Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station
|Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station|
|Official name||Turkey Point|
|Construction began||Unit 3–4: April 27, 1967|
|Commission date||Unit 1: April 1967
Unit 2: April 1968
Unit 3: December 14, 1972
Unit 4: September 7, 1973
Unit 5: May 2007
|Construction cost||Units 3–4: $1.013 billion (2007 USD)
Unit 5: $200 million (2007 USD)
|Owner(s)||Florida Power & Light|
|Operator(s)||Florida Power & Light|
|Nuclear power station|
|Cooling source||Canal system (Units 3–4)|
|Thermal power station|
|Primary fuel||Natural gas|
|Secondary fuel||Distillate fuel oil|
|Tertiary fuel||Residual fuel oil|
|Type||Steam turbine (Units 1–2, Unit 5), gas turbine (Unit 5)|
|Combined cycle?||No (Units 1–2)
Yes (Unit 5)
|Cooling source||Canal system (Units 1–2)
Mechanical Draft 22-cell cooling tower (Unit 5)
|Units operational||2 × 802 MW (nuclear)
1 × 1150 MW (CCGT)
|Make and model||2 × WH 3-loop (DRYAMB)
4 × 170–180 MW GE 7FA gas turbines
4 × Nooter gas-fired heat recovery steam generators
1 × 470 MW steam turbine
|Units planned||2 × 1117 MW AP1000|
|Units decommissioned||2 × 404 MW Foster-Wheeler fuel oil/natural gas/used oil/propane steam turbines|
|Thermal capacity||2 × 2644 MWth (nuclear)|
|Nameplate capacity||2754 MW (1604 MW nuclear, 1150 MW CCGT)|
|Capacity factor||85.00% (97.74% nuclear, 67.24% CCGT)|
|2016 output||20,507 GWh (13,733 GWh nuclear, 6774 GWh CCGT)|
Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station is a twin reactor nuclear power station located on a 3,300-acre (1,300 ha) site two miles east of Homestead, Florida, United States, next to Biscayne National Park located about 25 miles (40 km) south of Miami, Florida near the southernmost edge of Miami-Dade County. The facility is owned by Florida Power & Light.
Including the two nuclear plants, Turkey Point operates three power-generating units. It comprises two retired 404 megawatt fuel oil/natural gas/used oil/propane-fired generation units (Units 1 and 2), two 802 MWe Westinghouse pressurized water reactors (Units 3 and 4), and a 1,150 MW combined-cycle gas-fired Unit 5. It serves the entire southern portion of Florida. With a combined operational capacity of 2754 MW, the site is the largest generating station in Florida and the sixth largest power plant in the United States.
An expansion of two additional nuclear reactors is currently under consideration.
- 1 Construction
- 2 Surrounding population
- 3 Incident history
- 4 2008 Florida electricity blackout
- 5 Ecology
- 6 Hurricane Risk
- 7 Seismic risk
- 8 Reactor data
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
In 2002, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) extended the operating licenses for both nuclear reactors from forty years to sixty years. In 2006, FPL informed the NRC that they planned to apply for new units to be built at Turkey Point. FPL filed an initial proposal for increased capacity with the Florida Public Service Commission in October 2007. The proposal was approved by the PSC in March 2008.
On June 30, 2009, FPL submitted a Combined Construction and Operating License (COL) application for two 1,117-MWe Westinghouse AP1000 reactors (Units 6 and 7). FPL had considered building two 1,550-MWe GE ESBWR reactors. Construction was expected to begin in 2012, with the new units going online in 2017 and 2019. FPL estimates the total overnight costs of the power plants, including first fuel load, at $6.8–$9.9 billion, and the total project cost at $12.1–$17.8 billion.
Criticism of expansion
The expansion has received criticism from some South Florida mayors over concerns about water usage, insufficient evacuation zones and increased risks from rising sea levels.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles (80 km), concerned primarily with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity.
The 2010 U.S. population within 10 miles (16 km) of Turkey Point was 161,556, an increase of 62.8 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U.S. Census data for msnbc.com. The 2010 U.S. population within 50 miles (80 km) was 3,476,981, an increase of 15.1 percent since 2000. Cities within 50 miles include Miami (25 miles to city center).
May 8, 1974
A test was performed on all three of the Emergency Feedwater (EFW) pumps serving Unit 3 while the reactor was operating at power. Two of the pumps failed to start as a result of overtightened packing. The third pump failed to start because of a malfunction in the turbine regulating valve pneumatic controller. (ref NRC LER 250/74-LTR) In an ongoing study (ref NRC Commission Document SECY-05-0192 Attachment 2 NRC.gov) of precursors that could lead to a nuclear accident if additional failures were to have occurred, the NRC concluded (as of 24-Oct-2005) that this event at Turkey Point Unit 3 was the fifth highest ranked occurrence.
August 24, 1992
Turkey Point was directly hit by Hurricane Andrew on August 24, 1992, destroying two raw water tanks and portions of the fire protection systems, draining another raw water tank, partially disabling the fire protection systems, causing severe damage to various non-nuclear structures, and cracking the smokestack for fossil-fueled Unit 1. The smokestack later had to be demolished and rebuilt. It also suffered a total loss of offsite power, requiring the use of the onsite emergency diesel generators for several days. No significant damage was done to the plant's nuclear containment buildings. The plant was built to withstand winds of up to 235 mph (380 km/h), greatly exceeding the maximum winds recorded by most category 5 hurricanes.
March 18, 2017
On March 18, 2017, an electrical fault occurred in a Unit 3 switchgear room, resulting in the loss of a safety related electrical bus and a reactor trip. Other safety systems functioned as required, ensuring adequate reactor cooling. There was no threat to local residents or the environment, and the alert, the second-lowest Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency declaration, was terminated later that same day. The electrical fault caused an arc flash, resulting in a minor burn of a plant worker who was in the room and was treated at a local hospital. On March 22, 2017, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission announced that it had initiated a special inspection into the failure of the electrical bus that resulted in the plant declaring an alert.
2008 Florida electricity blackout
On February 26, 2008, both reactors were shut down due to the loss of off-site power during a widespread power outage in South Florida, affecting 700,000 customers.
At least 2.5 million people were without power. The blackout was initially caused by an overheated voltage switch that soon caught fire in a power substation in Miami, 23 miles away from the plant. The fire occurred at 1:08 PM and caused an automatic shutdown of the power plant. This led to a domino effect that caused outages as far north as Daytona Beach and Tampa. Power was restored by 4:30 PM. The reason this malfunction caused such widespread outages is still under investigation.
David Hoffman, a nuclear supervisor at Turkey Point, resigned over the incident and was subsequently sued by Florida Power and Light for return of a bonus. Hoffman countersued, claiming he was pressured to restart the reactors while they were in a condition which in his judgment made it unsafe to do so. Upper management wanted the reactors restarted during xenon dead time, which would have led to the operators at the controls having to continuously step control rods to safely manage reactor output.
The site is home to a large wildlife preserve.
Instead of a cooling tower, the plant has a large five-by-two mile (20-square-mile (52 km2)) network of canals covering nearly 6,000 acres. Several problems have arisen from this, including pollution of nearby national parks or water supply, particularly the Biscayne Aquifer, issues with overheating, and radioactive material. Overheating in the canals twice caused the plant to shut down reactors in 2014. In September 2016, a controversial cleanup process began that included injecting hypersaline water deep into the boulder zone beneath the aquifer and/or making some of the unlined canals more shallow. 600,000 pounds of salt gets into the canal system daily, and the saltwater contamination reaches 4 miles (6.4 km) west of the system as well as possibly into Biscayne Bay.
While Hurricane Irma was bearing down on south Florida on September 8, 2017, an opinion piece in The New York Times observed that Turkey Point is vulnerable to the threat of a storm-caused nuclear meltdown. The Turkey Point nuclear power station sits on an exposed island in Biscayne Bay, about 25 miles south of Miami. Built in the early 1970s, the aging plant depends on similar vulnerable backup systems to prevent a meltdown as those of Japan’s Fukushima plant. Although Turkey Point’s main reactors are 20 feet above sea level, the plant’s diesel-powered backup generators, which keep cooling water circulating through the reactors when power is knocked out, are less elevated and less well insulated, according to Phil Stoddard, the mayor of South Miami.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at Turkey Point was 1 in 100,000, according to an NRC study published in August 2010. The plant is located in an area with the lowest earthquake hazard potential described by the USGS.
The Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station consists of two operational reactors, and two additional units are planned.
|Reactor unit||Reactor type||Capacity||Construction started||Electricity grid connection||Commercial operation||Shutdown|
|Turkey Point-3||Westinghouse 3-loop||693 MW||729 MW||27.04.1967||02.11.1972||14.12.1972|
|Turkey Point-4||Westinghouse 3-loop||693 MW||729 MW||27.04.1967||21.06.1973||07.09.1973|
|Turkey Point-6 (planned)||AP1000||1117 MW||MW||Postponed|
|Turkey Point-7 (planned)||AP1000||1117 MW||MW||Postponed|
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