True thrush

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True thrushes
Kos Turdus merulaRB.jpg
Male common blackbird
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Turdidae
Genus: Turdus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

Some 65, and see text.

True thrushes are medium-sized mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the genus Turdus of the thrush family, Thrush. The genus name Turdus is Latin for "thrush".[1]

The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution, with species in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. Several species have also colonised some oceanic islands, and two species have been introduced to New Zealand. Several species are migratory.

While some species are often split out of Turdus, the two small thrushes formerly separated in Platycichla by many authors have been restored to the present genus in recent years.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

Extant species[edit]

Eighty-two extant species are recognized:[2]

Redwing (Turdus iliacus) in Iceland

Extinct species[edit]

Former species[edit]

Formerly, some authorities also considered the following species (or subspecies) as species within the genus Turdus:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 293. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4. 
  2. ^ "IOC World Bird List 6.4". IOC World Bird List Datasets. doi:10.14344/ioc.ml.6.4. 
  3. ^ Australia, Atlas of Living. "Pachycephala (Alisterornis) rufiventris rufiventris | Atlas of Living Australia". bie.ala.org.au. Retrieved 2017-02-06. 
  4. ^ "Colluricincla harmonica - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-17. 
  5. ^ The Ibis. British Ornithologists' Union. 1873-01-01. 
  6. ^ "Oriolus monacha - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-28. 
  7. ^ "Myiagra inquieta - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-26. 
  8. ^ "Brachypodius atriceps - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10. 
  9. ^ "Pycnonotus dispar - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  10. ^ "Pycnonotus cafer - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
  11. ^ "Pycnonotus aurigaster - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
  12. ^ "Pycnonotus nigricans - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-26. 
  13. ^ "Pycnonotus capensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  14. ^ "Pycnonotus barbatus barbatus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  15. ^ "Pycnonotus barbatus arsinoe - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  16. ^ "Pycnonotus bimaculatus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-29. 
  17. ^ "Pycnonotus goiavier analis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-30. 
  18. ^ "Andropadus importunus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-04-10. 
  19. ^ "Hypsipetes borbonicus (Reunion Bulbul) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-10-25. 
  20. ^ Newton, Alfred (1870). Extracts from the Record of Zoological Literature, Vols. I-VI: Containing the Portions Relating to Aves, from 1864 to 1869. Taylor & Francis. 
  21. ^ "Hypsipetes madagascariensis (Madagascar Bulbul) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-10-29. 
  22. ^ "Hypsipetes leucocephalus (Himalayan Black Bulbul) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-11-01. 
  23. ^ "Hypsipetes philippinus (Philippine Bulbul) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-11-03. 
  24. ^ "Hypsipetes amaurotis (Brown-eared Bulbul) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-11-06. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Voelker, G.; Rohwer, S.; Bowie, R.C.K.; Outlaw, D.C. (2007). "Molecular systematics of a speciose, cosmopolitan songbird genus: defining the limits of, and relationships among, the Turdus thrushes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 42 (2): 422–434. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.07.016. PMID 16971142. 

External links[edit]