Tupi–Guarani languages

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Tupi–Guarani
Geographic
distribution
Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru
Linguistic classificationTupian
  • Tupi–Guarani
Subdivisions
Glottologtupi1276[1]
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Tupi–Guarani (medium pink), other Tupian (violet), and probable range c. 1500 (pink-grey)

Tupi–Guarani (About this soundpronunciation ) is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America. It includes fifty languages, including the best-known languages of the family, Guarani and Old Tupi.

The words petunia, jaguar, piranha, ipecac, tapioca, jacaranda, anhinga, carioca, and capoeira are of Tupi–Guarani origin.[citation needed]

Classification[edit]

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012)[edit]

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012) propose eight branches of Tupí–Guaraní:

*Cabral argues that Kokama/Omagua is a mixed language, and so not directly classifiable, though most of its basic vocabulary is Tupi–Guarani.

**Not listed in Rodrigues & Cabral

Karipuna language (Amapá) may be spurious.

Michael, et al. (2015)[edit]

Michael, et al. (2015) propose the following classification for the Tupi-Guarani languages.

Tupí-Guaraní

O'Hagan (2014)[2] proposes that Proto-Tupi-Guarani was spoken in the region of the lower Tocantins and Xingu Rivers. Proto-Omagua-Kokama then expanded up the Amazon River, Proto-Tupinamba expanded south along the Atlantic coast, and the Southern branch expanded up along the Tocantins/Araguaia River towards the Parana River basin.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tupi–Guarani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ O'Hagan, Zachary (with Keith Bartolomei, Natalia Chousou-Polydouri, Emily Clem, Erin Donnelly and Lev Michael). 2014. A Computational-phylogenetic Classification of Tupí-Guaraní and its Geographical Spread. Language Variation and Change, October 20, Chicago.

External links[edit]