# Turbo-diesel

Inlet manifold of a 1980s turbocharged Diesel engine (BMW M21)
A Diesel engine turbocharger
A Mazda3 with a modern common rail 1.6 liter turbodiesel engine (PSA) with variable geometry turbocharger, intercooler, 16 valves, double overhead camshafts and piezo controlled 7-stage direct injection.
A Land Rover 2.5-litre 4-cylinder turbodiesel engine is typical of 'first generation' automotive turbodiesels, with mechanical indirect injection, 8 pushrod operated valves and no intercooler. The turbocharger itself is visible in the upper centre of this picture.

Turbo-diesel, also written as turbodiesel and turbo diesel, refers to any Diesel engine equipped with a turbocharger. Turbocharging is common in modern car and truck Diesel engines to produce higher power outputs, lower emissions levels, and improved efficiency from a similar capacity of engine.[1] Turbo-Diesels in automobiles offer a higher refinement level than their naturally aspirated counterparts.[2]

## Principle

In general, a turbocharger artificially increases the engine's compression by blowing an extra air-amount into the combustion chamber. This has two effects: An increase in engine efficiency and an increase of air mass present, allowing for more fuel to be burnt, which improves the torque output. Diesel engines are ideal for turbocharging because of the way their torque output is controlled:[3] They solely rely on quality torque adjustment (manipulation of ${\displaystyle \lambda _{v}}$), meaning that not the quantity of air-fuel mixture, but the quality of this mixture is manipulated. This is done solely by manipulating the amount of fuel injected. The air-mass does not have to precisely match the fuel mass (which would be ${\displaystyle \lambda _{v}=1}$), as the Diesel engine relies on manipulation of ${\displaystyle \lambda _{v}}$.[4] Having a very lean air-fuel mixture (${\displaystyle \lambda _{v}>1}$), caused by blowing additional air into the combustion chamber with a turbocharger, is therefore not a problem. An additional advantage of the Diesel engine is the lack of fuel during the compression stroke. In Diesel engines, the fuel is injected near top dead centre (TDC), when the piston is near its highest position. The fuel then ignites due to compression heat. Preignition, caused by the artificial turbocharger compression increase during the compression stroke, cannot occur.[5] Adding an intercooler to a turbocharged engine further increases engine performance by cooling down the air-mass and thus allowing more air-mass per volume.[6][7]

## History

The turbocharger was invented in the early 20th century by Alfred Büchi, a Swiss engineer and the head of Diesel engine research at Gebruder Sulzer engine manufacturing company in Winterthur. Büchi specifically intended his device to be used on Diesel engines. His patent of 1905 noted the efficiency improvements that a turbocharger could bring to Diesel engines [8][9][10] which in 1922 had first been developed for use in road transportation.[11]

At the time, metal and bearing technology was not sufficiently advanced to allow a practical turbocharger to be built. The first practical turbodiesels were marine engines fitted to two German passenger liners - the Danzig and the Preussen in 1923, each having two 10-cylinder engines of 2,500 horsepower (the naturally aspirated version of the same engine produced 1,750 HP). By the late 1920s, several Diesel engine builders were making large turbodiesels for marine and stationary use, such as Sulzer Bros., MAN, Daimler-Benz, and Paxman.[12][13]

Turbocharger technology was improved greatly by developments during World War II and subsequent development of the gas turbine. It was now possible to use smaller turbochargers on smaller, higher-speed engines. Diesel locomotives with turbodiesels began appearing in the late 1940s and 1950s.[14][15]

In 1951 MAN presented a turbocharged version of their MK26 truck, although it was never put into mass production.[16] Series production of turbocharged Diesel trucks commenced in 1954, when both MAN 750TL1 and Volvo Titan Turbo were introduced to the markets.[17] The building of the Interstate Highway System in the USA from 1956 made long-distance road transportation of goods more attractive. To keep up with general traffic, more powerful engines came in increasing demand. Cummins, Detroit, and CAT all had turbo-charging as an option by the late-1960s. In Europe, legislation was introduced in Germany mandating a minimum power-to-weight ratio for trucks; by the late 1960s, a 38-tonne consist had to have at least 304 PS.[18] Most manufacturers met these requirement with large-displacement natural aspiration engines, some with the option of large-displacement or turbo-charging, while Scania and Volvo where among those that only provided turbocharged trucks that met the demands. Turbo-charging was not preferred initially as the engines were perceived to be less reliable, however the method won a decisive victory by the mid-1970s as the 1973 oil crisis increased fuel costs. The last market to see the absolute penetration of turbo Diesels was Japan, where legislation on particle emissions effectively mandated natural aspiration engines until effective particle filters became available.

Experiments with smaller turbodiesels of a size suitable for an automobile were carried out in the 1960s. The Rover Company (already a builder of industrial gas turbines) built experimental 2.5 liter 4-cylinder turbodiesels (including versions with an intercooler) in 1963, but did not put the design into production. The first turbodiesel production car was the Mercedes-Benz 300SD (series W116, engine OM617.950), introduced in May 1978.[19] It used a Garrett AiResearch turbocharger, and was produced only for the United States. In Europe, the first turbodiesel was the Peugeot 604 in early 1979 (model year 1978). Turbodiesel cars began to be widely built and sold in Europe during the late 1980s and early 1990s, a trend that has continued to the present day.[20][21] In France, due to a tax structure which gave turbodiesels a comparative advantage, sales shot up earlier, reaching 33,000 passenger car sales in 1983 (1.6 percent of the overall market).[22][23]

Since the 1990s, the compression ratio of turbodiesel engines has been declining. This is due to better specific power and better exhaust-emission behaviour of turbocharged engines with a lower compression ratio. Indirect injected engines used to have a compression ratio of ${\displaystyle \varepsilon \geq 18.5}$, which is higher than the compression ratio of modern turbocharged Diesels (${\displaystyle 16.5\leq \varepsilon \leq 18.5}$). Some Diesel engines tuned to comply with the Euro 6 emission standard have a low compression ratio of ${\displaystyle \varepsilon =14}$.[24]

### Turbodiesels in the United States

During the 1990s, turbodiesel engines were mainly used in the United States for light trucks. An example is the Ford Power Stroke engine series, mounted on Ford F-Series Super Duty pickup trucks, the E-series vans and the Excursion sport utility vehicles. In 1989, Dodge started making light duty trucks with a 5.9 liter Cummins turbo-diesel engine.

As demand for Diesel engines in standard sedan and station wagon cars in the United States has traditionally been much lower than in saloon and estate cars in Europe, the development of smaller automotive turbodiesels has (in general) been led by European manufacturers in recent years. Diesel fuel in the USA (prior to late 2006) had a significantly higher level of sulphur than the fuel used in Europe, which meant that Diesel cars from European makers had to either be fitted with specially developed fuel and emissions control system for the (prohibitively small) North American market, or simply could not be sold in that market.

After ultra low sulphur diesel was introduced in the United States in October 2006, automakers began to offer turbodiesel models which could take advantage of it to reduce emissions. Manufacturers such as Volkswagen, BMW, Audi, and Mercedes-Benz have been releasing cars with four- and six-cylinder turbodiesels. Chrysler marketed the Jeep Grand Cherokee with a Mercedes-Benz-supplied CRD engine for the 2007-2008.5 model years. Porsche released the Cayenne Diesel in the U.S. for the 2013 model year, and has announced that the Macan will have a turbodiesel available in the 2016 model year.

Availability of turbodiesel models increased in the 2014 model year, as a few more manufacturers introduced passenger cars and sport utility vehicles powered by turbodiesel motors. GM began selling the 2014 Chevrolet Cruze Clean Turbo Diesel in 2013. The 2014 Jeep Grand Cherokee with the 3.0L EcoDiesel V6 engine was made available at the end of 2013. This marked the return of a turbodiesel option after a five-year absence. In addition, manufacturers have started marketing vans and light-duty trucks with turbodiesels again. The 2014 Ram 1500 has an EcoDiesel engine option.

The 2015 Ford Transit van is available with a 3.2L I-5 Power Stroke turbodiesel option. Mazda is developing a U.S.-spec SKYACTIV-D engine for the Mazda6. As of September 2014, there is no ETA. The Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon midsize pickup trucks will have a 2.8L Duramax Turbo-Diesel engine available as an option starting with the 2016 model year.[25] They will be the first U.S.-market midsize trucks with an available turbodiesel engine. The next-generation Nissan Titan pickup truck will have a Cummins-sourced 5L V8 turbodiesel available.[26]

## Characteristics

Improvements in power, fuel economy, and noise, vibration, and harshness in both small- and large-capacity turbodiesels over the last decade have spurred their widespread adoption in certain markets, notably in Europe where they (as of 2014) make up over 50% of new car registrations.[27][28] Turbodiesels are generally considered more flexible for automotive uses than naturally aspirated Diesels, which have strong low-speed torque outputs but lack power at higher speeds. Turbodiesels can be designed to have a more acceptable spread of both power and torque over their speed range or, if being built for commercial use, can be designed to improve either torque or power at a given speed depending on the exact use. Naturally aspirated Diesels, almost without exception, have a lower power output than a petrol engine of the same capacity whilst the same time requiring stronger (and thus heavier) internal components such as the pistons and crankshaft to withstand the greater stresses of the Diesel engine's much higher compression ratio. These factors give naturally aspirated Diesels a poor power-to-weight ratio. Turbocharger units weigh very little but can offer significant power, torque, and efficiency improvements. Fitting a turbocharger can bring a Diesel engine's power-to-weight ratio up to the same level as an equivalent petrol unit, making turbodiesels desirable for automotive use, where manufacturers aim for comparable power outputs and handling qualities across their range, regardless of the type of power unit chosen.

## References

1. ^ Power for the Future, Dan McCosh. Popular Science Oct 1993
2. ^ Motoring with David Tomlinson. Country life, Volume 186. S.n, 1992
3. ^ Konrad Reif (ed.): Dieselmotor-Management im Überblick. 2nd edition. Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-658-06554-6. p. 41
4. ^ Stefan Pischinger, Ulrich Seiffert (ed.): Vieweg Handbuch Kraftfahrzeugtechnik. 8th edition, Springer, Wiesbaden 2016. ISBN 978-3-658-09528-4. p. 348.
5. ^ Konrad Reif (ed.): Grundlagen Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik. Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden 2017, ISBN 978-3-658-12635-3. pp. 16
6. ^ Günter P. Merker, Rüdiger Teichmann (ed.): Grundlagen Verbrennungsmotoren – Funktionsweise · Simulation · Messtechnik, 7th edition, Springer, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-658-03194-7, p. 439
7. ^ Helmut Tschöke, Klaus Mollenhauer, Rudolf Maier (ed.): Handbuch Dieselmotoren, 8th edition, Springer, Wiesbaden 2018, ISBN 978-3-658-07696-2, p. 702
8. ^ Porsche Turbo: The Full History. Peter Vann. MotorBooks International, 11 Jul 2004
9. ^ Compressor Performance: Aerodynamics for the User. M. Theodore Gresh. Newnes, 29 Mar 2001
10. ^ Diesel and gas turbine progress, Volume 26. Diesel Engines, inc., 1960
11. ^ How It Works: Science and Technology, Volume 9 Marshall Cavendish Corporation 0 Reviews Marshall Cavendish, 2003
12. ^ Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering International, Volume 56. Whitehall Press, 1933
13. ^ The New illustrated science and invention encyclopedia: how it works, Volume 6. Donald Clarke, Mark Dartford. H.S. Stuttman, 1994
14. ^ Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Railway Locomotives, P. Ransome-Wallis, Courier Dover Publications, 9 Mar 2001
15. ^ The Model Railroader's Guide to Diesel Locomotives, Jeff Wilson, Kalmbach Publishing, Co., 1 Dec 2009
16. ^ "150 Years Rudolf Diesel" MAN Nutzfahrzeuge
17. ^ Trucks. John Tipler. Book Sales, 1 Aug 1999
18. ^ The Commercial motor, Volume 133. Temple Press Ltd., 1971
19. ^ Popular Science Jan 1979
20. ^ Mercedes-Benz unveils a new kind of performance automobile: the turbodiesel 300 SD Sedan, The Rotarian Aug 1978
21. ^ Sport Compact Turbos & Blowers. Joe Pettitt. CarTech Inc, 13 May 2005
22. ^ "Pas (encore) d'inquiétude pour les turbos" [No concern for the turbos (yet)]. l'Automobile (in French). Georges Dargaud (459): 8. September 1984. M 1120-459.
23. ^ Auto Katalog 1985 (in German). 28. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. 1984. p. 256. Overall registrations in 1983: 2,012,672
24. ^ Rüdiger Teichmann, Günter P. Merker (publisher): Grundlagen Verbrennungsmotoren : Funktionsweise, Simulation, Messtechnik , 7th issue, Springer, Wiesbaden, 2014, ISBN 978-3-658-03195-4, p. 182 and 183
25. ^ "2015 Colorado: Small Trucks - Mid Size Trucks". Retrieved 15 October 2014.
26. ^ "Cummins 5.0 Turbo V8". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
27. ^ Diesel in America
28. ^ "Exxon's contrarian bet on diesel", International New York Times #40,847, 11 July 2014, page 15