Tupolev PAK DA

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
PAK DA
Role Stealth strategic bomber
National origin Russia
Manufacturer Tupolev, United Aircraft Corporation
Introduction 2028–2029
Status In development
Primary user Russian Air Force
Unit cost
US$160 million (projected)[1]

The Tupolev PAK DA or PAK DA (Russian: ПАК ДА, short for: Перспективный авиационный комплекс дальней авиации, romanizedPerspektivnyi aviatsionnyi kompleks dal'ney aviatsii, lit. ''Prospective aviation complex for long-range aviation''),[2] factory designation Izdeliye 80, is a next-generation stealth strategic bomber being developed by Tupolev for the Russian Air Force.[3] The PAK DA is set to complement and eventually replace older variants, namely the Tupolev Tu-95 and Tupolev Tu-160, in Russia's Air Force service.[4] The first flight is scheduled for 2025–2026 with serial production to follow in 2028–2029.[5]

Technical parameters of the aircraft should include subsonic speed, 12,000 km operational range and possibility to carry both conventional and nuclear payloads up to 30 tons.[6]

Development[edit]

First mentions about Russia's next-generation long-range strategic bomber dates back to late 1990s, when formation of requirements for the aircraft had begun. However, Russian Air Force handed the first set of technical and tactical requirments for the new bomber to Tupolev only in December 2007 and financing of R&D work started in 2008.[7] According to some early reports, the PAK DA was to be heavily based on the supersonic Tupolev Tu-160 bomber,[2] but later reports regarding to the new bomber, including a televised address from then-Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, seemed to imply that the aircraft will be an entirely new design.[8]

On 3 September 2009, Russian Defence Ministry awarded Tupolev a three year R&D contract to undertake studies for new long-range bomber. According to the President-General Designer of Tupolev Igor Shevchuk, "this should be a fundamentally new aircraft, based on conceptually new solutions".[8]

In June 2012, then-Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin questioned the need for a new bomber, pointing out the high advancement in air defence and anti-missile defence technology saying "these aircraft will not get anywhere. Not ours, not theirs." The Chief of the General Staff, Nikolai Makarov, responded by stating that work on the bomber is ongoing and that the design was superior to American aircraft.[9][10] On 9 June 2012, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev stated that the PAK DA was confirmed as planned.[11][12] Russian President Vladimir Putin in his statement on 14 June 2012 also urged to start development of a new long-range bomber.[13]

On 27 August 2012, Dmitry Rogozin had called for a bomber to be capable of hypersonic speed in order to better match the air defenses of the United States. However, it is unclear whether his comments refer to the bomber being hypersonic or to its ability to carry hypersonic air-launched missiles. Rogozin's statement came just days after a test of U.S. Boeing X-51 Waverider hypersonic demonstrator vehicle.[14]

In March 2013, it was reported that the selected PAK DA design would be a subsonic flying wing and that emphasis will be on stealth technology rather than on PAK DA's capability to overcome supersonic speeds.[15][16][17]

Anatoly Zhikharev has noted that an unmanned strategic bomber may follow the PAK DA after 2040.[18]

On 30 August 2013, a Russian Defense Ministry source revealed that the PAK DA will be equipped with advanced types of precision-guided weapons, including hypersonic weapons. The bomber itself will fly at subsonic speeds. Hypersonic technology is being pursued so that Russia does not fall behind American development of similar weapons.[19]

In November 2013, a decision was taken to speed up work on the PAK DA and begin full-scale R&D work in 2014.[20] In December 2013, Anatoly Zhikharev reported the planning stage was completed in less than one year and development work was to begin in 2014. He further noted the first flight would commence in 2019 with serial production to begin in 2025, alongside the ongoing modernization of Russia's existing bomber fleet.[21]

In February 2014, then-Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade Andrey Boginsky stated, that Russia was attempting to acquire Chinese investment in the project.[22]

In April 2014, head of Russia's United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) Mikhail Pogosyan announced that the Tupolev Design Bureau had finalised the design of the PAK DA and that the project was moving to the intermediate phase - i.e. completion of the design and construction of a prototype.[23][24]

Engine for the PAK DA will be derived from the upgraded Kuznetsov NK-32 Tier 2 turbofan, intended for modernized Tupolev Tu-160M bombers. According to the United Engine Corporation (UEC), 8 billion rubles are to be allocated for the development of the engine that will be produced by JSC Kuznetsov in Samara.[25][26] The engine is to provide the PAK DA with a capability to perform 30 hours nonstop flight, while being resistant to temperatures from minus 60 to plus 50 °C and even effects of nuclear explosion. The service life of the engine is reportedly 12 years with possibility of extending it to 21 years.[27]

In March 2015 it became known that the construction of the PAK DA prototypes and serial aircraft will take place at the Kazan Aircraft Production Association (KAPO) plant in Kazan. The Russian Defence Ministry allocated about 5 billion rubles for reconstruction and technical re-equipment of the production base, to prepare the plant for construction of the new bomber.[28]

Development of the PAK DA will be carried out simultaneously with serial production of the upgraded Tu-160M2,[29] although this later led to several postponements in the programme.[30]

In July 2015, representatives from the United Instrument Manufacturing Corporation (UIMC), now part of Roselectronics, announced the company is developing "one-of-a-kind communications system" for the PAK DA bomber.[31]

On 1 March 2017, it was reported that the first full-size model of the PAK DA bomber was built, amongst various scale mock-ups of different configurations.[32]

In February 2019, the final draft of the PAK DA was approved and all documents for construction of the bomber were signed.[33] The aircraft is set to be rolled out in 2021–2022. However, as a result of the ongoing modernization of Russia's existing bomber fleet, and due to massive purchases of upgraded Tu-160M2 bombers, it is believed that the Russian Defence Ministry will procure only a small number of PAK DA bombers.[34]

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Russia Moves Ahead With Future Strategic Stealth Bomber Project". The Diplomat. 2 March 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b "PAKDA a Russian Stealth bomber". defenceaviation.com. 6 July 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  3. ^ "Russia to develop new strategic bomber by 2017". Sputnik (news agency). 23 December 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  4. ^ "Putin says Russia will build new strategic bomber, part of modernizaton effort". startribune.com. 1 March 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  5. ^ "Первый полет ПАК ДА запланирован к 2025 году". TASS. 27 April 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  6. ^ "«ПАК-ДА» станет важным элементом российской «гиперзвуковой триады»". gosnovosti.com. 20 April 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  7. ^ "ПАК ДА (проект)". militaryrussia.ru. 15 September 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  8. ^ a b ""Туполев" создаст новый самолет дальней авиации". vpk.name. 4 September 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  9. ^ "Rogozin Doubts Need to Develop New Strategic Bomber". en.rian.ru. 6 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  10. ^ "Russian PAK-DA bomber in doubt, says minister". Flight Global. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  11. ^ "Russia Confirms G5 Bomber Plans". Sputnik (news agency). 9 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  12. ^ "PM Medvedev approves new bomber for Russian Air Force". Sputnik (news agency). 10 June 2012. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  13. ^ "Putin Calls for New Long-Range Bomber and UAVs". Sputnik (news agency). 14 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  14. ^ "Deputy PM Repeats Call For Hypersonic Bomber". Sputnik (news agency). 27 August 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  15. ^ "ВВС России утвердили проект нового бомбардировщика". lenta.ru. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  16. ^ "Бомбардировщик пятого поколения будет дозвуковым". iz.ru. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  17. ^ "ПАК ДА построят с применением стелс-технологий". Телеканал «Звезда». 12 July 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  18. ^ "Russia Could Deploy Unmanned Bomber After 2040 - Air Force". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  19. ^ "Russia's New Bomber to Carry Hypersonic Weapons – Source". en.ria.ru. 30 August 2013. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  20. ^ "Russia Speeds Up Development of New Strategic Bomber". en.ria.ru. 28 November 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Russia to Test-Fly New Bomber in 2019". Sputnik (news agency). 24 December 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  22. ^ "Russia and China can jointly develop bomber: Voice of Russia". wantchinatimes.com. 17 February 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  23. ^ "Russia finalises PAK-DA bomber design". janes.com. 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  24. ^ "«Туполев» завершил проектирование нового бомбардировщика". lenta.ru. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  25. ^ "An engine for PAK DA bomber will be derived from the engine, which powers Tu-160". ruaviation.com. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  26. ^ "СМИ: в Самаре разработают двигатель для российского стратегического бомбардировщика ПАК ДА". TASS. 9 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  27. ^ Пешков, Александр (1 October 2018). "«Изделие 80»: раскрыты подробности о двигателе ПАК ДА". Телеканал «Звезда». Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  28. ^ "На Казанский авиазавод «прилетело» загадочное «изделие 80»". business-gazeta.ru. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  29. ^ "Putin made decision to revive production of Tu-160M strategic bomber — Air Force commander". TASS. 28 May 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  30. ^ "Сроки проекта ПАК ДА сдвинутся из-за старта производства Ту-160М2". ria.ru. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  31. ^ "Russia Developing Unique Communications Systems for Next-Generation Bomber". Sputnik (news agency). 13 July 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  32. ^ "Russian manufacturer creates first full-size model of future strategic bomber — source". TASS. 1 March 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  33. ^ "Утвержден окончательный облик ПАК ДА". Телеканал «Звезда». 14 February 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  34. ^ "Выбор настоящих «стратегов»". Kommersant. 14 May 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.

External links[edit]