppell]], 1836)</small>
 
* [[Skipjack tuna]] ''Katsuwonus pelamis'' <small>([[Carolus Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], 1758)</small>
 
* [[Lineside Tuna]], ''Thunnus lineaus'' <small>([[Coenraad Jacob Temminck|Temminck]] & [[Hermann Schlegel|Schlegel]], 1844)</small>.
 
 
== Biology ==
 
A remarkable aspect of ''Thunnus'' physiology is its ability to maintain body temperature above than that of the ambient seawater. For example, bluefin can maintain a core body temperature of 75-95°F (24-35°C), in water as cold as {{convert|43|F|C}}. However, unlike typical endothermic creatures such as mammals and birds, tuna do not maintain temperature within a relatively narrow range.<ref name=tbot>{{cite web
 
|url=http://science.jrank.org/pages/7020/Tuna-Biology-tuna.html
 
|title=Tuna - Biology Of Tuna
 
|accessdate=September 12, 2009
 
}}</ref>
 
 
Tuna achieve endothermy by conserving the heat generated through normal metabolism. The [[rete mirabile]] ("wonderful net"), the intertwining of veins and arteries in the body's periphery, transfers heat from [[venous blood]] to [[arterial blood]] via a [[counter-current exchange]] system. This reduces surface cooling, maintaining warmer muscles. This supports higher swimming speed with reduced energy expenditure.<ref name=tbot/>
 
 
== Commercial fishing ==
 
[[Image:TunaFish.JPG|thumb|right|Tuna being weighed on [[Greece|Greek]] quay-side|alt=Photo of larger than human-sized fish lying on a dock with fishermen in background]]
 
[[Image:Tuna maguro Yukinobu Shibata.JPG|thumb|right|Tuna fishing in [[Hokkaidō]], [[Japan]]|alt=Photo of large tuna being landed on fishing boat]]
 
[[Image:Tsukiji Fish market and Tuna.JPG|thumb|right|Tuna at a fish market|alt=Photo of multiple rows of tuna]]
 
[[Image:Tuna cut half japan.jpg|thumb|right|Tuna cut in half for processing at the [[Tsukiji fish market]] in [[Tokyo, Japan]]|alt=Photo of split tuna resting on cutting machine]]
 
Tuna is an important [[commercial fishing|commercial fish]]. The International Seafood Sustainability Foundation compiled a detailed scientific report on the state of global tuna stocks in 2009, which includes regular updates. According to the report, 'Tunas are widely but sparsely distributed throughout the oceans of the world, generally in tropical
 
and temperate waters between about 45 degrees north and south of the equator. They are
 
grouped taxonomically in the family Scombridae, which includes about 50 species. The most
 
important of these for commercial and recreational fisheries are yellowfin (Thunnus albacares),
 
bigeye (T. obesus), bluefin (T. thynnus, T. orientalis, and T. macoyii), albacore (T. alalunga), and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis).<ref name="ISSF">{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.iss-foundation.org/files/b45a4eb2-f9d7-4ed6-87a1-2efe2519baf6/ISSF_A-1%20Introduction.pdf
 
|title=Status of the World Fisheries for Tuna
 
|publisher=ISSF
 
|date= 10 November 09
 
|accessdate=2009-11-10
 
}}</ref>
 
 
The report further states:
 
:Between 1940 and the mid-1960s, the annual world catch of the five principal market species of tunas rose from about 300 thousand tons to about 1 million tons, most of it taken by hook and line. With the development of purse-seine nets, now the predominant gear, catches have risen to more than 4 million tons annually during the last few years. Of these catches, about 68 percent are from the Pacific Ocean, 22 percent from the Indian Ocean, and the remaining 10 percent from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Skipjack makes up about 60 percent of the catch, followed by yellowfin (24 percent), bigeye (10 percent), albacore (5 percent), and bluefin the remainder. Purse-seines take about 62 percent of the world production, longline about 14 percent, pole and line about 11 percent, and a variety of other gears the remainder 3.<ref name="ISSF"/>
 
The Australian government alleged in 2006 that [[Japan]] had illegally overfished southern bluefin by taking 12,000 to 20,000 tonnes per year instead of the their agreed 6,000 tonnes; the value of such overfishing would be as much as USD $2 billion.<ref>[http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200610/s1765413.htm Bradford, Gillian. "Bluefin Tuna Plundering Catches Up With Japan."] ABC News. October 16, 2006.</ref> Such overfishing has severely damaged bluefin stocks.<ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/28/AR2009112801066.html Eilperin, Juliet. "Saving the Riches of the Sea."] ''Washington Post.'' November 29, 2009.</ref> According to the [[World Wide Fund for Nature|WWF]], "Japan's huge appetite for tuna will take the most sought-after stocks to the brink of commercial extinction unless fisheries agree on more rigid quotas".<ref>{{cite web
 
|http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/jan/22/japan.conservationandendangeredspecies
 
|title=Japan warned tuna stocks face extinction
 
|first=Justin |last=McCurry
 
|publisher=guardian.co.uk
 
|date=Monday January 22, 2007
 
|accessdate=2008-04-02
 
}}</ref>
 
 
In 2010, a bluefin tuna weighing 232 kilograms (511.47 pounds) was sold at Tokyo's [[Tsukiji fish market]] for 16.28 million yen ($US 175,000).<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8440758.stm Tuna hits highest price in nine years at Tokyo auction] ''BBC News'', 5 January 2010.</ref>
 
 
=== Fishing methods ===
 
* Andalusian method of ''[[Almadraba]]'', uses a maze of nets. In Sicily the same method is called ''[[Tonnara]]''.
 
* [[Fish_farming#Cage_system|Fish farming (Cage system)]]<ref name=doolette/>
 
* [[Longline fishing]]
 
* [[Seine fishing#Purse seine|Purse seine]]s
 
* Pole and line
 
* [[Harpoon gun]]
 
* [[Big game fishing]]
 
* [[Fish aggregating device]]
 
 
=== Association with whaling ===
 
In 2005 [[Nauru]], defending its vote at that year's meeting of the [[International Whaling Commission]], argued that [[commercial whaling]] is necessary for preserving tuna stocks and that country's fishing fleet.<ref>http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200506/s1402449.htm</ref>
 
 
=== Association with dolphins ===
 
[[Dolphin]]s swim beside several tuna species. These include [[yellowfin tuna]] in the eastern Pacific Ocean, but not [[albacore]]. Tuna schools are believed to associate themselves with dolphins for protection against sharks, which are tuna [[predator]]s.<ref>[http://journalism.berkeley.edu/projects/border/ensenada.html ENSENADA: El Puerto del Atun<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
 
Fishing vessels exploit this association by searching for dolphin pods. They encircle the pod with nets to catch the tuna beneath.<ref>[http://www.wdcs.org/dan/publishing.nsf/allweb/ADED9F368A73DC3280256E1B003F367C]</ref> The nets are prone to entangling dolphins, injuring or killing them. Public outcry has led to more "dolphin friendly" methods, now generally involving lines rather than nets. However, there are neither universal independent inspection programs nor verification of "dolphin safeness", so these protections are not absolute. According to [[Consumers Union]], the resulting lack of accountability means claims that tuna that is "[[dolphin safe label|dolphin safe]]" should be given little credence.
 
 
Fishery practices have changed to be dolphin friendly, which has caused greater [[bycatch]] including [[shark]]s, [[turtle]]s and other oceanic fish. Fishermen no longer follow dolphins, but concentrate their fisheries around floating objects such as [[fish aggregation device]]s that attract large populations of other organisms. The public demand to protect dolphins which are not particularly endangered actually damages endangered species.<ref>http://southernfriedscience.com/2009/02/16/the-ecological-disaster-that-is-dolphin-safe-tuna/</ref>
 
 
==Recreational fishing==
 
From the 1950s through the 1970s, bluefin were abundant in the waters of [[Cuba]], [[Bimini]] and Cat Cay, a few miles off the [[Florida]] coast, and were targeted by recreational fishermen, famously [[Ernest Hemingway]] and [[Habana Joe]] aboard his 1938 40-foot Wheeler named ''Pilar''. Word spread quickly about the exciting new sport of [[big-game fishing]]. Despite the growing popularity of the sport, however, the boats of the day were hardly ideal for fighting the prized fish. Most boats used at the time were converted cabin cruisers, which were relatively slow and hard to maneuver.
 
 
The Rybovich family of South Florida eventually constructed a boat in 1946 that relaunched the sport and birthed a new industry. This boat, the [[Miss Chevy II]], was the first sportfishing boat the world had ever seen.<ref>http://www.rybovich.com/RyboHistory.aspx</ref>
 
 
Merritt gained particular notoriety during the 1950s through the 1970s with its 37- and 43-foot custom boats, which together with boats like those being built by Rybovich helped fuel the growth of big game fishing around the world.
 
 
== Management and conservation ==
 
There are five main tuna fishery management bodies: the [[Western Central Pacific Ocean Fisheries Commission]], the [[Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission]], the [[Indian Ocean Tuna Commission]], the [[International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas]] and the [[Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna]].<ref>{{cite web
 
| title = WWF demands tuna monitoring system
 
| url = http://www.theage.com.au/news/World/WWF-demands-tuna-monitoring-system/2007/01/19/1169095972203.html
 
| date = 2007-01-19
 
| accessdate = 2008-05-19
 
}}</ref> The five gathered for the first time in [[Kobe]], [[Japan]] in January 2007. Environmental organizations made submissions<ref>{{cite web
 
| url = http://oceans.greenpeace.org/en/documents-reports/rfmo-kobe
 
| title = Briefing: Joint Tuna RFMO Meeting, Kobe 2007
 
| date = 2007-01-23
 
| accessdate = 2008-05-19
 
}}</ref> on risks to fisheries and species. The meeting concluded with an action plan drafted by some 60 countries or areas. Concrete steps include issuing certificates of origin to prevent illegal fishing and greater transparency in the setting of regional fishing quotas. The delegates are scheduled to meet at another joint meeting in January or February 2009 in Europe.<ref>{{cite web
 
| url = http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200701/s1834563.htm
 
| title = Conference approves global plan to save tuna stocks
 
| date = 2007-01-26
 
| accessdate = 2008-05-10
 
}}</ref>
 
 
In 2010, [[Greenpeace]] International has added the [[albacore]], [[bigeye tuna]], [[blackfin tuna]], [[pacific bluefin tuna]], [[northern bluefin tuna]], [[southern bluefin tuna]] and the [[yellowfin tuna]] to its seafood red list. "The Greenpeace International seafood red list is a list of fish that are commonly sold in supermarkets around the world, and which have a very high risk of being sourced from unsustainable fisheries."<ref>[http://www.greenpeace.org/international/seafood/red-list-of-species Greenpeace International Seafood Red list]</ref>
 
 
==Aquaculture==
 
Increasing quantities of high-grade tuna are reared in net pens and fed bait fish. In Australia, former fishermen raise [[southern bluefin tuna]], ''Thunnus maccoyii'', and another bluefin species.<ref name=doolette>{{cite journal |author=Doolette, DJ and Craig, D
 
|title=Tuna farm diving in South Australia. |journal=South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal
 
|volume=29
 
|issue=2
 
|year=1999
 
|issn=0813-1988
 
|oclc=16986801
 
|url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/6006
 
|accessdate=2008-08-17 }}</ref> Farming its close relative, the [[northern bluefin tuna]], ''Thunnus thynnus'', is beginning in the [[Mediterranean]], [[North America]] and Japan. [[Hawaii|Hawai{{okina}}i]] just approved permits for the first U.S. offshore farming of [[bigeye tuna]] in water {{convert|1300|ft|m}} deep.<ref>
 
{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5iIg_1XadMxI68UaNlH2WUHf0F18QD9BH6M880
 
|title=Hawaii regulators approve first US tuna farm‎
 
|publisher=''[[The Associated Press]]''
 
|date=October 24, 2009
 
|accessdate=October 28, 2009
 
}}</ref>
 
 
Japan is the biggest tuna consuming nation and is also the leader in tuna farming research.<ref>
 
{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.livescience.com/animals/080317-sl-tuna-farming.html
 
|title=[[Kinki University]]
 
}}</ref> Japan first successfully farm-hatched and raised bluefin tuna in 1979. In 2002, it succeeded in completing the reproduction cycle and in 2007, completed a third generation.<ref>
 
{{Cite news |url=http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2006/09/30/2003329854 |title=The holy grail of fish breeding
 
}}</ref><ref>http://www.flku.jp/english/aquaculture/index.html</ref><ref>http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/05/21/FDI910LR9P.DTL&type=printable</ref> The farm breed is known as Kindai tuna. Kindai is the contraction of Kinki University in Japanese (Kinki daigaku).<ref>http://nymag.com/restaurants/features/46633/</ref> In 2009, Clean Seas, an Australian company which has been receiving assistance from Kinki University <ref>http://www.fnarena.com/index2.cfm?type=dsp_newsitem&n=4213142B-1871-E587-E13DAA02FD0A4316</ref><ref>http://www.abc.net.au/cgi-bin/common/printfriendly.pl?http://www.abc.net.au/stateline/sa/content/2005/s1509579.htm</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.news.com.au/adelaidenow/story/0,22606,24389186-913,00.html|title=Clean Seas teams up with Japan's Kinki Uni for tuna research}}</ref> managed to breed Southern Bluefin Tuna in captivity and was awarded the second place in World’s Best Invention of 2009 by Time magazine.<ref>http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1934027_1934003_1933946,00.html][http://www.thinkingaustralia.com/news/brief_view.asp?id=1525</ref>
 
 
== Canned tuna ==
 
[[File:Canned and packaged tuna on supermarket shelves.jpg|thumb|right|Canned tuna on sale at an American supermarket|alt=Photo of grocery shelves]]
 
[[Image:tuna steak.JPG|thumb|right|Tuna steak served in a French bistro|alt=Photo of plate containing grilled tuna and leafy vegetables]]
 
[[Canning|Canned]] tuna was first produced in 1903, quickly becoming popular.<ref name=Choice2004>[[Choice magazine|Choice]]: Jan/Feb 2004.</ref> Tuna is canned in edible [[oil]]s, in [[brine]], or spring water.
 
 
In the United States, only Albacore can legally be sold in canned form as "white meat tuna";<ref>Ellis, Richard. ''Tuna: A Love Story.'' New York: Random House, 2009, p. 119. ISBN 0307387100</ref> in other countries, yellowfin is also acceptable.{{Citation needed|date=October 2007}} While in the early 1980s canned tuna in Australia was most likely [[Southern bluefin tuna|Southern bluefin]], {{As of|2003|lc=on}} it is usually yellowfin, skipjack, or tongol (labelled "northern bluefin").<ref name=Choice2004 />
 
 
As tuna are often caught far from where they are processed, poor quality control leads to spoilage. Tuna are typically eviscerated by hand, then pre-cooked for 45 minutes to three hours. The fish are then cleaned and [[Fillet (cut)|filleted]], canned, and sealed. The sealed can itself is then heated (called retort cooking) for 2 to 4 hours.<ref>{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.dol.gov/esa/whd/AS/sec3.htm
 
|title=The tuna processing industry
 
|publisher=US Dept. of Labor
 
|accessdate=15 October 2007
 
}}</ref> This process kills any bacteria, but retains the [[histamine]] that can produce rancid flavors. The international standard sets the maximum histamine level at 200 milligrams per kilogram. An Australian study of 53 varieties of unflavored canned tuna found none to exceed the safe histamine level, although some had "off" flavors.<ref name=Choice2004 />
 
 
Australian standards once required cans of tuna to contain at least 51% tuna, but these regulations were dropped in 2003.<ref name=Choice2003>[[Choice magazine|Choice]], August 2003.</ref><ref>http://www.choice.com.au/viewArticle.aspx?id=104101&catId=100406&tid=100008&p=2&title=Test:+Canned+tuna+(archived)</ref> The remaining weight is usually oil or water. In the [[United States|US]], the [[Food and Drug Administration|FDA]] regulates canned tuna (see part ''c'').<ref>http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=161.190</ref> In 2008, some tuna cans changed from {{convert|6|oz|g}} to 5oz due to "higher tuna costs".<ref>http://foodimportgroup.blogspot.com/2008_05_01_archive.html</ref>
 
 
==Nutrition and health==
 
Canned tuna is a prominent component in many [[weight training|weight trainers]]' diets, as it is very high in [[protein]] and is easily prepared.
 
 
Tuna is an [[oily fish]], and therefore contains a high amount of Vitamin D. A can of tuna in oil contains about the ''Adequate Intake'' (AI) of the US [[Dietary Reference Intake]] of [[vitamin D]] for infants, children, men, and women aged 19–50 - 200 [[International unit|IU]].
 
 
Canned tuna can also be a good source of [[omega-3 fatty acids]]. It sometimes contains over {{convert|300|mg|oz}} per serving.<ref>{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.omega-3centre.com/sources_long_chain.html |title=Omega-3 Centre
 
|accessdate=2008-07-27
 
|work=Omega-3 sources
 
|publisher=Omega-3 Centre
 
}}</ref>
 
 
====Mercury levels====
 
{{See also|Mercury in fish}}
 
 
Mercury content in tuna can vary widely. For instance, testing by Rutgers University found that a can of StarKist had 10 times more mercury than another can of exactly the same kind of tuna. This has prompted a Rutgers University scientist whose staff conducted the mercury analysis to say, "That's one of the reasons pregnant women have to be really careful ... If you happen to get a couple or three cans in the high range at a critical period when you are pregnant, it would not be good." Among those calling for improved warnings about mercury in tuna is the [[American Medical Association]], which adopted a policy that physicians should help make their patients more aware of the potential risks.<ref>http://www.chicagotribune.com/features/health/chi-0512130114dec13,0,4864620,full.story</ref>
 
 
A website called mercuryfacts.org which is run by an industry-sponsored group called the Center for Consumer Freedom which doesn't release the name of its contributers claims the health risks of methylmercury in tuna might be dampened by the [[selenium]] found in tuna,<ref>{{cite web
 
| title = Selenium: Mercury's Magnet
 
| url = http://www.mercuryfacts.org/fselenium.cfm
 
| accessdate = 2009-07-03
 
}}</ref> although the mechanism and effect of this still is largely unknown.<ref>{{cite journal
 
|journal= Tohoku J Exp Med
 
|year=2002
 
|volume=196
 
|issue=2
 
|pages=71–7
 
|title= Modification of mercury toxicity by selenium: practical importance?
 
|author= Watanabe C
 
|doi=10.1620/tjem.196.71
 
|pmid=12498318
 
|url=http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/196/2/71/_pdf
 
|format=PDF
 
}}</ref>
 
 
Due to their high position in the food chain and the subsequent [[biomagnification|accumulation]] of [[heavy metals]] from their diet, [[Mercury (element)|mercury]] levels can be high in larger species such as bluefin and [[albacore]].
 
 
In 2009 a California appeals court upheld a ruling that canned tuna does not need warning labels as the [[methylmercury]] is ''naturally occurring''.<ref>{{cite web
 
| title = California Court of Appeals Ruling
 
| url = http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/A116792.PDF
 
| date = 2009-03
 
| accessdate = 2009-03-25
 
}}</ref>
 
 
In March 2004 the [[United States]] [[Food and Drug Administration|FDA]] issued guidelines recommending that pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children limit their intake of tuna and other predatory fish.<ref>{{cite web
 
| title = What You Need to Know About Mercury in Fish and Shellfish
 
| url = http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/admehg3.html
 
| date = 2004-03
 
| accessdate = 2007-05-19
 
}}</ref>
 
 
The [[Chicago Tribune]] reported that some canned light tuna such as [[yellowfin tuna]]<ref>{{cite web
 
|title=FDA to check tuna
 
|url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-0512310211dec31,1,2450043.story
 
|accessdate=2007-06-21
 
}}</ref> is significantly higher in mercury than skipjack, and caused [[Consumers Union]] and other activist groups to advise pregnant women to refrain from consuming canned tuna.<ref>{{cite web
 
| title = Mercury in tuna
 
| url = http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/food/tuna-safety/overview/0607_tuna_ov.htm
 
| date = 2006-06
 
| accessdate = 2007-05-19
 
}}</ref> This was considered extreme and thus not adopted by leading scientific and governing bodies.
 
 
The [[Eastern little tuna]] (''[[Euthynnus affinis]]'') has been available for decades as a low-mercury, less expensive canned tuna. However, of the five major species of canned tuna imported by the United States it is the least commercially attractive, primarily due to its dark color and more pronounced 'fishy' flavor. Its use has traditionally been restricted to institutional (non-retail) commerce.
 
 
A January 2008 investigation conducted by the New York Times found potentially dangerous levels of [[mercury (element)|mercury]] in certain varieties of sushi tuna, reporting levels "so high that the Food and Drug Administration could take legal action to remove the fish from the market."<ref>{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/23/dining/23sushi.html?ref=nyregion
 
|title=High Mercury Levels Are Found in Tuna Sushi
 
|publisher=New York Times
 
|date=January 23, 2008
 
|accessdate=September 11, 2009
 
}}</ref>
 
 
== Footnotes ==
 
{{reflist|2}}
 
 
==References==
 
{{cookbook}}
 
* Clover, Charles. 2004. ''The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat''. Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7
 
* [[FAO]]: Species Catalog Vol. 2 Scombrids of the World. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 2. FIR/S125 Vol. 2.ISBN 92-5-101381-0
 
* [[FAO]]: Review of the state of world marine fishery resources: [http://firms.fao.org/firms/resource/16001/en Tuna and tuna-like species - Global, 2005] Rome.
 
* [http://www.tunafacts.com/healthbenefits/index.html Nutritional benefits of tuna]
 
* [http://cannedalbacoretuna.com/canned_albacore_tuna_health_information.html Health and nutrition information for small West Coast Albacore Tuna]
 
* [http://www.watanabeblade.com/english/custom.htm The slide show - How to cut Maguro (tuna)]
 
* [http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/FCF161.html U.S. Code of Federal Regulations 21CFR161 Fish and Shellfish]
 
* [[Nauru]] and sustainable tuna fishing:[http://www.un.int/nauru/pressreleases.html#062905]
 
*[http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/25/nyregion/25nyc.html?ref=nyregion nytimes.com, Tuna Fish Stories: The Candidates Spin the Sushi]
 
*[http://www.stanford.edu/group/microdocs/ Microdocs]: [http://www.stanford.edu/group/microdocs/sucks.html Tuna]
 
* [http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=bluefin-tuna-in-peril&print=true The Bluefin Tuna in Peril], Scientific American, June 24, 2008
 
* [http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=104543&org=NSF&from=news How Hot Tuna (and Some Sharks) Stay Warm] National Science Foundation, October 27, 2005
 
 
{{commercial fish topics}}
 
 
[[Category:Aquaculture]]
 
[[Category:Commercial fish]]
 
[[Category:Edible fish]]
 
[[Category:Oily fish]]
 
[[Category:Sport fish]]
 
[[Category:Scombridae]]
 
 
[[af:Tuna]]
 
[[ar:تونة (طعام)]]
 
[[ca:Tonyina]]
 
[[da:Tunfisk]]
 
[[de:Thunfische]]
 
[[es:Thunnus]]
 
[[eo:Tinuso]]
 
[[fr:Thon]]
 
[[ko:다랑어]]
 
[[io:Atuno]]
 
[[id:Tuna]]
 
[[is:Túnfiskur]]
 
[[it:Thunnus]]
 
[[he:טונה]]
 
[[ht:Ton]]
 
[[lt:Paprastieji tunai]]
 
[[nl:Tonijn]]
 
[[ja:ツナ]]
 
[[pl:Tuńczyki]]
 
[[pt:Atum]]
 
[[qu:Atun challwa]]
 
[[ru:Тунцы]]
 
[[scn:Tunnu]]
 
[[simple:Tuna]]
 
[[fi:Tonnikalat]]
 
[[sv:Tonfisk]]
 
[[th:ปลาทูน่า]]
 
[[tr:Orkinos]]
 
[[vi:Cá ngừ đại dương]]
 
[[zh-yue:吞拿魚]]
 
[[zh:鮪魚]]
 

Revision as of 18:09, 29 March 2010

Well all you really need to know about tunafish is that they're gay.