Tupi–Guarani languages

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Tupi–Guarani
Geographic
distribution
Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru
Linguistic classificationTupian
  • Tupi–Guarani
Subdivisions
Glottologtupi1276
Tupi languages.png
Tupi–Guarani (medium pink), other Tupian (violet), and probable range c. 1500 (pink-grey)

Tupi–Guarani (pronunciation ) is the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America. It consists of about fifty languages, including Guarani and Old Tupi.

The words petunia, jaguar, piranha, ipecac, tapioca, jacaranda, anhinga, carioca, and capoeira are of Tupi–Guarani origin.[citation needed]

Classification[edit]

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012)[edit]

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012) propose eight branches of Tupí–Guaraní:

*Cabral argues that Kokama/Omagua is a mixed language, and so not directly classifiable, though most of its basic vocabulary is Tupi–Guarani.

**Not listed in Rodrigues & Cabral (2012)

Karipuna language (Amapá) may be spurious.

Sound changes from Proto-Tupi-Guarani (PTG) defining each of the 8 Tupi-Guarani groups as listed by Rodrigues & Cabral (2002):[1]

Group PTG final consonants PTG *tʃ PTG *pw PTG *pj PTG *j
1 lost *tʃ > tʃ, ts, s; *ts > h, zero *pw > kw, k *pj > tʃ, ʃ
2 lost *tʃ, *ts merged as ts, s *pw > kw, k *pj preserved
3 preserved *tʃ, *ts merged as ts, s *pw preserved *pj preserved
4 preserved (with some modifications) *tʃ, *ts merged as h *pw > kw *pj > tʃ, ts *j > tʃ, ts, s, z
5 preserved *tʃ, *ts merged as h, zero *pw > ɸ *pj > s *j > dʒ
6 preserved *tʃ, *ts merged as h *pw > kw (Parintintín, Apiaká);
*pw > ɣw, ɣ (Tupí-Kawahíb)
*pj preserved *j preserved
7 preserved *tʃ, *ts merged as h, zero *pw > hw, h *pj > ts *j preserved
8 partially lost *tʃ, *ts merged as h, zero *pw > kw *pj > s *j preserved

Michael, et al. (2015)[edit]

Michael, et al. (2015) propose the following classification for the Tupi-Guarani languages.

Tupí-Guaraní

O'Hagan et al. (2014,[2] [3]2019) proposes that Proto-Tupi-Guarani was spoken in the region of the lower Tocantins and Xingu Rivers, just to the south of Marajó Island in eastern Pará State, Brazil. Proto-Omagua-Kokama then expanded up the Amazon River, Proto-Tupinambá expanded south along the Atlantic coast, and the Southern branch expanded up along the Tocantins/Araguaia River towards the Paraná River basin.

Jolkesky (2016)[edit]

Below is an internal classification of Tupi-Guarani by Jolkesky (2016), which is largely based on Michael, et al. (2015):[4]

(† = extinct)

Tupi-Guarani branch

Ferraz and Reichert (2021)[edit]

The following is an approximation of the results of a computational phylogenetic study of the Tupí-Guaraní languages by Ferraz and Reichert (2021).[5][6]

Tupí-Guaraní
  • Guajá–Tenetehara
    • Guajá; Tembé, Guajajara
  • Guaraní
    • Warazu
    • Xetá
    • Guayaki; Tapiete, Chiriguano
    • Guaraní; Kaiowá, Mbyá
    • Guarayo; Sirionó, Yuki
  • Tupi
    • Tupinambá; Nheengatu, Ka'apor (Urubu-Kaapor)
  • Northern
    • Kamayura; Anambé, Araweté
    • Avá–Wayampí?
      • Avá-Canoeiro
      • Wayampí Jarí; Emerillon, Wayampí
  • Central
    • Asurini Xingu
    • Akwawa–Tapirapé
      • Apiaká; Suruí; Tapirapé; Parakanã, Asurini
    • Kawahib
      • Kayabi
      • Parintintin, Tenharim
      • Amondava, Urueuwauwau

Varieties[edit]

Below is a list of Tupi–Guarani language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[7]

Tupi–Guarani language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968)
Tupi (Abañeénga) dialects
  • Tamoyo - once spoken from the Cabo de São Tomé to Angra dos Reis, state of Rio de Janeiro. (Unattested.)
  • Ararape - once spoken on the Paraíba do Sul River in the state of Rio de Janeiro. (Unattested.)
  • Temimino - once spoken on the coast of the state of Espirito Santo. (Unattested.)
  • Tupiniquin / Margaya - once spoken on the coast from Espirito Santo as far as Camamu, state of Bahia.
  • Tupinamba - formerly spoken on the coast from Camamu as far as the mouth of the São Francisco River, later on the coast in the state of Maranhão.
  • Tupina - once spoken in the interior of the state of Bahia. (Unattested.)
  • Caeté / Caité - once spoken on the coast from the mouth of the São Francisco River to the mouth of the Paraíba do Norte River. (Unattested.)
  • Amoipira / Anaupira - once spoken in the interior of the state of Bahia, from Cabrobó to the mouth of the Grande River. (Unattested.)
  • Abaete - once spoken in Bahia on the Abaeté River. (Unattested.)
  • Maromomi - dialect spoken at the old mission of São Barnabé, Rio de Janeiro. (Unattested.)
  • Potiguara / Petigare - dialect once spoken on the coast from the mouth of the Paraíba do Norte River to the mouth of the Parnaiba River, now spoken by a few families in the Baía da Traição, state of Paraíba.
  • Viatan - once spoken in the interior of the states of Pernambuco, but the exact location not recorded. (Unattested.)
  • Tobajara / Miarigois - once spoken in the interior of the state of Ceará on the Camocim River. (Unattested.)
  • Cahicahi / Caicaze / Caicai - once spoken on the lower course of the Itapecurú River, state of Maranhão. (Unattested.)
  • Jaguaribára - once spoken at the mouth of the Jaguaribare River, state of Ceará. (Unattested.)
  • Tupinambarana - once spoken on the island of the same name on the Amazon River. (Unattested.)
  • Nhengahiba / Ingahiva - once spoken in the southern part of Marajó Island, Pará. (Unattested.)
  • Nheéngatu / Niangatú / Lingua Geral - a language spoken by the mixed population on both banks of the Amazon River and in the past century used in intertribal and commercial relations.
Guarani (Karani, Abañéem) dialects
Guaranized languages
  • Shetá / Aré / Yvaparé - once spoken in the interior of the state of Paraná on the Ivaí River, now extinct.
  • Serra dos Dourados (tribe with unknown name) - in the Serra dos Dourados, state of Paraná.
  • Guayaquí / Acé - spoken by a tribe in the Cordillera de Villa Rica, Paraguay.
  • Notobotocudo / Pihtadyouai - language of an extinct tribe that lived at the sources of the Uruguai River and Iguasú River, state of Santa Catarina.
Kamayurá group
  • Kamayurá / Camayura - spoken by a small tribe on the Ferro River in the Xingú basin, state of Mato Grosso.
  • Awití / Auetö / Aweti - spoken in the same region on the Culiseú River, Mato Grosso.
  • Arawiné - little known language from the 7 de setembro River, state of Mato Grosso.
Tapirapé group
Northern group
Pará group
Guiana group
Southern group
Amazonas group
Chiriguano group
Mawé group

Proto-language[edit]

Proto-Tupi–Guarani
Reconstruction ofTupi–Guarani languages
Reconstructed
ancestors

Schleicher (1998)[edit]

The following reconstructions of Proto-Tupi-Guarani are from Schleicher (1998):[8]

Proto-Tupi–Guarani reconstructions by Schleicher (1998)
no. gloss Proto-Tupi-Guarani notes
1 fruit *ʔá; *ɨʔβa
2 hair *ʔáβ
3 lie down *ʔáβ/*ʔáw
4 to stand *ʔám
5 to sit *ʔapɨk
6 tie up *ʔapɨtĩ
7 fall (human) *ʔár
8 say *ʔé
9 other, companion *ʔirũ
10 tree *ʔɨ́β
11 canoe *ʔɨčár
12 swim *ʔɨtáβ
13 they *ʔŋã
14 dig *ʔók
15 eat (trans.) *ʔú
16 3rd person *aʔé
17 seed *aʔɨ̃y
18 person *aβá
19 corn *aβatí
20 bad *aíβ
21 sharp *aimbé
22 man *akʷaimbaʔé < *kuyãʔĩ-mbaʔé ?
23 head *akáŋ
24 humid, wet *akɨ́m
25 hot *-akúβ
26 rain *amán
27 other *amõ
28 far *amõ-ité
29 old man, grandfather *amõy
30 no *anĩ
31 this *áŋ
32 back *apé
33 road *apé ~ *peé
34 burn *apɨ́
35 nose *apũy
36 root *apó
37 short *apoʔá/*apuʔá
38 round *apuʔá
39 day *ár
40 walk *atá
41 fire *(t)atá
42 smoke *(t)atá-tíŋ
43 mountain *atɨ́r
44 horn *atĩ
45 tooth *-ãy
46 push *(mbo)ayán
47 parrot *ayurú
48 fly *βeβé
49 float *βeβúy
50 crack, split *βók
51 swell *βúr
52 float *βúr
53 cord *čám
54 play, amuse *-čaráy
55 worm *čeβoʔí
56 wash *čéy
57 mother *čɨ́
58 clean *čɨ́β
59 rub *čɨ́β
60 smooth *čɨ́m
61 run (water) *čɨrɨ́
62 pull off *čók
63 to bite *čuʔú
64 black *čún
65 not *eʔɨ́m
66 scratch *eʔɨ̃y
67 belly *eβék
68 eye *ečá
69 to pull *ekɨ́y
70 to live *ekó
71 wife *embi-rekó
72 you *endé
73 saliva *endɨ
74 hear *endúβ
75 knee *enɨpɨʔã
76 call *enõy
77 see *epʸák
78 name *-ér
79 much *-etá
80 leg *etɨmã
81 smell *-etún
82 stone *itá
83 I *iye, *iče
84 water *ɨ́
85 lake *ɨ-upá
86 sand *ɨʔɨtíŋ
87 drink *ɨʔú
88 earth *ɨβɨ́
89 sky *ɨβák
90 cloud *ɨβák-tíŋ
91 tree *ɨβɨrá
92 wind *ɨβɨtú
93 belly *ié
94 domestic animal *(e)ɨmbá
95 bark *ɨpé
96 night *ɨpɨtún
97 bow *ɨrapár/*ɨβɨrapár
98 dust, powder *-ɨtiʔmbór
99 know *kʷaáβ
100 sun *kʷár
101 scrubland, forest *kaʔá
102 grass, weeds *kaʔapiʔí
103 monkey *kaʔí
104 suck *kaʔmbú
105 fat *káβ
106 breast *kám
107 bone *káŋ
108 scrape *karãy
109 eat (intrans.) *karú
110 good *katú
111 get burned *káy
112 sleep *kér
113 dirty *kɨʔá
114 louse *kɨβ
115 knife *kɨčé
116 fear *čɨkɨyé
117 green *(a)kɨr
118 fat *(pi)kɨr
119 clean *kɨtíŋ-ʔók
120 to cut *kɨtĩ/*kɨti
121 tongue *kũ
122 this *ko
123 ashes *kočúβ
124 sand *kuʔí
125 back *kupé
126 boy *kurumĩ
127 bore, perforate *kutúk
128 fall (object) *kúy
129 woman *kuyã
130 manioc plant *mandí
131 die *manõ
132 why *mbaʔé
133 sing *mbaraká
134 sew *mboβúk/*mboβɨk
135 few *mbočapɨr
136 throw *(mbo)mbór
137 snake *mbóy
138 dust *-mbukú
139 give *meʔéŋ
140 child *membɨr
141 husband *mén
142 animal *miyár
143 two *mokõy
144 recount *mombeʔú
145 ear *nambí
146 beat *nupã
147 flesh *oʔó
148 green *oβɨ́
149 leaf *óβ
150 house *ók
151 we (exclusive) *ore
152 all *páβ
153 (re)count *papár
154 river *paranã
155 one *pé
156 you all *pẽẽ
157 wing *pepó
158 tobacco *petɨ́m
159 blow *peyú
160 rub *pín
161 skin *pír
162 fish *pirá
163 bark *pirér
164 child *ptáŋ/*mitáŋ
165 foot *pɨ́
166 liver *pɨʔá
167 new *pɨčačú
168 catch *pɨčɨ́k
169 wide *pɨpír
170 suck *pɨtér
171 breath *pɨtú
172 hand *pó/*mbó
173 thin *poʔí
174 fingernail *po-apẽ
175 twist *poán < *poayán ?
176 heavy *počɨ́y
177 sing, dance *poračéy
178 chest *potiʔá
179 flower *potɨ́r
180 clean *potuká < *po-kutuk ?
181 laugh *puká
182 long *pukú
183 tie (up) *pʷár
184 cure *pʷeráβ
185 cold *roʔɨ́
186 swell *rurúk
187 ashes *tanimbúk < *tatá imbúk ?
188 tapir *tapiʔír
189 white *tíŋ
190 nose *tĩ
191 pull *-tɨ́k
192 father *túβ
193 big *tuβiyáβ
194 old *tuyá
195 arrow *uʔɨ́β
196 leg *úβ
197 egg *upiʔá
198 come *úr
199 blood *uwɨ́
200 tail *uwáy
201 old (woman) *waiwĩ
202 red *-wáŋ
203 vomit *weʔén
204 bird *wɨrá
205 ax *yɨ́
206 jaguar *yaʔwár
207 moon *yačɨ́
208 star *yačɨ-tatá
209 crocodile *yakaré
210 run *yán
211 we (inclusive) *yande
212 tighten *(mbo)yár
213 to play *-yarú
214 laugh *yáy
215 speak *yeʔéŋ
216 return, come back *ye-βɨ́r
217 grass, weeds *yuʔũ
218 yellow *yúβ
219 rotten *yúk
220 kill *yuká
221 yellow *yukɨrɨ́
222 salt *yukɨ́r
223 neck *yúr
224 mouth *yurú

Lemle (1971)[edit]

The following reconstructions of Proto-Tupi-Guarani are from Lemle (1971):[9]

Proto-Tupi–Guarani reconstructions by Lemle (1971)
no. gloss Proto-Tupi-Guarani
1 to, in *pɨpe
2 accident *memwã
3 sharp *aemee
4 water
5 some *amõ
6 align, braid *pẽ
7 yellow *yub
8 tie *apɨtĩ
9 tie *pwar
10 walk *ata
11 tapir *tapiʔir
12 tightten *momyk
13 squeeze *pɨcɨk
14 that *pe
15 bow *ɨbɨrapar
16 tree *ʔɨb
17 wing *pepo
18 grandfather *amõy
19 fat *kab
20 lard *yanɨ
21 stomach, liver *pɨʔa
22 stomach *ɨe
23 stomach *ebek
24 hit *nupã
25 drink *ɨʔu
26 animal *eɨmab
27 mouth *yuru
28 float *bebɨy
29 good *katu
30 white *tiŋ
31 play *yemocaray
32 hole *kwar
33 head *akaŋ
34 hair *ʔab
35 fall *ʔar
36 path *pe, *ape
37 field *yũ
38 canoe *ɨar
39 grass *kapiʔi
40 meat *oʔo
41 house *ok
42 bark *pe
43 corn drink *kawĩ
44 dig *ɨbɨkoy
45 dig *yoʔok
46 basket *karamemwã
47 sky *ɨbak
48 call *enõy
49 full *por
50 smell *etun
51 horn *atĩ
52 horn *ʔak
53 suck *pɨter
54 rain *aman
55 ashes *tanimuk
56 coati *kwati
57 snake *moy
58 scratch *eʔɨ̃y
59 eat *ʔu
60 companion, brother *ʔirũ
61 long *puku
62 string *cam
63 flow *cɨrɨk
64 cut *kɨtĩ
65 back *ape
66 back *kupe
67 sew *mobɨk, *mobɨbɨk
68 grow *akakuwab
69 give *meʔeŋ
70 finger *pwã
71 lie *ʔab
72 tooth *ãy
73 draw *kwatiar
74 day *ar
75 two *mokõy
76 sleep *ker
77 he *aʔe
78 push *moayan
79 rub *pin
80 rub *kɨtɨk
81 wife *emireko
82 stand *puʔam
83 star *yacɨtata
84 I *(i)ce
85 knife *kɨce
86 speak *yeʔeŋ
87 full *ʔɨtarõ
88 thin *poʔi
89 arrow *uʔɨb
90 flower *potɨr, *ɨbotɨr
91 fire *tata
92 leaf *ob
93 cold *roʔɨ, *roʔɨca
94 fruit *ʔa
95 smoke *tatatiŋ, *catatiŋ
96 tobacco *petɨm
97 pierce *kutuk
98 claw *pɨcãpẽ
99 like *ʔarõ
100 large *tubicab
101 man *aba
102 island *ɨpaʔũ
103 swell *bubur
104 swell *ruru
105 space *paʔũ
106 go *co
107 alligator *yakare
108 knee *enɨpɨʔã
109 throw *momor
110 lake *ɨpab, *ɨupab
111 wash *yocey, *ey, *c-ey, *yac-ay
112 tongue *ape-kũ, *kũ
113 smooth *cɨm
114 far *-mɨrɨb
115 moon *yacɨ
116 monkey *kaʔi
117 ax *yɨ
118 mother *cɨ
119 command *pway
120 manioc *maniʔok
121 hand *po
122 left hand *acu
123 husband *men
124 kill *yuka
125 woods *kaʔa
126 bad *aib, *aɨb
127 boy *kunumĩ
128 corn *abati
129 wet *akɨm
130 bite *cuʔu
131 die *manõ
132 hill *ɨbɨtɨr, *ɨbɨʔam (+ -usu)
133 move *mɨ̃y
134 many *eta, *c-eta
135 woman *kuyã
136 variety of bird *mɨtũ
137 swim *ɨtab
138 nose, beak *tĩ
139 night *pɨtun
140 night *pɨca
141 name *er
142 we (excl.) *ore
143 we (incl.) *yane
144 new *pɨcacu
145 cloud *ɨbatiŋ
146 hollow *ɨbɨ̃y
147 eye *eca
148 jaguar *yawar
149 ear *nami
150 bone *kaŋ, *kaŋ-wer
151 hear *enub
152 egg *upiʔa
153 father *ub
154 pan *yaʔẽ
155 pan *yaẽpopo
156 parrot *ayuru
157 pass *pwan
158 bird *wɨra
159 stick *ɨbɨra
160 foot *pɨ
161 rock *ita
162 chest *potiʔa
163 breast *kam
164 fish *pira
165 skin *pir, *piruer
166 feather *ab, *c-ab, *c-a-wer
167 leg *etɨmã
168 heavy *pocɨy
169 neck *ayur
170 person *akwa
171 louse *kɨb
172 variety of gnat *piʔũ
173 past tense *pwer
174 black *un, *c-un
175 black, dark *picun
176 burn *kay
177 burn *apɨ
178 hot *akub
179 tail *uway
180 split *mobok, *bok
181 root *apo
182 scrape *karãy
183 round *apuʔa
184 breathe *pɨtu
185 river *paranã
186 laugh *puka
187 know *kuwaab
188 sat *yukɨr
189 saliva *enɨ
190 blood *uwɨ
191 heal *pwerab
192 dry *kaŋ
193 seed *aʔɨ̃y
194 sit *apɨk
195 sun *kwaracɨ
196 blow *peyu
197 dirty *kɨʔa
198 dirty *ipib
199 bamboo *takwar
200 fear *cɨkɨye
201 land *ɨbɨ
202 all *pab
203 three *mocapɨr
204 intestines *ɨʔe
205 one *oyepeteĩ
206 fingernail *pwã-pẽ
207 wind *ɨbɨtu
208 see *epyak
209 green *obɨ
210 worm *ceboʔi
211 red *waŋ
212 red *piraŋ
213 red *pɨtaŋ
214 pour *(ʔ)ẽ
215 come *ur
216 live *eko, *ekobe
217 ffly *bebe
218 you (sing.) *ne, *ene
219 you (pl.) *pe- -ẽ
220 vomit *weʔen
221 mad *irõ

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rodrigues, A. D.; Cabral, A. S. A. C. Revendo a classificação interna da família Tupí-Guaraní. In: CABRAL, A. S. A. C., RODRIGUES, A. D. (Orgs.). Línguas indígenas brasileiras: fonologia, gramática e história. Tomo I. Belém: UFPA/EDUFPA, p. 327-337, 2002.
  2. ^ O'Hagan, Zachary (with Keith Bartolomei, Natalia Chousou-Polydouri, Emily Clem, Erin Donnelly and Lev Michael). 2014. A Computational-phylogenetic Classification of Tupí-Guaraní and its Geographical Spread. Language Variation and Change, October 20, Chicago.
  3. ^ O’Hagan, Zachary; Chousou-Polydouri, Natalia; Michael, Lev (2019). "Phylogenetic classification supports a Northeastern Amazonian Proto-Tupí-Guaraní Homeland". LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas. 19: e019018. doi:10.20396/liames.v19i0.8655791. ISSN 2177-7160.
  4. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  5. ^ Ferraz Gerardi, Fabrício; Reichert, Stanislav (2021). "The Tupí-Guaraní language family". Diachronica. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 38 (2): 151–188. doi:10.1075/dia.18032.fer. ISSN 0176-4225.
  6. ^ Ferraz Gerardi, F., & Reichert, S. (2020). CLDF dataset derived from Gerardi and Reichert's "The Tupí-Guaraní Language Family: A Phylogenetic Classification" from 2020 (v1.0.1) [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.4094642
  7. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  8. ^ Schleicher, Charles Owen. 1998. Comparative And Internal Reconstrution of the Tupi-Guarani Language Family. Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison.
  9. ^ Lemle, Miriam. 1971. Internal classification of the Tupi-Guarani linguistic family. In David Bendor-Samuel (ed.), Tupi studies I, 107-129. Norman: Summer Institute of Linguistics of the University of Oklahoma.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Gerardi, Fabrício Ferraz; Reichert, Stanislav. "The Tupí-Guaraní language family: A phylogenetic classification". In: Diachronica. Available online: 01 February 2021. [DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.18032.fer]

External links[edit]