Turin–Lyon high-speed railway
The Turin–Lyon high-speed railway is a planned 270 km (170 mi)-long, 220 km/h (140 mph) high-speed rail line that will connect the two cities of Turin and Lyon and link the Italian and French high-speed rail networks. The core of the project is the Mont d'Ambin Base Tunnel, a 57.5 kilometres (35.7 mi)-long tunnel crossing the Alps between Susa valley in Italy and Maurienne in France. The tunnel will be one of the longest rail tunnels in the world, on a par with the 57.1 km Gotthard Base Tunnel, and it represents one third of the estimated overall cost of the project. The European Union funds 40% of the tunnel costs, and has indicated its willingness to increase its contribution to 55%, as well as to help fund its French accesses if those go beyond mere adaptations of the existing infrastructure.
Like the Swiss NRLA project, the line has twin aims of transferring freight traffic across the Alps from trucks to rail to reduce air pollution and CO2 emissions and of providing faster passenger transport. Its design speed of 220 km/h (140 mph) is slightly below the 250 km/h (160 mph) threshold used by the European Commission to define high-speed railways. The line is therefore part instead of the TEN-T Trans-European conventional rail network within its "Mediterranean Corridor"—previously "Corridor 6". The new line will considerably shorten the journey times, and its reduced gradients and much wider curves compared to the existing line will also allow heavy freight trains to transit between the two countries at 100 km/h (62 mph) and with much reduced energy costs.
The project has been criticized for its cost, because traffic (both by motorway and rail) was decreasing, for potential environmental risks during the construction of the tunnel, and because airplanes would still, after including time to and from the airport and through security, be slightly faster over the full Milan-Paris route. A 2012 report by the French Court of Audit questioned the realism of the costs estimates and traffic forecasts. The opposition to the project is mostly linked under the loose banner of the No TAV movement.
Civil engineering work started with the construction of access points and geological reconnaissance tunneling. Actual construction of the line was initially planned to start in 2014–2015, but funding was delayed. The project was finally approved in 2015 for a cost of €25 billion, of which €8 billion is for the base tunnel. The ratification of the corresponding treaty between the two countries by their respective parliaments concluded with a 26 January 2017 vote of the French Senate,. Construction has yet to start officially, but the 9 km reconnaissance gallery that is being tunneled from Saint-Martin-de-la-Porte towards Italy is bored along the axis of the south tube of the tunnel and at its final diameter. As of March 2019, it is 77% complete. Construction of the base tunnel is expected to take approximately 10 years. The contracting for this construction was delayed by deep disagreements within the Italian coalition government between the Five Star Movement and Lega parties, until March 11, 2019. On that date and just before further delays would have threatened the EU funding of the project, the Italian government agreed to the publication of a call for tender for the French side of the tunnel work with a May 28, 2019 deadline for letters of intent. The calls for tender of the Italian side of the tunneling were published a few months later.
- 1 Preliminary studies
- 2 The new line
- 3 Opposition to the project
- 4 Construction progress
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The worthiness of the new line was the subject of heated debate. After a 2005 attempt to start reconnaissance work near Susa (Italy) resulted in violent confrontations between opponents and police, an Italian governmental commission was set up in 2006 to study all the issues. The work of the commission between 2007 and 2009 was summarized into seven papers (Quaderni). An eighth summary paper focused on cost–benefit analysis was unveiled in June 2012.
Test drilling found some fractured and sheared coal-bearing schists close to the French portal that are poorly suited for a tunnel boring machine, and old-fashion Drilling and blasting will be used for the corresponding 5 km section.
The existing conventional line
Since 1872, the Turin–Modane railway connects Turin with Lyon via the 13.7 km (8.5 mi)-long high-altitude (mean tunnel altitude 1,123 m or 3,684 ft) Fréjus Rail Tunnel. This initially single-track line was doubled and electrified in the early 20th century, and the Italian side of the line was renovated between 1962 and 1984, and again between 2001 and 2011. This historical line has a low maximum allowed height, and its sharp curves force low speeds. Its very poor profile, with a maximum gradient of 30‰, requires doubling or tripling the locomotives of freight trains.
The characteristics of the line vary widely along its length. The Osservatorio (see References) divides the international and Italian sides into four sections:
- Modane - Bussoleno (Frejus tunnel and high valley section)
- Bussoleno - Avigliana (low valley section)
- Avigliana - Turin (metropolitan section)
- Turin node (urban section)
The first section comprises the Fréjus tunnel. Its low tunnel ceilings, high elevation, sharp curves, and steep gradients, make this section the limiting factor on the overall capacity of the line. A 2007 study used the CAPRES model to calculate a maximum capacity of 226 trains/day, 350 days/year, under the safety regulations applicable at the time. The study foresaw a traffic of 180 freight trains per day, which had to be lowered to about 150 freight trains per day due to logistical inefficiency (the traffic flows between the two countries are asymmetric). A similar analysis for the full year led to a total of about 260 peak days per year. These conditions defined a maximum transport capacity per year of about 20 million tonnes when accounting for inefficiencies, and an absolute limit of about 32 million in "perfect" conditions. Additional traffic limitations stem from the impact of excessive train transit on the population living near the line. About 60,000 people live within 250 m (820 ft) of the historical line, and would object to the noise from late-night transits. In 2007 the conventional line was used for only one-third of this calculated total capacity. This low use level was in part because restrictions such as an unusually low maximum allowable train height and the very steep gradients (26-30‰) and sharp curves in its high valley sections discourage its use.
A 2018 analysis, by contrast, found the line used at close to its maximum capacity, largely because updated safety rules on train crossings in tunnels have very significantly reduced this maximum capacity.
Traffic predictions on Frejus and Mont-Blanc corridors
The following table summarizes the future freight traffic predicted on both the Frejus and Mont-Blanc corridors from an analysis of current data and macroeconomic predictions (in million tons per year):
|Without the new line||2004||2025||2030||Annual growth|
|Alps – Total||144.0||264.5||293.4||2.8%|
|Alps – Rail||48.0||97.7||112.5||3.3%|
|Modane corridor – Total||28.5||58.1||63.8||3.1%|
|Modane corridor – Rail||6.5||15.8||16.4||3.6%|
|With the new line||2004||2025||2030||Annual growth|
|Alps – Total||144.0||264.5||293.4||2.8%|
|Alps – Rail||48.0||111.4||130.7||3.9%|
|Modane corridor – Total||28.5||63.5||76.5||3.9%|
|Modane corridor – Rail||6.5||29.5||39.4||7.2%|
|Heavy vehicles (thousand per year)||2004||2025||2030||Annual growth|
|Without the new line||1,485||2,791||3,121||2.9%|
|With the new line||1,485||2,244||2,447||1.9%|
Promoters of the new line predict that it will about double rail traffic on the Modane corridor compared to the reference scenario (see table above). It should be noted that traffic predictions of even the early traffic of major rail infrastructures are intrinsically uncertain, with well-known examples of both overestimates (e.g. the Channel tunnel) and underestimates (e.g. the TGV Est). Anyway, some experts disagree with the necessity for a new line connecting France and Italy on the Modane corridor, quoting wide margins for increase in traffic on the old line. Rather than as a natural consequence of faster transit times and a lower price for freight shipping (due to reduced energy use thanks to a much flatter profile, but without necessarily taking into account the full construction cost of the new line), they propose to increase rail traffic by coupling additional renovation of the existing rail infrastructure with sufficiently high financial incentives for rail transport and/or sufficiently heavy tolls and taxes on road transport. The political realism of such taxes is however questionable, as France demonstrated in 2013 when its government withdrew a small trucking ecotax after extensive riots by the trucking industry (see Bonnets Rouges). Moreover, 2018 studies found that the existing line actually is close to saturation, largely because modern safety regulations on train crossings in tunnels have significantly reduced its maximum capacity. The construction of a brand-new line will also make the older infrastructure fully available for regional and suburban services, which is an important consideration near the congested Turin node. It will also allow higher safety standards.
The new line
The new railway line will have a maximum gradient of 12.5‰, compared to 30‰ over 1 km (0.62 mi) of the old line, a maximum altitude of 580 m instead of 1,338 m, and much wider curves. This will allow heavy freight trains to transit at 100 km/h (62 mph) and passenger trains at a top speed of 220 km/h (140 mph), and will also sharply reduce the energy used. The construction of the full higher-speed line will cut passenger travel time from Milan to Paris from seven hours to four, becoming time-competitive with plane travel for town-center to town-center travel.
The line is divided into three sections constructed under distinct managements:
- the French section between Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne and the outskirts of Lyon will be built under SNCF Réseau management;
- the Italian section between the Bussoleno (Susa valley) and Torino is under RFI ;
- the international section between Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne in Savoie and Bussoleno includes the Mont d'Ambin Base Tunnel. It is managed by Tunnel Euralpin Lyon Turin (TELT SAS), a joint venture of RFI and SNCF which replaced Lyon Turin Ferroviaire.
The passenger line will link the LGV Sud-Est (through a connection South of gare de Lyon-Saint-Exupéry) and the downtown Lyon stations to both Italy and Chambéry. It will connect near Chambéry to the Annecy via Aix les Bains and the Bourg Saint-Maurice via Albertville lines. The time gain from Paris or Lyon to Aix-les-Bains or Chambéry will be almost 45 minutes, and almost an hour to Annecy. The line may also be used to offload the saturated Lyon-Grenoble line from its TGV traffic, making space there for much needed additional local trains.
The freight line will start from a connection to the future Lyon rail freight bypass, follow the A43 freeway, and will pass South of Chambéry through a tunnel under the Chartreuse mountains. That tunnel will eventually have two 23 km-long tubes, but it will initially be single-track. The line will then reach Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne through a second 20 to 23 km tunnel under the Belledonne mountains. The separate freight line will divert the freight traffic away from Aix-les-Bains and Chambéry, and from the shores of the Lac du Bourget where a freight accident on the existing line could catastrophically pollute this large natural freshwater reservoir.
The path of the Italian section was adopted in August 2011 by the Italian government, after extensive 2006-2011 consultations headed by Government Commissary Mario Virano within the "Italian Technical Observatory". In the Susa valley the new path sidesteps through additional tunneling the strong opposition to a previous planned path on the left bank of the Dora Riparia, which would have needed a viaduct in Venaus and a tunnel in Bussoleno.
The international section of the Lyon-Turin line spans about 70 km between Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne in Savoie and Bussoleno in Piemonte. The 57.5 km Mont d'Ambin base tunnel is the major engineering work of the overall future Turin-Lyon line, and is being dug at the base of the Mont d'Ambin. An underground service and rescue train station is planned around the half-way point of the tunnel, East of Modane.
Opposition to the project
Ever since plans for the railway were first mentioned in the 1990s, some residents of most of the 112 towns which lie on its path have been set strongly against it. No TAV is an Italian movement against the construction of the line. The name comes from the Italian TAV acronym for Treno Alta Velocità, high speed train. There has also been some French opposition to the railway but it has been less visible.
Local French views
In Chimilin, a town of 1,100 in France which will be split in two by the railway, the local council has opposed the plans since 1992 and the mayor, Marie Chabert, sees the economic uncertainty as damaging for the region.
In Villarodin-Bourget, a small French village, residents represented by the 'Association pour la Sauvegarde du Site du Moulin' have opposed the digging of a 4 kilometre survey tunnel since 2002 and are in close communication with the No TAV movement. The mayor, Gilles Margueron, said "after we started looking at the project in details, we soon arrived at a position of complete opposition."
No TAV movement in Italy
People in the Susa Valley in Italy have been resisting the railway project since the 1990s. The No TAV movement began in 1990, with actions to inform local people affected by the plans, supported by the mayors of the valley and the Comunita Montana (mountainous community). From 2000 onwards, there were demonstrations, squatted centres, a trade union solidarity project and a social forum. The resistance was spoken about in terms of the partisan resistance to the Nazis in World War II.
The movement advocates the tactics of non-violent direct action, but some protests have turned violent. Catholics pray at the Chiomonte construction site, while other networks organise communal dinners, discussions and flash mobs. In Venaus, there is a land squat called the 'Presidio' situated next to where the survey tunnel was originally planned to be dug.
The movement generally questions the worthiness, cost, and safety of the project, drawing arguments from studies, experts, and governmental documents from Italy, France, and Switzerland. It deems the new line useless and too expensive, and decries its realization as driven by construction lobbies. Its main stated objections are:
- Better to update existing infrastructure.
- Low level of saturation on the Frejus rail tunnel and stable or decreasing traffic also on Fréjus Road Tunnel. A more recent study, though, found the existing rail line close to saturation because toughened safety standards on train crossings in tunnels have reduced its maximum capacity.
- Economical feasibility in doubt due to high costs.
- Danger of environmental disasters.
- Concerns about health, due to the hypothetical presence of uranium and asbestos in and around the mountains where the tunnel is to be bored, though the extensive reconnaissance tunneling has found none to date. Supporters of the tunnel argue that the risk of contamination is overstated or non-existent.
Members of the protest movement have summarized their ideas against the construction of the new line in a document containing 150 reasons against it and in a wide number of specific documents and meetings.
Critics of the No TAV movement, by contrast, characterize it as a typical NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) movement and point out the pollution reduction and CO2 emission elimination benefits of the tunnel. In response, No TAV activists talk about LULU (Locally unwanted land use).
Construction has yet to start officially, but the 9 km reconnaissance gallery that is being tunneled from Saint-Martin-de-la-Porte towards Italy is bored along the axis of the south tube of the tunnel and at its final diameter. In late-2016, that reconnaissance tunnel encountered a geologically difficult zone of water-soaked fractured coal-bearing schists, and for several months made only very slow progress through it. Tunneling passed this zone in Spring 2017 after injecting 30 tons of reinforcing resin, and advanced again at nominal speed. As of March 2019, the 9 km reconnaissance tunnel is 77% complete.
In March 2019, Italy's Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte asked TELT to stop the launch of tenders for further construction work. The Italian government later agreed to start the tendering process for the French and then the Italian sides of the tunnel work.
- ‹See Tfd›(in Italian) Nuova linea Torino-Lione parte comune tratta italiana - Progetto in variante - Studio d'impatto ambientale - sintesi non tecnica 9-7-2010 (document PP2 C3C TS3 0105A AP NOT)
- "The Alpine tunnels". LTF. Archived from the original on 31 October 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "L'Union européenne confirme une participation accrue sur le Lyon-Turin".
- Decision No 661/2010/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on Union guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Montalto Monella, Lillo (26 March 2019). "What is happening with the Lyon Turin high-speed line? Euronews traces the route to find out". Euronews. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- "Dichiarazioni alla stampa del Presidente Monti al termine della riunione sui lavori di realizzazione della Tav tratto Torino-Lione" [Press conference by president Mario Monti]. Italian Government. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- , "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Close-up on works". LTF. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Lyon-Turin project
- "Manuel Valls inaugure le tunnelier Federica au chantier du Lyon-Turin à Saint-Martin-La-Porte". LTF. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- ""Federica a dépassé 77% des 9 km prévus"". Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- ""Les travaux du Lyon-Turin débutent le 15 janvier"". Retrieved 18 December 2018.
- ""Ligne ferroviaire Lyon-Turin : malgré les tensions, Rome valide le lancement des appels d'offres"". Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- ""Avis de marchés lancés pour la construction du tunnel de base en France"". Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- ""Lyon-Turin : les avis de marché publiés pour le tronçon italien"" (in French). Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- Quaderno 1 - p. 4
- Design and construction
- Quaderno 1 - p. 17
- Quaderno 1 - p. 16
- CAPacité des RESéaux ferroviaires, Rivier, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne
- Quaderno 1 - p. 30
- Quaderno 1 - p. 31
- Quaderno 1 - p. 32
- Quaderno 1 - pp. 33–34
- Quaderno 1 - p. 35. Data are from 2007, while capacity was reduced by the 2007–10 modernization work.
- Quaderno 2 - p. 18
- Flyvbjerg, B.; Buzelius, N.; Rothengatter, W. (2003). Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00946-4.
- TGV Est 11 millions de voyageurs en un an : la SNCF en avance sur ses objectifs , Simon Barthélémy L'Alsace 6 juin 2008
- Quaderno 2 - pp. 36-39
- "The base tunnel". LTF. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- Povoledo, Elisabetta (17 March 2014). "Italy Divided Over Rail Line Meant to Unite". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
- Porta, Donatella Della; Piazza, Gianni (17 October 2007). "Local contention, global framing: The protest campaigns against the TAV in Val di Susa and the bridge on the Messina Straits". Environmental Politics. 16 (5): 864–882. doi:10.1080/09644010701634257.
- "Jail for Italy high-speed rail link protesters". The Local. AFP. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Marina Clerico; et al. (May 2015). "Railway Related Impacts: THE TURIN-LYON HIGH-SPEED RAIL CASE" (pdf). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin.
- Feu vert au projet de variante en Italie, 29 juillet 2017, site tel-sas.com.
- Commissione VIA (5 December 2010). "Progetto preliminare in variante - Chiarimenti ed integrazioni (Richiesta N° 11)" (pdf). Parte comune italo-francese. Revisione del progetto definitivo, CUP C11J05000030001 (in Italian): 21–22.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) from Pro Natura Torino.
- For specific documentation in English see http://www.notavtorino.org/documenti/inglese/indice.htm
- "SMLP : en route !". LTF. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- ""A SMP4 la faille a ete franchie"". LTF. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
- ""SMP4: Federica creuse avec des pics de 15/19 m par jour"". LTF. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
- Bellamy, Daniel (9 March 2019). "Italy's prime minister halts project to build train line to France". Euronews. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Quaderno 1: Linea storica - Tratta di valico [Book 1: Old line - upper section]. Osservatorio Ministeriale per il collegamento ferroviario Torino-Lione, Rome, May 2007
- Quaderno 2: Scenari di traffico - Arco Alpino [Book 2: Traffic scenarios - Alps passes]. Osservatorio Ministeriale per il collegamento ferroviario Torino-Lione, Rome, June 2007
- Quaderno 3: Linea storica - Tratta di valle [Book 3: Old line - lower section]. Osservatorio Ministeriale per il collegamento ferroviario Torino-Lione, Rome, December 2007
- RFI - Rete Ferroviaria Italiana - owner of the Italian rail infrastructure
- RFF - Réseau Ferré de France - owner of the French rail infrastructure
- TELT - The company responsible for the Turin-Lyon line, owned 50% by RFI and 50% by RFF.
- No TAV documents against the project in English
- ‹See Tfd›(in Italian) TAV Turin-Lyon planned line in Google Earth/Maps