Turi (Pashtun tribe)
The Turi or Torai are a sub-tribe of the Karlani Pashtun tribe, inhabiting the Kurram Valley, in Kurram Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, with a smaller number living across the Durand line in the Paktia province of Afghanistan. They speak Pashto and are adherents of the Twelver Shia sect of Islam.
Basically the Turis came into prominence by the end of fifteenth century. They use to wander in nomadic fashion between Aryob Valley of Paktia and Kurram valley. Being nomadic, they would seasonally migrate in the winter, cross the Kurram Valley which was back then inhabited by the Bangash, and travel as far as the Indus River. From Nilab, on the bank of Indus River near Attock, turi's appeared to have annually immigrated during the hot weather back to the Kurram Valley. The Mughal Emperor Babur mentions the Turis in Kurram in his diary of 1506.
In the 18th century, the Turi and their cousin tribe Zazi came into quarrel with the Bangash of the Kurram Valley which was then part of Durrani Empire (Kurram came under the British Raj after the Second Anglo-Afghan War of 1879-80). The Turis succeeded to capture the Paywar Pass, Shalozan and Malana, pushed the Bangash of the area southeastwards towards the Miranzai Valley, and eventually the Turis settled in the upper Kurram Valley.
After the annexation of Kohat by the British, the Turis, in league with other clans, repeatedly harassed the Miranzai border, attacking the Bangash and Khattak villages in Kohat. In 1854 they made a treaty, but their raids continued, though punitive measures were not resorted to, as the tribe was held to be under the control of the Amir of Afghanistan.
However their raids increased in audacity, and in 1856 a force under Brigadier-General Neville Bowles Chamberlain entered the valley. Following this, compensation (the payment of which was guaranteed by the governor Ghulam Jan) was exacted, the Turis agreeing to pay 8,630 rupees. In 1859 the Turis joined the British expedition against the Kabul Khel Wazirs, but their feud with that tribe subsequently gave much trouble, with reprisals being undertaken by Wazirs in British territory for Turi offenses. In 1816, serious disturbances arose between the Bangash of Lower Kurram and the British village of Thal out of a boundary dispute. In 1877 the Turis were discontented with the oppressive administration of Shahbaz Khan, governor of Kurram, and when the Amir demanded from them a contribution of 50,000 rupees (a poll tax of 5 rupees on every adult female) and 6,000 recruits for his war against the British, they revolted and fled to the hills.
Attempts to pacify the tribe were unsuccessful for a time, but the Turis at last agreed to send a jirga to Kabul and pay a benefaction of 25,000 rupees, while Shahbaz Khan was recalled by the Amir.
In November 1878, a column under General Roberts entered Kurram from Thal, and occupied Kurram Fort on the 25th of that month. Following on from subsequent British conquests the Turis now co-operated with the British expedition against the Zaimukhts, whose hostility had been marked by the murder of Lieutenant Kinloch, and Kurram was held without further disturbance until its evacuation in October, 1880. The Turis throughout furnished supplies, their levies were employed in escorting convoys, and they, with the Bangash, petitioned that the British should take over the valley and free them from Afghan rule; but the British elected to evacuate the country and the tribe was declared independent.
Internal feuds broke out in a few months, and throughout 1882-4 the Turis were constantly fighting among themselves, as well as with the Jajis and Zaimukhts. The administration of the valley was finally undertaken by the British Government, at the request of the Turis themselves, in 1892.
Although their early dealings with the British government were inclined to turbulence, and they were involvedin the Miranzai expeditions of 1851 and 1855, the only expedition specially sent against them was the Kurram expedition of 1856. After this they settled down and engaged in trade. During the Second Afghan War they supplied Sir Frederick Roberts with guides and provisions. In 1892 they voluntarily accepted British administration and furnished a large part of the tribal militia in the Kurram Valley.
Conflict with Jihadists
The Turi have had a long history of conflict with Jihadist groups. During the Soviet–Afghan War, Sunni Mujahideen attacked the Turis and other Shias of Kurram. Kurram was the launching pad for Mujahideen attacks into Afghanistan and the Shias were uncooperative, preventing the Mujahideen from passing through their areas in order to fight in Afghanistan. More recently, the conflict with the Turi has extended to the Taliban and Al Qaeda and Haqqani network supporters in the area. As well as a religious aspect (the Taliban follow a hardline Sunni sect, scornful of Shi'as), the Turi territory is strategically important to cross-border trade and raids into Afghanistan — added to which are intertribal tensions. Major battles were fought in 2007 and fighting continues.
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The Turis, who are also called Turizais, have five divisions. These are known as Hamza Khel, Mastu Khel, Ghondi Khel, Alizai and Duparzai. These are grouped into two main group or clans. The Hamza Khel and Mastu Khel are known as Sargullai, whereas the remaining three are called "Chardari". Detail of each division and the area occupied by them are given below:
- Hamza Khel: They are also known as "Kuchis" because they mostly used to be nomadic. They used to migrate to Zarak-i-Kamal and Shobak during the winters. The Hamza Khel has Spinkai, Mallal, Tarakki, Jana Khel, Pari Khel, Sati Khel, Dreplari, Badi Khel, Jaji and Khashki Khel sub-divisions. The Spinkais have Jamal Khel and Adam Khel sections, whereas Tarakkis have Bailkai, Shakar Khel, Saragullai and Aka Khel sections. The Hamza Khel own lands in karman, Shakhana, Matudai, Mianji, Taida-Kotkai, Malana and Gorakmor. The Maqbal tribe lives between them in the Mallal area in Mianji, Nasardin, Joeri and Tseri hills of the Jajis.
- Mastu Khel: The Mastu Khel are sub-divided into Pirzai Khel, Zakaria Khel, Hussain Khel, Haji Khel, Turka Khel, Biga Khel and Mina Khel. They live in Tezana, Maidanak, Menozai, Badshah, Ahmadzai, Hakim Qala, Karim Qala, Sadara, Tari Kot, Shakar Kot, Baliamin and Jalamic.
- Ghondi Khel: The main sub-divisions of the Gondi Khel are Ali Khel, Mamut Khel, Adin Khel, Kamil Khel and Alam Khel. Hussain ali khan khel. The sub-sections of Mamut Khel are Shamshai Tanai Khel and Nandar Khel. They have occupied the left bank of the Kurram river from Malkot to Ibrahimzai in the villages of Peiwar, Agra, Makot, Amalkot, Ramak, Wali Muhammad Qala, Bangian, Walidad, Yakubi Sanderkot, Torpaki and Ibrahimzai. Their Kurram right bank villages are Rana and Maura.
- Alizai: Their three sub-divisions are Mir Hassan, Ahmad Khel and Malik Khel. The Mir Hassan sub-sections are Muhammad Khel and Chago Khel. The main villages of the Alizais are Alizai Lower kurram, Piewar, Habib Qala, Kunj Alizai, Gambir, and Agra.
- Duparzai: The two sub-divisions of Duparzais are known as Saro Khel and Mirdad Khel. The Saro Khel sub-sections are Daolat Khel, Jafar Khel, Sultan Khel, Shubalan Khel, Baghdadiwar and Megak. The Mirdad Khel sub-sections are Kami Khel, Dreplara, Tar Khel, Lamikot Khel and Kachikana. The Duparzais live in the villages of Paiwar, Shublan, Bughdi, Alam Sher Qala, Dangila, Shaikh Nur Qala Mathzai, Gidara, Shingak, Burki, Kharlachi and Tangi. It may be worth nothing here that these Turi villages and sub-sections existed in the early years of this century. With the increase of population, many changes have taken place in the people themselves and their settlements.
- U.S. plan to win Afghanistan tribe by tribe is risky, by Thomas L. Day, McClatchy Newspapers Thomas L. Day, Mcclatchy Newspapers. February 4, 2010.
- Hussain, Ishrat. Khyber.ORG. Turi
- Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 49
- Kurram Agency - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 50
- Eamon Murphy (2012). The Making of Terrorism in Pakistan: Historical and Social Roots of Extremism (illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 133. ISBN 9780415565264.
- D.P. Sharma (2005). The New Terrorism: Islamist International. APH Publishing. p. 322. ISBN 9788176487993.
- "Fresh Flare-Up of Taliban--Shia Clashes in Kurram", www.southasiaanalysis.org
- "Ending Kurram’s sectarian strife", The Express Tribune, Pakistan
- The Pakistani tribe that is taking on the Taliban, BBC
- Siraj Haqqani sheltering in Kurram, near area of US helicopter strikes, www.longwarjournal.org
- Pakistan army blockades anti-Taliban tribe in Kurram, BBC
- Recent news stories on conflict