Turceni Power Station

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Turceni Power Station
2006 0610VTurceni0092.JPG
Plant south cooling towers and all smokestacks viewed from the east
Official nameComplexul Energetic Turceni
CountryRomania
LocationGorj County
Coordinates44°40′11″N 23°24′28″E / 44.66972°N 23.40778°E / 44.66972; 23.40778Coordinates: 44°40′11″N 23°24′28″E / 44.66972°N 23.40778°E / 44.66972; 23.40778
StatusOperational
Commission date1978
Owner(s)Termoelectrica
Thermal power station
Primary fuelSub-bituminous coal
Cooling sourceJiu River
7 ×  natural draft cooling towers
Power generation
Units operational5 × 330 MW
1 × 330 MW (mothballed)
Units cancelled1 × 330 MW
Units decommissioned1 × 330 MW
Nameplate capacity1,650 MW
Annual net output7,367 GW·h (2011)

The Turceni Power Station is situated in Gorj County (South-Western Romania), on the banks of the Jiu River, halfway between the cities of Craiova and Târgu Jiu.

It is Romania's largest electricity producer and one of the large thermal power plants in Europe having 6 units of 330 MW net each. But only 5 units are operational, thus totalling a capacity of 1,650 MW. An eighth unit was not completed, but dismantled. One unit was decommissioned and a second unit, unit 6, was refurbished and mothballed. Unit 6 may be financed to be modernized, rehabilitated, and operational in the future.

It uses coal from Jilţ Coal Mine and Tehomir underground mine.[1]

The powerplant has four smokestacks, each 280 metres (920 ft) tall.

Background[edit]

The Turceni power plant is sponsored by Complexul Energetic Oltenia. The project envisaged eight units 309 MW net each, but then increased to 330. The first seven units entered service from 1978 to 1987. The eighth unit was not commissioned and later dismantled. Unit 2 was later decommissioned, and unit 6 was refurbished and mothballed. Unit 4 and 5 were afterwards refurbished. The specific coal that the power plant uses is lignite, a coal which is not as environmentally sustainable as other types of coal due to its high carbon emissions. So far, there are 2 lignite mines in Romania which supply the resources for the units.

Design and specification[edit]

Each unit is composed of a boiler, a turbine and a generator. The Babcock licensed boiler, of the tower forced circulation type and intermediate overheating is rated at 1,035 t steam per hour. Slag and ash is hydraulic removed. The boiler temperature output is 540 °C (1,004 °F) at 199 bars (2,890 psi). The steam turbine drives a synchronous hydrogen cooled Alsthom/ABB licensed generator, which delivers 309 MW net, 330 MW gross power. Cooling water is provided by the Jiu River and condenser cooling is delivered by 7 × natural draft cooling towers in countercurrent. The power plant is required to have some regulations on their sulfur emissions, so the project may be financed by a yen-based official development assistance loan from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) to install flue gas desulfurization units on the power plants to remove around 95% of SO2.[2]

Operations[edit]

The plant supply is connected by 6 × 110 kV lines and output goes to 4 × 400 kV lines through 24 × 400 kV transformers.

Unit Commissioned Status
Turceni - 1 July 1978 decommissioned
Turceni - 2 August 1979 decommissioned
Turceni - 3 August 1980 operational
Turceni - 4 December 1981 refurbished, operational
Turceni - 5 August 1983 refurbished, operational
Turceni - 6 September 1985 refurbished, mothballed
Turceni - 7 November 1987 decommissioned
Turceni - 8 - cancelled

Production[edit]

Starting 2012, production data is given by Autorităţii Naţionale de Reglementare în domeniul Energiei (National Regulatory Authority for Energy) as part of S.C. Complexul Energetic Oltenia S.A. generation, together with the Rovinari, Ișalnița and Craiova plants.

Year GW·h Year GW·h[3]
2012 - 2007 6,702
2011 7,367 2006 6,883
2010 6,167 2005 5,675
2009 6,220 2004 5,684
2008 7,681 2003 6,799

Costs and Financing[edit]

The rehabilitation of Unit 6 will cost approximately EUR 266 million, and is being financed by the EBRD. Initially, the EBRD offered a loan of EUR 150 million in 2008-2009. After the rehabilitation and start of the project, the EBRD will provide about EUR 200 million using an A/B loan structure towards the Turceni project with the hopes of improving energy efficiency, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, decreasing pollution, and implementing modern technology.[4]

Controversies[edit]

There are many controversies surrounding the project and whether the European Bank for Research and Development (EBRD) should finance the rehabilitation of this project. In 2009, the Health and Environment Alliance concluded that the Turceni power plant was considered the second most polluting industrial facility in all of Europe.[5] The gross amount of primary energy consumption in Romania has also decreased significantly over the last 10 years, with an average annual decrease of around 5.66%.[6] This drastic decrease stirs up controversy on whether or not the plant is worth being financed by the EBRD.

The lack of transparency and regulatory precautions are another reason why the project has many naysayers. Since Unit 6 had already existed before its closure and now its rehabilitation, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was not mandatory. An EIA is a key component in properly addressing potential environmental consequences of a project, and not having on for this grand power plant has made environmental NGOs and other members of the public uneasy. There have also been alleged cases of money laundering, suspicious payments, and bribery.

The harmful effects caused on the surrounding environment has been a topic of controversy as well. The continuation of building the unit and furthering the project will cause large amounts of deforestation, as mines will have to be enlarged to provide extra supplies of energy. These reasons have brought organizations such as Greenpeace Romania and CEE Bankwatch Network to verbally protest against the sponsors and the EBRD. The Turceni Power Plant has already negatively impacted the local Romanians and the environment; in 2013, the Oltenia Energy Complex in Turceni was responsible for the accidental spillage of coal ash. This accident spread to approximately 10 households and 15 hectares of agricultural lands.[7] Many months after the spillage, these villagers were still facing the negative benefits of the spillage, as their houses and surrounding areas were not cleaned up. This incident caused a deep distrust and further controversy towards the rehabilitation of the power plant.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "General data". www.eturceni.ro (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  2. ^ "Yokogawa's Integrated Solutions Control FGD Processes at Romania's Largest Power Plant" (PDF). yokogawa.com. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
  3. ^ "Raporte anuale(annual reports)". www.anre.ro (in Romanian). Autorităţii Naţionale de Reglementare în domeniul Energiei (National Regulatory Authority for Energy). Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  4. ^ "Turceni coal power plant rehabilitation July 2014" (PDF). bankwatch.org. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
  5. ^ "The Unpaid Health Bill" (PDF). env-health.org. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
  6. ^ "Energy Efficiency trends and policies in Romania" (PDF). odyssee-mure.eu. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
  7. ^ "The future is ash-grey for people in Turceni, Romania". bankwatch.org. Retrieved 2017-11-01.

External links[edit]