Tupi–Guarani languages

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Tupi–Guarani
Geographic
distribution
Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru
Linguistic classificationTupian
  • Tupi–Guarani
Subdivisions
Glottologtupi1276[1]
Tupi languages.png
Tupi–Guarani (medium pink), other Tupian (violet), and probable range c. 1500 (pink-grey)

Tupi–Guarani (About this soundpronunciation ) is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America. It includes fifty languages, including the best-known languages of the family, Guarani and Old Tupi.

The words petunia, jaguar, piranha, ipecac, tapioca, jacaranda, anhinga, carioca, and capoeira are of Tupi–Guarani origin.[citation needed]

Classification[edit]

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012)[edit]

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012) propose eight branches of Tupí–Guaraní:

*Cabral argues that Kokama/Omagua is a mixed language, and so not directly classifiable, though most of its basic vocabulary is Tupi–Guarani.

**Not listed in Rodrigues & Cabral

Karipuna language (Amapá) may be spurious.

Michael, et al. (2015)[edit]

Michael, et al. (2015) propose the following classification for the Tupi-Guarani languages.

Tupí-Guaraní

O'Hagan (2014)[2] proposes that Proto-Tupi-Guarani was spoken in the region of the lower Tocantins and Xingu Rivers. Proto-Omagua-Kokama then expanded up the Amazon River, Proto-Tupinamba expanded south along the Atlantic coast, and the Southern branch expanded up along the Tocantins/Araguaia River towards the Paraná River basin.

Jolkesky (2016)[edit]

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):[3]

(† = extinct)

Tupi-Guarani branch

Varieties[edit]

Below is a list of Tupi–Guarani language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[4]

Tupi (Abañeénga) dialects
  • Tamoyo - once spoken from the Cabo de São Tomé to Angra dos Reis, state of Rio de Janeiro. (Unattested.)
  • Ararape - once spoken on the Paraíba do Sul River in the state of Rio de Janeiro. (Unattested.)
  • Temimino - once spoken on the coast of the state of Espirito Santo. (Unattested.)
  • Tupiniquin / Margaya - once spoken on the coast from Espirito Santo as far as Camamu, state of Bahia.
  • Tupinamba - formerly spoken on the coast from Camamu as far as the mouth of the São Francisco River, later on the coast in the state of Maranhão.
  • Tupina - once spoken in the interior of the state of Bahia. (Unattested.)
  • Caeté / Caité - once spoken on the coast from the mouth of the São Francisco River to the mouth of the Paraíba do Norte River. (Unattested.)
  • Amoipira / Anaupira - once spoken in the interior of the state of Bahia, from Cabrobó to the mouth of the Grande River. (Unattested.)
  • Abaete - once spoken in Bahia on the Abaeté River. (Unattested.)
  • Maromomi - dialect spoken at the old mission of São Bernabé, Rio de Janeiro. (Unattested.)
  • Potiguara / Petigare - dialect once spoken on the coast from the mouth of the Paraíba do Norte River to the mouth of the Parnaiba River, now spoken by a few families in the Baía da Traição, state of Paraíba.
  • Viatan - once spoken in the interior of the states of Pernambuco, but the exact location not recorded. (Unattested.)
  • Tobajara / Miarigois - once spoken in the interior of the state of Ceará on the Camocim River. (Unattested.)
  • Cahicahi / Caicaze / Caicai - once spoken on the lower course of the Itapecurú River, state of Maranhão. (Unattested.)
  • Jaguaribára - once spoken at the mouth of the Jaguaribare River, state of Ceará. (Unattested.)
  • Tupinambarana - once spoken on the island of the same name on the Amazon River. (Unattested.)
  • Nhengahiba / Ingahiva - once spoken in the southern part of Marajó Island, Pará. (Unattested.)
  • Nheéngatu / Niangatú / Lingua Geral - a language spoken by the mixed population on both banks of the Amazon River and in the past century used in intertribal and commercial relations.
Guarani (Karani, Abañéem) dialects
Guaranized languages
  • Shetá / Aré / Yvaparé - once spoken in the interior of the state of Paraná on the Ivaí River, now extinct.
  • Serra dos Dourados (tribe with unknown name) - in the Serra dos Dourados, state of Paraná.
  • Guayaquí / Acé - spoken by a tribe in the Cordillera de Villa Rica, Paraguay.
  • Notobotocudo / Pihtadyouai - language of an extinct tribe that lived at the sources of the Uruguai River and Iguasú River, state of Santa Catarina.
Kamayurá group
  • Kamayurá / Camayura - spoken by a small tribe on the Ferro River in the Xingú basin, state of Mato Grosso.
  • Awití / Auetö / Aweti - spoken in the same region on the Culiseú River, Mato Grosso.
  • Arawiné - little known language from the 7 de setembro River, state of Mato Grosso.
Tapirapé group
Northern group
Pará group
Guiana group
Southern group
Amazonas group
Chiriguano group
Mawé group

Proto-language[edit]

Proto-Tupi–Guarani
Reconstruction ofTupi–Guarani languages
Reconstructed
ancestor

Schleicher (1998)[edit]

The following reconstructions of Proto-Tupi-Guarani are from Schleicher (1998):[5]

no. gloss Proto-Tupi-Guarani notes
1 fruit *ʔá; *ɨʔβa
2 hair *ʔáβ
3 lie down *ʔáβ/*ʔáw
4 to stand *ʔám
5 to sit *ʔapɨk
6 tie up *ʔapɨtĩ
7 fall (human) *ʔár
8 say *ʔé
9 other, companion *ʔirũ
10 tree *ʔɨ́β
11 canoe *ʔɨčár
12 swim *ʔɨtáβ
13 they *ʔŋã
14 dig *ʔók
15 eat (trans.) *ʔú
16 3rd person *aʔé
17 seed *aʔɨ̃y
18 person *aβá
19 corn *aβatí
20 bad *aíβ
21 sharp *aimbé
22 man *akʷaimbaʔé < *kuyãʔĩ-mbaʔé ?
23 head *akáŋ
24 humid, wet *akɨ́m
25 hot *-akúβ
26 rain *amán
27 other *amõ
28 far *amõ-ité
29 old man, grandfather *amõy
30 no *anĩ
31 this *áŋ
32 back *apé
33 road *apé ~ *peé
34 burn *apɨ́
35 nose *apũy
36 root *apó
37 short *apoʔá/*apuʔá
38 round *apuʔá
39 day *ár
40 walk *atá
41 fire *(t)atá
42 smoke *(t)atá-tíŋ
43 mountain *atɨ́r
44 horn *atĩ
45 tooth *-ãy
46 push *(mbo)ayán
47 parrot *ayurú
48 fly *βeβé
49 float *βeβúy
50 crack, split *βók
51 swell *βúr
52 float *βúr
53 cord *čám
54 play, amuse *-čaráy
55 worm *čeβoʔí
56 wash *čéy
57 mother *čɨ́
58 clean *čɨ́β
59 rub *čɨ́β
60 smooth *čɨ́m
61 run (water) *čɨrɨ́
62 pull off *čók
63 to bite *čuʔú
64 black *čún
65 not *eʔɨ́m
66 scratch *eʔɨ̃y
67 belly *eβék
68 eye *ečá
69 to pull *ekɨ́y
70 to live *ekó
71 wife *embi-rekó
72 you *endé
73 saliva *endɨ
74 hear *endúβ
75 knee *enɨpɨʔã
76 call *enõy
77 see *epʸák
78 name *-ér
79 much *-etá
80 leg *etɨmã
81 smell *-etún
82 stone *itá
83 I *iye, *iče
84 water *ɨ́
85 lake *ɨ-upá
86 sand *ɨʔɨtíŋ
87 drink *ɨʔú
88 earth *ɨβɨ́
89 sky *ɨβák
90 cloud *ɨβák-tíŋ
91 tree *ɨβɨrá
92 wind *ɨβɨtú
93 belly *ié
94 domestic animal *(e)ɨmbá
95 bark *ɨpé
96 night *ɨpɨtún
97 bow *ɨrapár/*ɨβɨrapár
98 dust, powder *-ɨtiʔmbór
99 know *kʷaáβ
100 sun *kʷár
101 scrubland, forest *kaʔá
102 grass, weeds *kaʔapiʔí
103 monkey *kaʔí
104 suck *kaʔmbú
105 fat *káβ
106 breast *kám
107 bone *káŋ
108 scrape *karãy
109 eat (intrans.) *karú
110 good *katú
111 get burned *káy
112 sleep *kér
113 dirty *kɨʔá
114 louse *kɨβ
115 knife *kɨčé
116 fear *čɨkɨyé
117 green *(a)kɨr
118 fat *(pi)kɨr
119 clean *kɨtíŋ-ʔók
120 to cut *kɨtĩ/*kɨti
121 tongue *kũ
122 this *ko
123 ashes *kočúβ
124 sand *kuʔí
125 back *kupé
126 boy *kurumĩ
127 bore, perforate *kutúk
128 fall (object) *kúy
129 woman *kuyã
130 manioc plant *mandí
131 die *manõ
132 why *mbaʔé
133 sing *mbaraká
134 sew *mboβúk/*mboβɨk
135 few *mbočapɨr
136 throw *(mbo)mbór
137 snake *mbóy
138 dust *-mbukú
139 give *meʔéŋ
140 child *membɨr
141 husband *mén
142 animal *miyár
143 two *mokõy
144 recount *mombeʔú
145 ear *nambí
146 beat *nupã
147 flesh *oʔó
148 green *oβɨ́
149 leaf *óβ
150 house *ók
151 we (exclusive) *ore
152 all *páβ
153 (re)count *papár
154 river *paranã
155 one *pé
156 you all *pẽẽ
157 wing *pepó
158 tobacco *petɨ́m
159 blow *peyú
160 rub *pín
161 skin *pír
162 fish *pirá
163 bark *pirér
164 child *ptáŋ/*mitáŋ
165 foot *pɨ́
166 liver *pɨʔá
167 new *pɨčačú
168 catch *pɨčɨ́k
169 wide *pɨpír
170 suck *pɨtér
171 breath *pɨtú
172 hand *pó/*mbó
173 thin *poʔí
174 fingernail *po-apẽ
175 twist *poán < *poayán ?
176 heavy *počɨ́y
177 sing, dance *poračéy
178 chest *potiʔá
179 flower *potɨ́r
180 clean *potuká < *po-kutuk ?
181 laugh *puká
182 long *pukú
183 tie (up) *pʷár
184 cure *pʷeráβ
185 cold *roʔɨ́
186 swell *rurúk
187 ashes *tanimbúk < *tatá imbúk ?
188 tapir *tapiʔír
189 white *tíŋ
190 nose *tĩ
191 pull *-tɨ́k
192 father *túβ
193 big *tuβiyáβ
194 old *tuyá
195 arrow *uʔɨ́β
196 leg *úβ
197 egg *upiʔá
198 come *úr
199 blood *uwɨ́
200 tail *uwáy
201 old (woman) *waiwĩ
202 red *-wáŋ
203 vomit *weʔén
204 bird *wɨrá
205 ax *yɨ́
206 jaguar *yaʔwár
207 moon *yačɨ́
208 star *yačɨ-tatá
209 crocodile *yakaré
210 run *yán
211 we (inclusive) *yande
212 tighten *(mbo)yár
213 to play *-yarú
214 laugh *yáy
215 speak *yeʔéŋ
216 return, come back *ye-βɨ́r
217 grass, weeds *yuʔũ
218 yellow *yúβ
219 rotten *yúk
220 kill *yuká
221 yellow *yukɨrɨ́
222 salt *yukɨ́r
223 neck *yúr
224 mouth *yurú

Lemle (1971)[edit]

The following reconstructions of Proto-Tupi-Guarani are from Lemle (1971):[6]

no. gloss Proto-Tupi-Guarani
1 to, in *pɨpe
2 accident *memwã
3 sharp *aemee
4 water
5 some *amõ
6 align, braid *pẽ
7 yellow *yub
8 tie *apɨtĩ
9 tie *pwar
10 walk *ata
11 tapir *tapiʔir
12 tightten *momyk
13 squeeze *pɨcɨk
14 that *pe
15 bow *ɨbɨrapar
16 tree *ʔɨb
17 wing *pepo
18 grandfather *amõy
19 fat *kab
20 lard *yanɨ
21 stomach, liver *pɨʔa
22 stomach *ɨe
23 stomach *ebek
24 hit *nupã
25 drink *ɨʔu
26 animal *eɨmab
27 mouth *yuru
28 float *bebɨy
29 good *katu
30 white *tiŋ
31 play *yemocaray
32 hole *kwar
33 head *akaŋ
34 hair *ʔab
35 fall *ʔar
36 path *pe, *ape
37 field *yũ
38 canoe *ɨar
39 grass *kapiʔi
40 meat *oʔo
41 house *ok
42 bark *pe
43 corn drink *kawĩ
44 dig *ɨbɨkoy
45 dig *yoʔok
46 basket *karamemwã
47 sky *ɨbak
48 call *enõy
49 full *por
50 smell *etun
51 horn *atĩ
52 horn *ʔak
53 suck *pɨter
54 rain *aman
55 ashes *tanimuk
56 coati *kwati
57 snake *moy
58 scratch *eʔɨ̃y
59 eat *ʔu
60 companion, brother *ʔirũ
61 long *puku
62 string *cam
63 flow *cɨrɨk
64 cut *kɨtĩ
65 back *ape
66 back *kupe
67 sew *mobɨk, *mobɨbɨk
68 grow *akakuwab
69 give *meʔeŋ
70 finger *pwã
71 lie *ʔab
72 tooth *ãy
73 draw *kwatiar
74 day *ar
75 two *mokõy
76 sleep *ker
77 he *aʔe
78 push *moayan
79 rub *pin
80 rub *kɨtɨk
81 wife *emireko
82 stand *puʔam
83 star *yacɨtata
84 ɪ *(i)ce
85 knife *kɨce
86 speak *yeʔeŋ
87 full *ʔɨtarõ
88 thin *poʔi
89 arrow *uʔɨb
90 flower *potɨr, *ɨbotɨr
91 fire *tata
92 leaf *ob
93 cold *roʔɨ, *roʔɨca
94 fruit *ʔa
95 smoke *tatatiŋ, *catatiŋ
96 tobacco *petɨm
97 pierce *kutuk
98 claw *pɨcãpẽ
99 like *ʔarõ
100 large *tubicab
101 man *aba
102 island *ɨpaʔũ
103 swell *bubur
104 swell *ruru
105 space *paʔũ
106 go *co
107 alligator *yakare
108 knee *enɨpɨʔã
109 throw *momor
110 lake *ɨpab, *ɨupab
111 wash *yocey, *ey, *c-ey, *yac-ay
112 tongue *ape-kũ, *kũ
113 smooth *cɨm
114 far *-mɨrɨb
115 moon *yacɨ
116 monkey *kaʔi
117 ax *yɨ
118 mother *cɨ
119 command *pway
120 manioc *maniʔok
121 hand *po
122 left hand *acu
123 husband *men
124 kill *yuka
125 woods *kaʔa
126 bad *aib, *aɨb
127 boy *kunumĩ
128 corn *abati
129 wet *akɨm
130 bite *cuʔu
131 die *manõ
132 hill *ɨbɨtɨr, *ɨbɨʔam (+ -usu)
133 move *mɨ̃y
134 many *eta, *c-eta
135 woman *kuyã
136 variety of bird *mɨtũ
137 swim *ɨtab
138 nose, beak *tĩ
139 night *pɨtun
140 night *pɨca
141 name *er
142 we (excl.) *ore
143 we (incl.) *yane
144 new *pɨcacu
145 cloud *ɨbatiŋ
146 hollow *ɨbɨ̃y
147 eye *eca
148 jaguar *yawar
149 ear *nami
150 bone *kaŋ, *kaŋ-wer
151 hear *enub
152 egg *upiʔa
153 father *ub
154 pan *yaʔẽ
155 pan *yaẽpopo
156 parrot *ayuru
157 pass *pwan
158 bird *wɨra
159 stick *ɨbɨra
160 foot *pɨ
161 rock *ita
162 chest *potiʔa
163 breast *kam
164 fish *pira
165 skin *pir, *piruer
166 feather *ab, *c-ab, *c-a-wer
167 leg *etɨmã
168 heavy *pocɨy
169 neck *ayur
170 person *akwa
171 louse *kɨb
172 variety of gnat *piʔũ
173 past tense *pwer
174 black *un, *c-un
175 black, dark *picun
176 burn *kay
177 burn *apɨ
178 hot *akub
179 tail *uway
180 split *mobok, *bok
181 root *apo
182 scrape *karãy
183 round *apuʔa
184 breathe *pɨtu
185 river *paranã
186 laugh *puka
187 know *kuwaab
188 sat *yukɨr
189 saliva *enɨ
190 blood *uwɨ
191 heal *pwerab
192 dry *kaŋ
193 seed *aʔɨ̃y
194 sit *apɨk
195 sun *kwaracɨ
196 blow *peyu
197 dirty *kɨʔa
198 dirty *ipib
199 bamboo *takwar
200 fear *cɨkɨye
201 land *ɨbɨ
202 all *pab
203 three *mocapɨr
204 intestines *ɨʔe
205 one *oyepeteĩ
206 fingernail *pwã-pẽ
207 wind *ɨbɨtu
208 see *epyak
209 green *obɨ
210 worm *ceboʔi
211 red *waŋ
212 red *piraŋ
213 red *pɨtaŋ
214 pour *(ʔ)ẽ
215 come *ur
216 live *eko, *ekobe
217 ffly *bebe
218 you (sing.) *ne, *ene
219 you (pl.) *pe- -ẽ
220 vomit *weʔen
221 mad *irõ

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tupi–Guarani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ O'Hagan, Zachary (with Keith Bartolomei, Natalia Chousou-Polydouri, Emily Clem, Erin Donnelly and Lev Michael). 2014. A Computational-phylogenetic Classification of Tupí-Guaraní and its Geographical Spread. Language Variation and Change, October 20, Chicago.
  3. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  4. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  5. ^ Schleicher, Charles Owen. 1998. Comparative And Internal Reconstrution of the Tupi-Guarani Language Family. Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisonsin - Madison.
  6. ^ Lemle, Miriam. 1971. Internal classification of the Tupi-Guarani linguistic family. In David Bendor-Samuel (ed.), Tupi studies I, 107-129. Norman: Summer Institute of Linguistics of the University of Oklahoma.

External links[edit]