3D model (Jmol)
|Molar mass||231.84 g/mol|
|Appearance||Canary yellow powder|
|Melting point||1,473 °C (2,683 °F; 1,746 K)|
|Boiling point||1,700 °C (3,090 °F; 1,970 K) approximation|
|Solubility||slightly soluble in HF|
|Monoclinic, mP32, Space group P121/c1, No 14|
Trigonal planar (O2– )
|Safety data sheet||External MSDS|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Tungsten(VI) oxide, also known as tungsten trioxide or tungstic anhydride, WO3, is a chemical compound containing oxygen and the transition metal tungsten. It is obtained as an intermediate in the recovery of tungsten from its minerals. Tungsten ores are treated with alkalis to produce WO3. Further reaction with carbon or hydrogen gas reduces tungsten trioxide to the pure metal.
- 2 WO3 + 3 C → 2 W + 3 CO2 (high temperature)
- WO3 + 3 H2 → W + 3 H2O (550 - 850 °C)
Tungsten(VI) oxide occurs naturally in the form of hydrates, which include minerals: tungstite WO3·H2O, meymacite WO3·2H2O and hydrotungstite (of the same composition as meymacite, however sometimes written as H2WO4). These minerals are rare to very rare secondary tungsten minerals.
Tungsten has a rich history dating back to its discovery during the 18th century. Peter Woulfe was the first to recognize a new element in the naturally occurring mineral wolframite. Tungsten was originally known as wolfram, explaining the choice of "W" for its elemental symbol. Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele contributed to its discovery with his studies on the mineral scheelite.
In 1841, a chemist named Robert Oxland gave the first procedures for preparing tungsten trioxide and sodium tungstate. He was granted patents for his work soon after, and is considered to be the founder of systematic tungsten chemistry.
- CaWO4 + 2 HCl → CaCl2 + H2WO4
- H2WO4 → H2O + WO3
- (NH4)10[H2W12O42]•4H2O → 12 WO3 + 10 NH3 + 10 H2O
The crystal structure of tungsten trioxide is temperature dependent. It is tetragonal at temperatures above 740 °C, orthorhombic from 330 to 740 °C, monoclinic from 17 to 330 °C, and triclinic from -50 to 17 °C. The most common structure of WO3 is monoclinic with space group P21/n.
Tungsten trioxide is used for many purposes in everyday life. It is frequently used in industry to manufacture tungstates for x-ray screen phosphors, for fireproofing fabrics and in gas sensors. Due to its rich yellow color, WO3 is also used as a pigment in ceramics and paints.
In recent years, tungsten trioxide has been employed in the production of electrochromic windows, or smart windows. These windows are electrically switchable glass that change light transmission properties with an applied voltage. This allows the user to tint their windows, changing the amount of heat or light passing through.
In 2013, highly photocatalytic active titania/tungsten (VI) oxide/noble metal (Au and Pt) composites toward oxalic acid were obtained by the means of selective noble metal photodeposition on the desired oxide's surface (either on TiO2 or on WO3). The composite showed a modest hydrogen production performance.
In 2016, shape controlled tungsten trioxide semiconductors were obtained by the means of hydrothermal synthesis. From these semiconductors composite systems were prepared with commercial TiO2. These composite systems showed a higher photocatalysis activity then the commercial TiO2 (Evonik Aeroxide P25) towards phenol and methyl orange degradation.
- Patnaik, Pradyot (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemical Compounds. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-049439-8. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- Lassner, Erik and Wolf-Dieter Schubert (1999). Tungsten: Properties, Chemistry, Technology of the Element, Alloys, and Chemical Compounds. New York: Kluwer Academic. ISBN 0-306-45053-4.
- "Tungsten trioxide." The Merck Index Vol 14, 2006.
- David E Williams et al, "Modelling the response of a tungsten oxide semiconductor as a gas sensor for the measurement of ozone", Meas. Sci. Technol. 13 923, doi:10.1088/0957-0233/13/6/314
- Lee, W. J.; Fang, Y. K.; Ho, Jyh-Jier; Hsieh, W. T.; Ting, S. F.; Huang, Daoyang; Ho, Fang C. (2000). "Effects of surface porosity on tungsten trioxide(WO3) films' electrochromic performance". Journal of Electronic Materials. 29 (2): 183–187. doi:10.1007/s11664-000-0139-8.
- K.J. Patel et al., All-Solid-Thin Film Electrochromic Devices Consisting of Layers ITO / NiO / ZrO2 / WO3 / ITO, J. Nano-Electron. Phys. 5 No 2, 02023 (2013)
- Development of a high-performance photocatalyst that is surface-treated with cesium
- "The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/WO3/noble metal (Au or Pt) nanoarchitectures obtained by selective photodeposition". Catalysis Today. 208: 19–27. doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2012.09.038.
- Székely, I., et al. Synthesis of shape-tailored WO3 micro-/nanocrystals and the photocatalytic activity of WO3/TiO2 composites (2016) Materials, 9 (4).
- Baia, L., et al. Preparation of TiO2/WO3 composite photocatalysts by the adjustment of the semiconductors' surface charge (2016) Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 42, pp. 66-71