Tungusic peoples

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tungusic peoples
Massa - Caerte van't Noorderste Russen, Samojeden, ende Tingoesen Landt.jpg
1612 map by Isaac Massa showing Tingoesen landt (land of the Tungus, i.e. Evenks)
Total population
Approx. 10,746,059
Regions with significant populations
 United States200
Tungusic languages, Russian (in  Russia), Mandarin Chinese (in  China), Mongolian (in  Mongolia)
Various religions (including Shamanism)

Tungusic peoples are an ethno-linguistic group formed by the speakers of Tungusic languages (or Manchu–Tungus languages). They are native to Siberia and Northeast Asia.

The Tungusic phylum is divided into two main branches, northern (Evenic or Tungus) and southern (JurchenNanai). An intermediate group (OrochUdege) is sometimes recognized.


The name Tungusic is artificial, and properly refers just to the postulated linguistic phylum (Tungusic languages). It is derived from Russian Tungus (Тунгус), a Russian exonym for the Evenks (Ewenki). English usage of Tungusic was introduced by Friedrich Max Müller in the 1850s, based on earlier use of German Tungusik by Heinrich Julius Klaproth. The alternative term Manchu–Tungus is also in use (Тунгусо-маньчжурские 'Tunguso-Manchurian').

The name Tunguska, a region of eastern Siberia bounded on the west by the Tunguska rivers and on the east by the Pacific Ocean, has its origin from the Tungus people (Evenks).[1] Russian Tungus was likely taken from East Turkic tunguz (literally, 'wild pig, boar', from Old Turkic tonguz),[2] although some scholars prefer derivation from the Chinese word Donghu (東胡, 'Eastern Barbarians', cf. Tonggu 通古 'Tungusic').[3] This "chance similarity in modern pronunciation led to the once widely held assumption that the Eastern Hu were Tungusic in language. However, there is little basis for this theory."[4]


It is generally suggested that the homeland of the Tungusic people is in northeastern Manchuria, somewhere near the Amur River region.[5] The Tungusic language family is grouped mostly with Turkic and Mongolic, which forms the proposed linguistic area of the Altaic (or Micro-Altaic). Genetic evidence collected from the Ulchsky District suggests a date for the Micro-Altaic expansion predating 3500 BC.[6]

The Tungusic expansion into Siberia displaced the indigenous Siberian languages, which are now grouped under the term Paleosiberian. Several theories suggest that the Pannonian Avars of the Avar Khaganate in Central, East and Southeast Europe were of Tungusic origin or of partially Tungusic origin (as a ruling class).[7]

Tungusic people on the Amur river like Udeghe, Ulchi and Nanai adopted Chinese influences in their religion and clothing with Chinese dragons on ceremonial robes, scroll and spiral bird and monster mask designs, Chinese New Year, using silk and cotton, iron cooking pots, and heated homes from China.[8]

The Manchu originally came from Manchuria, which is now Northeast China and the Russian Far East. Following the Manchu establishment of the Qing dynasty in the 17th century, they have been almost completely assimilated into the language and culture of the ethnic Han population of China.

The southern Tungusic Manchu farming sedentary lifestyle was very different from the nomadic hunter gatherer forager lifestyle of their more northern Tungusic relatives like the Warka, which left the Qing state to attempt to make them sedentarize and farm like Manchus.[9][10]

During the 17th century, the Tsardom of Russia was expanding east across Siberia, and into Tungusic-speaking lands, resulting in early border skirmishes with the Qing dynasty of China, leading up to the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk. The first published description of a Tungusic people to reach beyond Russia into the rest of Europe was by the Dutch traveler Isaac Massa in 1612. He passed along information from Russian reports after his stay in Moscow.[11]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Tunguska rivers, forming the western boundary

"Tungusic" (Manchu-Tungus) peoples are divided into two main branches: northern and southern.

The southern branch is dominated by the Manchu (historically Jurchen). Qing emperors were Manchu, and the Manchu group has largely been sinicized (the Manchu language being moribund, with 20 native speakers reported as of 2007[12]).

The Sibe were possibly a Tungusic-speaking section of the (Mongolic) Shiwei and have been conquered by the expanding Manchu (Jurchen). Their language is mutually intelligible with Manchu. The Nanai (Goldi) are also derived from the Jurchen. The Orok (Ulta) are an offshoot of the Nanai. Other minor groups closely related to the Nanai are the Ulch, Oroch and Udege. The Udege live in the Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai in the Russian Federation.

The northern branch is mostly formed by the closely related ethnic groups of Evenks (Ewenki) and Evens. (Evenks and Evens are also grouped as "Evenic". Their ethnonyms are only distinguished by a different suffix - -n for Even and -nkī for Evenkī; endonymically, they even use the same adjective for themselves - ǝwǝdī, meaning "Even" in the Even language and "Evenkī" in the Evenkī language.) The Evenks live in the Evenk Autonomous Okrug of Russia in addition to many parts of eastern Siberia, especially Sakha Republic. The Evens are very closely related to the Evenks by language and culture, and they likewise inhabit various parts of eastern Siberia. People who classify themselves as Evenks in the Russian census tend to live toward the west and toward the south of eastern Siberia, whereas people who classify themselves as Evens tend to live toward the east and toward the north of eastern Siberia, with some degree of overlap in the middle (notably, in certain parts of Sakha Republic). Minor ethnic groups also in the northern branch are the Negidals and the Oroqen. The Oroqen, Solon, and Khamnigan inhabit some parts of Heilongjiang Province, Inner Mongolia, and Mongolia and may be considered as subgroups of the Evenk ethnicity, though the Solons and the Khamnigans in particular have interacted closely with Mongolic peoples (Mongol, Daur, Buryat), and they are ethnographically quite distinct from the Evenks in Russia.


Distribution of the Tungusic languages

Tungusic peoples are:

List of the modern Tungusic peoples
Ethnonym Population Main country Religion
Manchus 10,424,785 China Manchu shamanism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, Roman Catholicism
Sibes 190,481 China Buddhism, Shamanism
Evenks 69,503  Russia Shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy, Buddhism
Evens 22,487  Russia Shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy
Nanais 17,514  Russia Buddhism, Russian Orthodoxy, Shamanism
Oroqens 8,659 China Shamanism, Buddhism
Ulchs 2,841  Russia Shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy
Udeges 1,538  Russia Shamanism
Orochs 815  Russia Shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy, Buddhism
Negidals 565  Russia Shamanism
Oroks 315  Russia Shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy
Taz 274  Russia Russian Orthodoxy

Population genetics[edit]


Haplogroups (values in percent)
Population Language n C  C-M217 C-M48 C-M86/M77 C-M407 O O-M122 O-M119 O-M268 O-M176 N N-Tat N-P43 R1a R1b Q Others Reference
Evenks (China) Northern Tungusic 41 43.9 43.9 - 34.1 - 36.6 24.4 2.4 9.8 2.4 4.9 0.0 2.4 4.9 0.0 9.8 0.0 Hammer 2006[13]
Evenks (China) Northern Tungusic 26 57.7 57.7 30.8 - 0.0 34.6 23.1 7.7 3.8 0.0 3.8 - - 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-M9(xNO-M214, P-92R7)=3.8 Xue 2006[14]
Evenks (Russia) Northern Tungusic 95 68.4 68.4 - 54.7 - 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 18.9 16.8 2.1 1.1 0.0 4.2 I1-P30=5.3
Hammer 2006[13]
Evens (Russia) Northern Tungusic 31 74.2 74.2 - 61.3 - 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.9 12.9 0.0 6.5 0.0 3.2 I2a1-P37.2=3.2 Hammer 2006[13]
Hezhe (China) Amur Tungusic 45 28.9 22.2 11.1 - - 51.1 44.4 0.0 6.7 4.4 20.0 - 17.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Xue 2006[14]
Manchu (China) Jurchen-Manchu 52 26.9 26.9 - 0.0 - 57.7 38.5 3.8 9.6 3.8 5.8 0.0 0.0 1.9 - 0.0 R2a-M124=3.8
R1-M173(xP25, M73, M269, SRY10831b)=1.9
Hammer 2006[13]
Manchu (China) Jurchen-Manchu 35 25.7 25.7 2.9 - - 54.3 37.1 2.9 14.3 5.7 14.3 0.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 DE-YAP(xE-SRY4064)=2.9
K-M9(xNO-M214, P-92R7)=2.9
Xue 2006[14]
Oroqen (China) Northern Tungusic 22 90.9 90.9 - 68.2 - 4.5 0.0 0.0 4.5 0.0 4.5 4.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Hammer 2006[13]
Oroqen (China) Northern Tungusic 31 61.3 61.3 41.9 - - 29.0 19.4 0.0 6.5 0.0 6.5 0.0 6.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-M9(xNO-M214, P-92R7)=3.2 Xue 2006[14]
Ulchi (Russia) Amur Tungusic 52 69.2 69.2 34.6 26.9 0.0 15.4 11.5 1.9 1.9 - 5.8 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.8 I-P37=1.9%
Balanovska 2018[15]
Xibe (China) Jurchen-Manchu 41 26.8 26.8 4.9 - - 36.6 26.8 7.3 2.4 2.4 17.1 4.9 0.0 0.0 - - J-12f2=7.3
BT-SRY10831.1(xC-M130, DE-YAP, J-12f2, K-M9)=2.4
Xue 2006[14]

The Tungusic people are closely related to other Northern Asian populations and to the Mongols. The main haplogroup of the Ewenic peoples (Evenks, Evens, Oroqens, and Negidals) is the C-M48 subclade (and especially its C-M86 subclade) of Haplogroup C-M217.[16][13][14][17][full citation needed][18][19] Besides the Ewenic peoples, C-M86 is also common among Mongols (165/426 = 38.7% C-M77 in a sample of Kalmyks,[20] 29/97 = 29.9% C-M86 in a sample of Mongols from northwest Mongolia,[21][22] 27/149 = 18.1% C-M86 in a sample from Mongolia[13]), Kazakhs (225/1294 = 17.39% C-M86, with Y-DNA belonging to this clade being observed in 58/76 = 76.3% of a sample of the Baiuly, 80/122 = 65.6% of a sample of the Alimuly, and 30/86 = 34.9% of a sample of the Jetyru, three tribes of western Kazakhstan who are collectively known as the Junior/Lesser/Kishi jüz or the Alshyns[23]), and Ulchi (14/52 = 26.9%[15]). Y-DNA haplogroup C is also the most common haplogroup among the Udege (12/20 = 60% C-M48,[16] 14/21 = 66.7% C-RPS4Y711,[24] 19/31 = 61.3% C3*(xC3c, C3d) plus 3/31 = 9.7% C3c[17]), but the frequency among them of the C-M86 subclade is unclear.

Haplogroup N Y-DNA is also found among Ewenic peoples with varying frequency. Haplogroup N Y-DNA among Evenks in the basin of the Yenisei River and the Taimyr Peninsula most often belongs to the N-P43 subclade, which they share mainly with the Samoyedic and Ugric peoples of Western Siberia. Haplogroup N among Evenks, Evens, and Negidals in Eastern Siberia (the basin of the Lena River and parts to its south or east) belongs mainly to the N-Tat subclade, haplotypes of which they often share either with Yakut or with Buryat.

However, the modern Manchu people show relatively high amounts of Haplogroup O2, which is common among the Han Chinese. A study on the Manchu population of Liaoning reported that they have a close genetic relationship and significant admixture signal with northern Han Chinese. The Liaoning Manchu were formed from a major ancestral component related to Yellow River farmers and a minor ancestral component linked to ancient populations from Amur River Bain, or others. The Manchu were therefore an exception to the coherent genetic structure of Tungusic-speaking populations, likely due to the large-scale population migrations and genetic admixtures in the past few hundred years.[25]


According to a total of 29 sample from the mtDNA studies of Xibo, Oroqen, and Hezhen from China:

Haplogroup Pop. % Notes
Haplogroup B 2/29 6.89%
Haplogroup C 8/29 27.58%
Haplogroup D 6/29 20.68%
Haplogroup F 4/29 13.79%
Haplogroup M 1/29 3.44%
Haplogroup R 1/29 3.44%
Haplogroup J 1/29 3.44% Found 1 in 10 (10%) samples of Oroqen
Haplogroup U 1/29 3.44% Found 1 in 9 (11.11%) samples of Xibo
Haplogroup Y 4/29 13.79% All 4 samples found only in the Hezhen people
Haplogroup Z 1/29 3.44%%

283 samples from a mtDNA study of Tungusic Evenks, Evens, and Udeges in Russia published in 2013, their main mtDNA haplogroups are :

Haplogroup Pop. % Notes
Haplogroup C 121/283 42.76%
C4b 55/283 19.43%
C4a 54/283 19.08%
C5 11/283 3.89%
Haplogroup D 69/283 24.38%
D4l2 18/283 6.36%
D5a2a2 12/283 4.24%
D4e4a 10/283 3.53%
D3 8/283 2.83%
D4o2 8/283 2.83% (observed only in the sample of Evens from Kamchatka)
D4i2 5/283 1.77%
D4j 5/283 1.77%
D4m2 3/283 1.06%
Haplogroup Z1a 25/283 8.83%
Z1a(xZ1a1, Z1a2) 12/283 4.24%
Z1a2 9/283 3.18%
Z1a1 4/283 1.41%
Haplogroup A 11/283 3.89%
A4(xA2a, A2b1, A8, A12a) 7/283 2.47%
A12a 2/283 0.71%
A2a 2/283 0.71%
Haplogroup N9b 10/283 3.53% (observed only in the sample of Udege)
Haplogroup G 10/283 3.53%
G1b 9/283 3.18%
G2a1 1/283 0.35%
Haplogroup Y1a 8/283 2.83%
Haplogroup M7 8/283 2.83%
M7a2a 6/283 2.12%
M7c1d 2/283 0.71%
Haplogroup F1b1 6/283 2.12%

The Ewenic (Evenk and Even) people in Siberia appear similar to their North Siberian Turkic (Yakut and Dolgan) and Yukaghir neighbors in regard to their mitochondrial gene pool, exhibiting high frequencies of haplogroups C4a, C4b, C5, D4l2, and D5a2a2. D4l2 seems to be relatively common among Dolgans, Ewenic people, and Yukaghirs and less common among Yakut, whereas D5a2a2 seems to be relatively common among Evenks in the basin of the Iyengra River and the Yakut and less common among Evens, Yukaghirs, and Dolgans. C4a, C4b, and C5 seem to be spread relatively evenly among these populations. Evens, Evenks in the basin of the Nyukzha River, and Yukaghirs also share mtDNA haplogroup Z1a with notable frequency, but this haplogroup is rare among Evenks in many other areas as well as among Yakut and Dolgans.

The mitochondrial gene pool of the Udege appears to differ starkly from that of the Ewenic people. According to the same study by Duggan et al. (2013), the members of a sample of Udege belong to haplogroup N9b (10/31 = 32.3%, probably descended from Jomon people of northern Japan), haplogroup C4b1 (6/31 = 19.4%, also found among Evenks, Evens, Yakut, Dolgans, Buryat, Bargut, and Yukaghirs; three of the six Udege members of C4b1 belong to the C4b1f subclade marked by a T14153C mutation, which has only been observed in Udege to date), haplogroup M7a2a3 (5/31 = 16.1%, probably descended from Jomon people, but also observed among Evenks in the basin of the Nyukzha River and among Buryat), haplogroup M8a1b (4/31 = 12.9%, related to Japanese haplogroup M8a1a), haplogroup M9a1a1a2 (3/31 = 9.7%, this subclade also has been found in a Nivkh individual and belongs to a mainly Japanese but also Korean, Khamnigan, Kalmyk, Chinese, and Tibetan branch of the M9a1a1 clade, which is widespread in East Asia and notably frequent among present-day Tibetans), haplogroup Y1a (2/31 = 6.5%, shared mainly with the Hezhen, other Amur Tungusic/Nani peoples, and Nivkhs), and C4a1a4a (1/31 = 3.2%, also observed among Tibetans, Bargut, Buryat, Kyrgyz, Altai Kizhi, Teleut, Shor, Yakut, Evenks, and Evens).

The mitochondrial gene pool of the Ulchi, a Tungusic-speaking people who live in the lower basin of the Amur River, differs in detail both from the Ewenic peoples and from the Udege. According to Sukernik et al. (2012), the mitochondrial DNA of the present-day Ulchi population belongs predominantly to haplogroup Y1a (69/160 = 43.1%), which is shared with Nivkhs, Koryaks, Evens, and Mongolians and is estimated to have a time to most recent common ancestor of approximately 6,000 (95% CI 3,300 <-> 8,800) years before present on the basis of complete genomes or approximately 1,800 (95% CI 800 <-> 2,900) years before present on the basis of synonymous positions.[26] Another 20% of the present-day Ulchi population belongs to mitochondrial DNA haplogroup D, which is significantly more diverse than their haplogroup Y1a mtDNA and can be resolved as follows: 12/160 = 7.5% D4o2, 4/160 = 2.5% D4h, 3/160 = 1.9% D4e4, 3/160 = 1.9% D4j, 2/160 = 1.25% D3, 2/160 = 1.25% D4c2, 1/160 = 0.6% D4a1, 1/160 = 0.6% D4b2b, 1/160 = 0.6% D4g2b, 1/160 = 0.6% D4m2, 1/160 = 0.6% D4o1, 1/160 = 0.6% D5a. Haplogroups C (20/160 = 12.5%, including 11/160 = 6.9% C5, 5/160 = 3.1% C4b, 3/160 = 1.9% C4a1, 1/160 = 0.6% C1a) and G (14/160 = 8.75%, including 12/160 = 7.5% G1b and 2/160 = 1.25% G2a1) are also well represented. The remainder of the Ulchi mitochondrial DNA pool comprises haplogroups N9b (7/160 = 4.4%), M8a (6/160 = 3.75%), F1a (5/160 = 3.1%), M7 (4/160 = 2.5%), M9a1 (1/160 = 0.6%), Z1a2(xZ1a2a) (1/160 = 0.6%), and B5b2 (1/160 = 0.6%).[26] Besides a very high frequency of mtDNA haplogroup Y1a among the Ulchi, they also have a greater proportion of C5 than C4b or C4a, unlike the Udege, Evens, or Evenks. The haplogroup D mtDNA of the Ulchi is very diverse, but the most frequently observed subclade is D4o2, which Duggan et al. (2013) have observed only in their sample of Evens from Kamchatka among their samples of Tungusic peoples. The second most frequent subclade of haplogroup D among the Ulchi, D4h, was not observed among the Evenk, Even, or Udege samples of Duggan et al. (2013), but it has been observed in people from China, Japan, Thailand, the Philippines, and the Americas. Like the Udege, the Ulchi lack D4l2, the most frequently observed subclade of haplogroup D among Siberian Evenks and Evens, as well as haplogroup A. Haplogroup Z1a, which is very frequent in some samples of Evens and Evenks, has been observed only in the form of a rare basal Z1a2* in a single Ulchi individual. Small percentages of Evens and Evenks belong to haplogroup F1b, which is spread widely in Central Asia and northern East Asia, whereas a small percentage of Ulchis belongs to haplogroup F1a, this latter clade being found mainly in Southeast Asia, but also throughout China, Korea, and Japan.

The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) included small samples of three Tungusic populations from the PRC in its panel: Xibo, Oroqen, and Hezhen. The Hezhen sample included ten individuals, whose mtDNA haplogroups are Y1a (4/10 = 40%), C5 (1/10 = 10%), C5d1 (1/10 = 10%), D4o2a1 (1/10 = 10%), B5b2a1b (1/10 = 10%), and F1d (1/10 = 10%). The Oroqen sample also included ten individuals, whose mtDNA haplogroups are D3 (4/10 = 40%), B4d (1/10 = 10%), C4a1 (1/10 = 10%), F1b1 (1/10 = 10%), F1c (1/10 = 10%), J1c10a1 (1/10 = 10%), and M11 (1/10 = 10%). The Xibo sample included nine individuals, whose mtDNA haplogroups are C5d1 (2/9 = 22.22%), C5a1 (1/9 = 11.11%), C4a1'5 (1/9 = 11.11%), D4b2 (1/9 = 11.11%), F1a1c (1/9 = 11.11%), R11b (1/9 = 11.11%), U4a2a1 (1/9 = 11.11%), and Z3a (1/9 = 11.11%).

The data seems to reflect some amount of gene flow with peoples living around the Sea of Okhotsk (Koryaks, Nivkhs, Ainus, etc.) on the one hand and peoples living in Central Asia (Turkic peoples, Mongols) on the other.[27] A minor connection with Beringian populations (Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Eskimo-Aleut, Na-Dene) is apparent in the presence of mtDNA that belongs to haplogroup D2, haplogroup D3, and haplogroup A2a among present-day Northern Tungusic people.

Relation to Jōmon period population of Japan[edit]

The existence of a second pre-Yayoi wave of immigration during the Jōmon period were suggested before. One study, published in the Cambridge University Press in 2020, suggests that the Jōmon people were rather heterogeneous, and that there was also an “Altaic-like” pre-Yayoi population (close to modern Tungusic-speakers, represented by Oroqen) during Jōmon period Japan, which established itself over the local hunter gatherers. This “Altaic-like” population migrated from Northeast Asia into Japan in about 6000BC, before the actual Yayoi migration. Typically genetic lineages associated with Tungusic and Northeast Asian groups generally, were found at medium frequency in Jōmon period Japan. Analysed Jōmon samples show heterogeneity while being geographical close to each other which strongly suggests different ethnic origins for these samples.[28]

Several historians noted striking similarities between the horse riding nomads of the Amur region, specifically Tungusic peoples, and the Emishi. It is suggested that the Emishi originated from an original Tungusic source population, which later assimilated Japonic-speaking Izumo migrants. The Esan culture of northern Honshu is associated with this population and later gave rise to the Satsumon culture which played an important role in the formation of modern Ainu people of Hokkaido. The Emishi were horse riders and iron workers (unlike the Ainu). While there is evidence for some agriculture (millet and rice), they were mostly horse riders, hunters, fishers and traders. Oishi Naomasa, Emuri Susumi, and others link the Emishi to the semi-nomadic Malgal/Mohe people. There was also a distinction between contemporary Honshu Emishi and Watarishima Emishi of Hokkaido. Historical evidence suggests frequently fights between Honshu Emishi and Watarishima Emishi. It is argued that the Watarishima Emishi consisted of Honshu Emishi and proto-Ainu-speakers. Kudo Masaki and Kitakamae Yasuo concluded that the Emishi were of predominantly Tungusic origin with some assimilated Japonic groups (Izumo people). They further argue that linguistic place names (toponyms) previously suggested to be Ainu, can be explained by Amur Tungusic substratum onto proto-Ainu. Kudo also suggests that the Matagi hunters are in fact descendants of the Emishi, with the specific hunting vocabulary to be of Tungusic rather than Ainu origin.[29]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ The Languages of the Seat of War in the East, by Max Müller, 1855
  2. ^ Tungus. (n.d.) American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. (2011). Retrieved May 2, 2019 from https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Tungus
  3. ^ Marie Antoinette Czaplicka, The Collected Works of M. A. Czap p. 88
  4. ^ Pulleyblank (1983), p. 452
  5. ^ С.М.Широкогорова, Sergei Mikhailovich Shirokogorov
  6. ^ Balanovska, E. V.; et al. (2018). "Demographic and Genetic Portraits of the Ulchi Population". Russian Journal of Genetics. 54 (10): 1245–1253. doi:10.1134/s1022795418100046. S2CID 53085396.
  7. ^ Helimski, E. (2004). "Die Sprache(n) der Awaren: Die mandschu-tungusische Alternative". Proceedings of the First International Conference on Manchu-Tungus Studies. II: 59–72.
  8. ^ Forsyth, James (1994). A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581-1990 (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 214. ISBN 0521477719.
  9. ^ Smith, Norman, ed. (2017). Empire and Environment in the Making of Manchuria. Contemporary Chinese Studies. UBC Press. pp. 68, 69. ISBN 978-0774832922.
  10. ^ Bello, David A. (2016). Across Forest, Steppe, and Mountain: Environment, Identity, and Empire in Qing China's Borderlands. Studies in Environment and History (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1107068841.
  11. ^ [1] Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 4. By Donald F. Lach
  12. ^ Bradley, David. 2007. East and Southeast Asia. In R. E. Asher & Christopher Moseley (eds.), Atlas of the world’s languages, 2nd edn., 159–209. London & New York: Routledge.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Hammer, Michael F.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Park, Hwayong; Omoto, Keiichi; Harihara, Shinji; Stoneking, Mark; Horai, Satoshi (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". J Hum Genet. 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Xue, Yali; Zerjal, Tatiana; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Suling; Shu, Qunfang; Xu, Jiujin; Du, Ruofu; Fu, Songbin; Li, Pu; Hurles, Matthew E.; Yang, Huanming; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2005). "Male Demography in East Asia: A North–South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times". Genetics. 172 (4): 2431–2439. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. PMC 1456369. PMID 16489223.
  15. ^ a b E. V. Balanovska, Y. V. Bogunov, E. N. Kamenshikova, O. A. Balaganskaya, A. T. Agdzhoyan, A. A. Bogunova, R. A. Skhalyakho, I. E. Alborova, M. K. Zhabagin, S. M. Koshel, D. M. Daragan, E. B. Borisova, A. A. Galakhova, O. V. Maltceva, Kh. Kh. Mustafin, N. K. Yankovsky, and O. P. Balanovsky, "Demographic and Genetic Portraits of the Ulchi Population." ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2018, Vol. 54, No. 10, pp. 1245–1253.
  16. ^ a b Lell JT, Sukernik RI, Starikovskaya YB, et al. (January 2002). "The dual origin and Siberian affinities of Native American Y chromosomes". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70 (1): 192–206. doi:10.1086/338457. PMC 384887. PMID 11731934.
  17. ^ a b Харьков, Владимир Николаевич (2012). Структура и филогеография генофонда коренного населения Сибири по маркерам Y-хромосомы (PDF) (in Russian). Tomsk.
  18. ^ Duggan, AT; Whitten, M; Wiebe, V; Crawford, M; Butthof, A; et al. (2013). "Investigating the Prehistory of Tungusic Peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri Region with Complete mtDNA Genome Sequences and Y-chromosomal Markers". PLOS ONE. 8 (12): e83570. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...883570D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083570. PMC 3861515. PMID 24349531.
  19. ^ Fedorova, Sardana A; Reidla, Maere; Metspalu, Ene; et al. (2013). "Autosomal and uniparental portraits of the native populations of Sakha (Yakutia): implications for the peopling of Northeast Eurasia". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2013 (13): 127. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-127. PMC 3695835. PMID 23782551.
  20. ^ Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Khoyt, Sanj; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Zakharov, Ilya (2013). "Y-chromosome diversity in the Kalmyks at the ethnical and tribal levels". Journal of Human Genetics. 58 (12): 804–811. doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.108. PMID 24132124.
  21. ^ Di Cristofaro, J; Pennarun, E; Mazières, S; Myres, NM; Lin, AA; et al. (2013). "Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): e76748. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...876748D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748. PMC 3799995. PMID 24204668.
  22. ^ Natalia Balinova, Helen Post, Siiri Rootsi, et al. (2019), "Y-chromosomal analysis of clan structure of Kalmyks, the only European Mongol people, and their relationship to Oirat-Mongols of Inner Asia." European Journal of Human Genetics https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0399-0
  23. ^ E. E. Ashirbekov, D. M. Botbaev, A. M. Belkozhaev, A. O. Abayldaev, A. S. Neupokoeva, J. E. Mukhataev, B. Alzhanuly, D. A. Sharafutdinova, D. D. Mukushkina, M. B. Rakhymgozhin, A. K. Khanseitova, S. A. Limborska, N. A. Aytkhozhina, "Distribution of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups of the Kazakh from the South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl, and Almaty Regions." Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, ISSN 2224-5227, Volume 6, Number 316 (2017), 85 - 95.
  24. ^ cf. Han-Jun Jin, Ki-Cheol Kim, and Wook Kim, "Genetic Diversity of Two Haploid Markers in the Udegey Population From Southeastern Siberia." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142 : 303–313 (2010).
  25. ^ Zhang, Xianpeng; He, Guanglin; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Yunfeng; Li, Xin; Chen, Ying; Qu, Quanying; Wang, Ying; Xi, Huanjiu; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Wen, Youfeng (2021-09-30). "Genomic Insight Into the Population Admixture History of Tungusic-Speaking Manchu People in Northeast China". Frontiers in Genetics. 12: 754492. doi:10.3389/fgene.2021.754492. ISSN 1664-8021. PMC 8515022. PMID 34659368.  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  26. ^ a b Sukernik, Rem I.; Volodko, Natalia V.; Mazunin, Ilya O.; Eltsov, Nikolai P.; Dryomov, Stanislav V.; Starikovskaya, Elena B. (2012). "Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in the Tubalar, Even, and Ulchi: Contribution to Prehistory of Native Siberians and Their Affinities to Native Americans". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 148 (1): 123–138. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22050. PMID 22487888.
  27. ^ Pakendorf, Brigitte; Osakovsky, Vladimir; Novgorodov, Innokentiy; Makarov, Sergey; Spitsyn, Victor; Butthof, Anne; Crawford, Michael; Wiebe, Victor; Whitten, Mark (2013-12-12). "Investigating the Prehistory of Tungusic Peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri Region with Complete mtDNA Genome Sequences and Y-chromosomal Markers". PLOS ONE. 8 (12): e83570. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...883570D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083570. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3861515. PMID 24349531.
  28. ^ Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Driem, George van (2020). "Munda languages are father tongues, but Japanese and Korean are not". Evolutionary Human Sciences. 2. doi:10.1017/ehs.2020.14. ISSN 2513-843X.
  29. ^ Yiengpruksawan, Mimi Hall (2020-03-31). Hiraizumi: Buddhist Art and Regional Politics in Twelfth-Century Japan. BRILL. ISBN 978-1-68417-313-6.

External links[edit]