Tungusic peoples

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1612 map showing Tungusic land, by Isaac Massa

Tungusic peoples an indigenous people in Northeast Asia and Siberia who speak Tungusic languages. Today they mostly inhabit Eastern Siberia and Manchuria.

During the 17th century, the Tsardom of Russia was expanding east across Siberia, and into Tungusic-speaking lands, ending with the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk. The first published description of a Tungusic people to reach beyond Russia into the rest of Europe was by the Dutch traveler Isaac Massa in 1612. He passed along information from Russian reports after his stay in Moscow.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The word Tungus derives from "Donki", which means "men" in Tungusic languages. Some scholars think it was derived from the Chinese word Donghu (東胡, "Eastern Barbarians", cf. Tonggu 通古 = Tungusic).[2] This "chance similarity in modern pronunciation led to the once widely held assumption that the Eastern Hu were Tungusic in language. However, there is little basis for this theory."[3]

The word Tunguska, a region of eastern Siberia bounded on the west by the Tunguska rivers and on the east by the Pacific Ocean has its origin from the Tungusic people.[4]

Origin and homeland[edit]

It is generally suggested that the homeland of the Tungusic people is in northeastern Manchuria, somewhere near the Amur River region.[5]

Genetics[edit]

The Tungusic people are closely related to other Northern Asian populations and to the Mongols. Their main Y-DNA haplogroup is Haplogroup C-M217, with a small amount of Haplogroup N-M231. However, the modern Manchu people show relatively high amounts of Haplogroup O2, which is common among Chinese and Koreans, and Haplogroup O1b2, which is common among Japanese and Koreans.

According to a study of Tungusic Evenks, Evens, and Udeges in Russia published in 2013, their main mtDNA haplogroups are :

Haplogroup Pop. % Notes
Haplogroup C 55/283 19.43%
C4b 54/283 19.08%
C4a 11/283 3.89%
C5 121/283 42.76%
Haplogroup D 18/283 6.36%
D4l2 12/283 4.24%
D5a2a2 10/283 3.53%
D4e4a 8/283 2.83%
D3 8/283 2.83%
D4o2 5/283 1.77%
D4i2 5/283 1.77%
D4j 3/283 1.06%
D4m2 69/283 24.38%
Haplogroup Z 12/283 4.24% Z1a
(xZ1a1, Z1a2) 9/283 3.18%
Z1a2 4/283 1.41%
Z1a1 25/283 8.83%
Haplogroup A 7/283 2.47% A4
(xA2a, A2b1, A8, A12a) 2/283 0.71%
A12a 2/283 0.71%
A2a 11/283 3.89%
Haplogroup N9 10/283 3.53% N9b (observed only in the sample of Udege)
Haplogroup G 9/283 3.18%
G1b 1/283 0.35%
G2a1 10/283 3.53%
Haplogroup Y 8/283 2.83% Y1a
Haplogroup M7 6/283 2.12%
M7a2a 2/283 0.71%
M7c1d 8/283 2.83%
Haplogroup F 6/283 2.12% F1b1

The data seems to reflect genetic connections with peoples living around the Sea of Okhotsk (Koryaks, Nivkhs, Ainus, etc.) on the one hand and peoples living in Central Asia (Turks, Mongols) on the other.[6]

Distribution[edit]

Tunguska rivers, forming the western boundary

The largest group of Tungusic peoples are the Manchu, who in the 21st century number around 10 million. They are originally from Manchuria, which is now Northeast China and Russian Far East. Following their conquest of China in the 17th century, they have been almost totally assimilated into the main ethnic Han population of China. This process, known as Sinicization of the Manchus, accelerated especially during the 20th century. The Xibe people are a Manchu subgroup.

The Evenks live in the Evenk Autonomous Okrug of Russia. The Udege (Удэгейцы' in Russian; ethnonym: удээ and удэхе, or udee and udehe correspondingly) are a people who live in the Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai regions, also in Russia.

Several theories suggest that the Pannonian Avars of the Avar Khaganate in Central-, East- and Southeast-Europe were of Tungusic origin or of partially Tungusic origin (ruler class).[7]

The ancient Koshibito and Saeki tribes in Japan during the Jōmon period are believed to be of Tungusic origin.[8]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Distribution of the Tungusic languages
  • means the ethnic group is mainly distributed in China.
  • means the ethnic group is mainly distributed both in China and Russia.
  • means the ethnic group is mainly distributed in Russia.

Tungusic peoples are:

English Chinese / Russian self designation Region Population Notes
Manchu 满族(满洲)/Маньчжуры ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠMöllendorff:manju, abkai:manju) Liaoning Pro., Jilin Pro., Heilongjiang Pro., Inner Mongolia A.R., Hebei Pro., Beijing etc., People's Republic of China[9]  China: 10,410,585 (2010)[9]  Taiwan: 12000[10]

 Hong Kong: 1000[11]
 USA: 379 (2000)[12]

Oroqen 鄂伦春族/Орочоны Orocen A.B., Hulun buir city etc., Inner Mongolia A.R., People's Republic of China  China: 8,659 (2010)[13]
Xibe 锡伯族/Сибо ᠰᡞᠪᡝTransliterations:sibe) Qapqal Xibe A.C., Ili Kazakh A.P. etc., Xinjiang Uyghur A.R., Liaoning Pro., People's Republic of China  China: 190,481 (2010)[13] also have settlement in Khorgas, Tarbagatai, Ürümqi , beyond 1000 in Jilin Pro., Heilongjiang Pro., Inner Mongolia A.R., Beijing, People's Republic of China.
Evenki (Solons included) 鄂温克族、埃文基人/Эвенки Эвэнкил Ergun City, Arun Banner, Old Barag Banner, Oroqen A.B., Morin Dawa Daur A.B. etc., Inner Mongolia A.R.; Nehe City, Heilongjiang Pro., People's Republic of China.

Sakhalin Oblast. Khabarovsk Krai, Amur Oblast, Buryatia Rep., Zabaykalsky Krai, Evenk Autonomous Okrug (Evenkia), Sakha (Yakutia) Rep., Irkutsk Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Tomsk Oblast, Tyumen Oblast, Russian Federation.
Selenge Pro., Mongolia

 Russia: 38,396 (2012)[14]

 China: 30,875 (2010)[15]

 Mongolia: 537 (2015)[16]

 Ukraine:48 (2001)[17]

Nanai, Hezhen, Golds, Samagir 赫哲族、那乃人、纳奈人/нанайцы na nio, na bəi, na nai, ki lən, χə d͡ʑən Jiejinkou, Bacha, Jiamusi City; Sipai, Shuangyashan City etc., Heilongjiang Pro., People's Republic of China.

Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, Russian Federation

 Russia: 12,160 (2002)[18]

 China: 5,354 (2010)[19]

Evens 埃文人/эвены эвэсэл Chukotka A.O.,[20] Kamchatka Krai, Magadan Oblast, Russian Federation  Russia: 22,383 (2012)[14]  Ukraine: 104 (2001)[21]
Negidals 涅吉达尔人/негидальцы элькан бэйэнин Khabarovsk Krai, Russian Federation  Russia: 513 (2012)[22]  Ukraine: 52 (2001)[23]
Uilta, Orok 乌尔他人、鄂罗克人/Ороки Uilta, Orok, Ul'ta, Ulcha, Nani Nogliksky District, Poronaysky District, Sakhalin Oblast, Russian Federation.

Abashiri City, Sapporo City, Hokkaido, Japan

 Russia: 295 (2012)[24]  Japan: 20 (1989)
Ulch 乌尔奇人/Ульчи нани Ulchsky District, Khabarovsk Krai, Russian Federation  Russia: 2,765 (2012)[22]  Ukraine: 76
Oroch 奥罗奇人/О́рочи Nani Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Oblast, Magadan Oblast, Russian Federation  Russia: 596 (2010)[22]  Ukraine: 288 (2001)
Udege 乌德赫人/Удэгейцы удээ, удэхе, Udihe, Udekhe, Udeghe Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, Russian Federation  Russia: 1,496 (2010)[22]  Ukraine: 42 (2001)[25]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 4. By Donald F. Lach
  2. ^ [2] The Collected Works of M.A. Czap Marie Antoinette Czaplicka, p. 88
  3. ^ Pulleyblank (1983), p. 452
  4. ^ The Languages of the Seat of War in the East, by Max Müller, 1855
  5. ^ С.М.Широкогорова, Sergei Mikhailovich Shirokogorov
  6. ^ Pakendorf, Brigitte; Osakovsky, Vladimir; Novgorodov, Innokentiy; Makarov, Sergey; Spitsyn, Victor; Butthof, Anne; Crawford, Michael; Wiebe, Victor; Whitten, Mark (2013-12-12). "Investigating the Prehistory of Tungusic Peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri Region with Complete mtDNA Genome Sequences and Y-chromosomal Markers". PLOS ONE. 8 (12): e83570. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083570. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3861515. PMID 24349531.
  7. ^ Helimski, E (2004). "Die Sprache(n) der Awaren: Die mandschu-tungusische Alternative". Proceedings of the First International Conference on Manchu-Tungus Studies, Vol. II: 59–72.
  8. ^ "蝦夷とアテルイ". masakawai.suppa.jp. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
  9. ^ a b 2010人口普查|1=《中国2010年人口普查资料(上中下)》,国务院人口普查办公室编,中国统计出版社,2012年1月,ISBN 978-7-5037-6507-0
  10. ^ 中华民国满族协会|1=翁福祥. "台灣滿族的由來暨現況". 中华民国满族协会. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  11. ^ 中国人民大学 (1997). "民族研究" (1–12): 21.
  12. ^ "Census: Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000" (PDF). 美国人口普查局. 2000. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  13. ^ a b "中国2010年人口普查资料". 国家统计局.
  14. ^ a b Ethnic groups in Russia, 2010 census, Rosstat. Retrieved 15 February 2012 (in Russian)
  15. ^ "Evenk Archives - Intercontinental Cry". Intercontinental Cry. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
  16. ^ "2015 POPULATION AND HOUSING BY-CENSUS OF MONGOLIA: NATIONAL REPORT". National Statistics Office of Mongolia. 20 February 2017.
  17. ^ "About number and composition population of Ukraine by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001". Ukraine Census 2001. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  18. ^ Russia Population Census
  19. ^ Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China [3] (2010)
  20. ^ 『言語学大辞典 第2巻 世界言語編(中)さ-に』 亀井孝、河野六郎、千野栄一、三根谷徹、北村甫、南不二男、風間喜代三、西田龍雄、上村幸雄、松本克己、土田滋、上野善道 編(1988)三省堂
  21. ^ "About number and composition population of Ukraine by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001". Ukraine Census 2001. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  22. ^ a b c d Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity (in Russian)
  23. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
  24. ^ "ВПН-2010". Perepis-2010.ru. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  25. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)

External links[edit]