List of Turkic dynasties and countries

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The following is a list of dynasties and states, both current and past, of Turkic origins or which are Turkic-speaking, or both. The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups that live in northern, eastern, central, and western Asia, northwestern China, and parts of eastern Europe.

Map highlighting present-day Turkic countries
World map with present-day independent Turkic countries highlighted in red

Current states[edit]

Current independent states[edit]

Name Years
Turkey Turkey 1923 86.2% Turkish, Demographics of Turkey.
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 1991 91.6% Azerbaijani, 0.29% Tatar.[1]
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1991 63.1% Kazakh, 2.9% Uzbek, 1.4% Uyghur, 1.3% Tatar, 0.6% Turkish, 0.5% Azerbaijani, 0.1% Kyrgyz.[2]
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 1991 70.9% Kyrgyz, 14.3% Uzbeks, 0.9% Uyghur, 0.7% Turkish, 0.6% Kazakh, 0.6% Tatar, 0.3% Azerbaijani.[3]
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 1991 75.6% Turkmen, 9.2% Uzbek, 2.0% Kazakh, 1.1% Turkish 0.7% Tatar[4]
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 1991 71.4% Uzbek, 4.1% Kazakh, 2.4% Tatar, 2.1% Karakalpak, 1% Crimean Tatar, 0.8% Kyrgyz, 0.6% Turkmen, 0.5% Turkish, 0.2% Azerbaijani, 0.2% Uyghur, 0.2% Bashkir.[5]

De-facto state[edit]

This republic is recognized only by Turkey and by the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan.

Name Years
Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus[6] 1983 67.54% Turkish Cypriot, 32.45% Turkish[citation needed]

Federal subjects of Russia[edit]

  • Turkic nations where Turkic people are a majority
 Bashkortostan 2010 – 29.5% Baskir, 25.4% Tatar, 2.7% Chuvash
 Chuvashia 2010 – 67.7% Chuvash, 2.8% Tatar
 Tatarstan 2010 – 53.2% Tatar, 3.1% Chuvash
 Tuva 2010 – 82% Tuvan, 0.4% Khakas
Sakha Republic Yakutiya 2010 – 49.9% Yakuts, 0.2% Dolgans, 0.9% Tatars
  • Turkic nations where Turkic people are a minority
 Altai Republic 2010 – 34.5% Altay, 6.2% Kazakhs
 Crimea 2001 – 12% Crimean Tatar
 Karachay-Cherkessia 2010 – 41.0% Karachay, 3.3% Nogai
 Khakassia 2010 – 12.1% Khakas
 Kabardino-Balkaria 2010 – 11.5% Balkar

Autonomous regions[edit]

Gagauzia Gagauzia in Moldova 2004 – 82.1% Gagauz.[7]
Xinjiang Xinjiang in China 2000 – 45.21% Uyghur, 6.74% Kazakh, 0.86% Kyrgyz, 0.066% Uzbek, 0.024% Chinese Tatar[8]
Karakalpakstan Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan 36% Uzbek, 32% Karakalpak, 25% Kazakh[citation needed]
Azerbaijan Nakhchivan in Azerbaijan 99% Azerbaijani[citation needed]
Xunhua Xunhua Salar Autonomous County in China 2000 – 61.14% Salar

Turkic confederations, dynasties, and states[edit]

Tribal confederations[edit]

Tiele (鐵勒) Dingling Yenisei Kirghiz (The Yenisei Kirghiz Khagans claimed to be of agnatic Chinese descent from Li Ling)[9][10] Chuban
Onogurs Ashina (clan) Toquz Oghuz
Karluks Chigil Yagma Basmyl Utigurs Kutrigurs
Oghuz Sabirs Bulgars Shatuo Kangly Kipchaks Cumans

Turkic dynasties and states[edit]

Name Years Capital map
Gok1.png Turkic Khaganate 552–744 Ordu Baliq GökturksAD551-572.png
Xueyantuo 628–646
Kangar union 659–750 located in Ulutau mountains AD 659KangarUnion.png
Türgesh 699–766 Balasagun Transoxiana 8th century.svg
Kimeks 743–1220 Khagan-Kimek Imekia Қимақтар.png
Uyghur Khganate Flag.jpg Uyghur Khaganate 744–848 Ordu Baliq East-Hem 800ad.jpg
Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055 Yangikent AD 750OguzYabgu.png
Karluk Yabgu State 756-940 Suyab later Balasagun Қарлұқтар.png
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212 Balasagun, Kashgar, Samarkand KaraKhanidAD1000.png
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036 Zhangye East-Hem 900ad.jpg
Kingdom of Qocho 856-1335 Gaochang, Beshbalik East-Hem 900ad.jpg
Pechenegs 860–1091 Khazarfall1.png
CumaniaCoA.png Cumania[11][12] 900–1220 State of Cuman-Kipchak (13.) tr.png
Anatolian Beyliks 11th–16th century many Anadolu Beylikleri.png
Ahmadilis 1122–1209 Maragha East-Hem 1200ad.jpg
Eldiguzids ca.1135–1225 Nakhchivan (city) and Hamadan East-Hem 1200ad.jpg
Salghurids 1148–1282 Fars Province East-Hem 1025ad.jpg
Ottoman flag.svg Ottoman Empire 1299-1923 Söğüt 1299–1335, Bursa 1335–1413, Adrianople 1413–1453, Constantinople 1453–1922 OttomanEmpireIn1683.png
Sufids 1361–1379


Name Years Capital Map
Khazar Empire 6th–11th century Balanjar 650-720 ca., Samandar (city) 720s-750, Atil 750-ca.965-969 Chasaren.jpg
Avar Khaganate 567–804 Szeged Historical map of the Balkans around 582-612 AD.jpg
The Monogram of Kubrat.png Great Bulgaria 632–668 Phanagoria 632–665 Pontic steppe region around 650 AD.png
First Bulgarian Empire Tengrist Turkic[13] pre-Christianization; Slavic post-Christianization 681–1018 Pliska 681–893, Preslav 893–972, Skopje 972–992, Ohrid 992–1018 First Bulgarian Empire Xc.png
Volga Bulgaria 7th century–1240s Bolghar, Bilär VolgaBulgaria1200.png

Middle East[edit]

Name Years Capital Map
Tulunids 868–905 al-Qatta'i Tulunid Emirate 868 - 905 (AD).PNG
Ikhshidid Dynasty 935–969 Ikhshidid Dynasty 935 - 969 (AD).PNG
Burid Dynasty 1104–1154 Damascus Map Crusader states 1135-en.svg
Zengid Dynasty 1127–1250 Aleppo Zengid dynasty, 1127 - 1183.PNG
Rasulids 1228–1455
Bahri dynasty 1250–1389 Bahri Dynasty 1250 - 1382 (AD).PNG
Mameluke Flag.svg Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) (The first half of the Mamluk Sultanate was dominated by the Kipchak Turkic Bahri dynasty, after the Mongol conquest of the Kipchak steppes, the second half of the Mamluk Sultanate was the Burji dynasty dominated by non-Turkic Circassians.) 1250–1517 Cairo Mamluks1279.png

Indian subcontinent[edit]

Name Years Capital Map
Mamluk Dynasty 1206–1290 Delhi Mamluk dynasty 1206 - 1290 ad.GIF
Khilji Dynasty 1290–1320 Delhi Khilji dynasty 1290 - 1320 ad.PNG
Tughlaq Dynasty 1320–1414 Delhi Tughlaq dynasty 1321 - 1398 ad.PNG
Ilyas Shahi dynasty 1342-1487 Sonargaon Bengal Sultanate.png
Bahmani Sultanate 1347–1527 Gulbarga (1347–1425)
Bidar (1425–1527)
Bidar Sultanate 1489–1619 Deccan sultanates 1490 - 1687 ad.png
Adil Shahi dynasty 1490–1686 Bijapur Bijapur-sultanate-map.svg
QutbshahiFlag.PNG Qutb Shahi Dynasty 1518–1687 Golconda / Hyderabad Deccan sultanates 1490 - 1687 ad.png
Tarkhan Dynasty 1554–1591 Sindh
Hyderabad Coat of Arms.jpg Asaf Jahi Dynasty 1724–1948 Hyderabad Hyderabad princely state 1909.svg

Sinicized Turkic dynasties[edit]

The Shatuo Turks founded several sinicized dynasties in northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The official language of these dynasties was Chinese and they used Chinese titles and names.

Name Years Capital Map
Later Tang in China founded by Shato 923–936 Daming County 923, Luoyang 923–936 五代后唐(繁).png
Later Jin in China founded by Shato. The Later Jin founder Shi Jingtang claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[14] 936–947 Taiyuan 936, Luoyang 937, Kaifeng 937-947
Later Han in China founded by Shato. Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors, some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[15] 947–951 Kaifeng
Northern Han in China founded by Shato. Same family as Later Han. Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors, some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[15] 951–979 Taiyuan

Persianate or Turko-Persian states[edit]

The Turko-Persian tradition was an Islamic tradition of Iranian literary forms practiced and patronized by Turkic rulers and speakers. Some Turko-Persian states were founded in Greater Iran.[16]

Name Years Capital Map
Ghaznavid Empire Ruled by a thoroughly Persianized family of Turkic mamluk origin[17][18] 962–1186 Ghazna 977–1163, Lahore 1163–1186 Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG
Seljuqs Eagle.svg Great Seljuk Empire Ruled by a predominantly Persian-speaking clan[19] of originally Oghuz Turkic descent. The majority of the population was Iranian[17][20][21][22] 1037–1194 Nishapur 1037–1043, Rey, Iran 1043–1051, Isfahan 1051–1118, Hamadan Western capital 1118–1194, Merv Eastern capital (1118–1153) Seljuk Empire locator map.svg
Iraq Seljuk State 1057-1194
Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm 1077–1307 İznik , Iconium (Konya) Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate.JPG
Khwarazmian dynasty Ruled by a family of Turkic mamluk origin.[23] 1077–1231/1256 Gurganj 1077–1212, Samarkand 1212–1220, Ghazna 1220–1221, Tabriz 1225–1231 Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
Syria seljuk state 1079-1117 damascus East-Hem 1100ad.jpg
Kerman Seljuk State 1092-1187 East-Hem 1025ad.jpg
Qara qoyunlu 1375 1468 by xumarov-d4nw4cp.png Kara Koyunlu 1375–1468 Tabriz Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468.png
AkkoyunluFlag.png Aq Qoyunlu 1378–1501 Diyarbakır : 1453 – 1471, Tabriz :1468 – January 6, 1478 Map Aq Qoyunlu 1478-en.png

Turco-Mongol states[edit]

Turco-Mongol is a term describing the synthesis of Mongol and Turkic cultures by several states of Mongol origin throughout Eurasia. These states adopted Turkic languages, either among the populace or among the elite, and converted to Islam, but retained Mongol political and legal institutions. Two of these states founded by the Timurid dynasty, specifically the Timurid Empire and Mughal Empire, also became Persianized.

Name Years Capital Notes Map
Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde 1240s–1502 Sarai Batu Founded as an appanage of the Mongol Empire, the Golden Horde gradually became Turkicized after the Empire's fragmentation GoldenHorde1300.png
Timurid Empire 1370–1506 Samarkand 1370–1505, Herat 1505–1507 Persianate dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage Das Reich Timur-i Lenks (1365-1405).GIF
Shaybanids 1428–1599
Flag of the Kazan Khanate.svg Kazan Khanate 1438–1552 Kazan KazanKhanate1500.png
Flag of the Crimean Khanate.svg Crimean Khanate 1441–1783 Bakhchisaray Crimean Khanate 1600.gif
Nogai Horde 1440s–1634 Saray-Jük Nogay Horde.svg
Kazakh Khanate.svg Kazakh Khanate 1456–1847 Turkistan Казахское ханство1520.png
Siberia Khanate 1490–1598 Tyumen until 1493, Qashliq from 1493 Siberian Khanate map English.svg
Khanate of Bukhara 1500–1785 Bukhara Bukhara1600.png
Bandera de Khiva 1917-1920.svg Khanate of Khiva 1511–1920 Khiva Хивинское ханство.png
Yarkent Khanate 1514–1705 Yarkent Могулия.png
Alam of the Mughal Empire.svg Mughal Empire 1526–1857 Agra 1526–1571, Fatehpur Sikri 1571–1585, Lahore 1585–1598, Agra 1598–1648, Shahjahanabad/Delhi 1648–1857 Founded by Turco-Mongol ruler Babur, adopted the Persian language in later periods.[24][25][26][27] The Mughal Empire.jpg
Bandera de Kokand.svg Khanate of Kokand 1709–1876 Kokand Kokand1850.png
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg Emirate of Bukhara 1785–1920 Bukhara Bukhara1850.png

Iranian dynasties of Turkic origins[edit]

Name Years Capital Map
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Dynasty A Persianized Iranian dynasty of originally Turkic Oghuz descent[28][29][30][31] 1501–1736 Tabriz 1501–1555, Qazvin 1555–1598, Isfahan 1598–1736 The maximum extent of the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas I.png
Nader Shah Flag.svg Afsharid Dynasty A Highly Persianized Iranian dynasty[31] of originally Turkic descent[32] of Turkic origin. 1736–1796 Mashhad AfsharidEmpireIran.png
Flag of Persia (1910-1925).svg Qajar Dynasty A Persianized Iranian dynasty[33] of originally Turkic Oghuz descent[34] which ruled Persia. 1785–1925 Tehran Map Iran 1900-en.png

Former Republics[edit]

Name Years Map Capital
Provisional Government of Western Thrace 1913 Komotini
Crimean People's Republic 1917–1918 Bakhchysarai
Idel-Ural State 1917–1918
Alash Orda 1917–1920 Semey
Republic of Aras 1918–1919 Nakhchivan (city)
Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus 1918–1919 Kars
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 1918–1920 1ST AZ REP.GIF Ganja, Azerbaijan until Sep 1918, Baku
Azadistan 1920 Tabriz
Government of the Grand National Assembly 1920-1923 TreatyOfSevres (corrected).PNG Ankara
People's Republic of Tannu Tuva 1921–1944 Tuwakarte2.png Kyzyl
First East Turkestan Republic 1933–1934 First ETR in China.svg Kashgar
Hatay State 1938–1939 French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon map en.svg Antakya
East Turkistan Republic 1944–1949 Second ETR in China.svg Ghulja
Azerbaijan People's Government 1945–1946 Republic of mahabad and south azerbaijan 1945 1946.png Tabriz
Turkish Federated State of Cyprus 1975–1983 NCyprus location.svg Nicosia

Soviet Republics[edit]

Name Years Map Capital
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic 1920–1924 SovietCentralAsia1922.svg Khiva
Bukhara People's Soviet Republic 1920–1924 SovietCentralAsia1922.svg Bukhara
Azerbaijan SSR 1920–1991 Soviet Union - Azerbaijan.svg Baku
Uzbek SSR 1924–1991 Soviet Union - Uzbekistan.svg Samarkand 1924–1930, Tashkent 1930–1991
Turkmen SSR 1924–1991 Soviet Union - Turkmenistan.svg Ashgabat
Kazakh SSR 1936–1991 Soviet Union - Kazakhstan.svg Almaty
Kyrgyz SSR 1936–1991 Soviet Union - Kyrgyzstan.svg Bishkek

Autonomous Soviet Republics[edit]

Name Years Map Capital
Turkestan ASSR 1918–1924 SovietCentralAsia1922.svg Tashkent
Bashkir ASSR 1919–1990 Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Р.С.Ф.С.Р. - Авт. Башкирская С.С.Р..jpg Ufa
Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 1920–1925 Orenburg
Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1920–1990 Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Р.С.Ф.С.Р. - Авт. Татарская С.С.Р..jpg Kazan
Yakut ASSR 1922–1991 Yakutsk
Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1921-1924 Map of Mountain ASSR.png Vladikavkaz
Nakhchyvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1921–1990 265nakhichevan-assr.gif Nakhchivan (city)
Kazak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 1925–1936 Карта КАССР.png Almaty
Chuvash ASSR 1925–1992 Cheboksary
Karakalpak ASSR 1932–1992 Nukus
Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1936–1991 Russia - Kabardino-Balkar Republic (2008-01).svg Nalchik
Kabardin Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1944–1957
Crimean ASSR 1945–1991 Simferopol
Tuvan ASSR 1961–1992 Tuwakarte2.png
Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1990-1992 Map of Russia - Altai Republic (2008-03).svg Gorno-Altaysk

Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union[edit]

Name Years Map Capital
Chuvash Autonomous Oblast 1920–1925 Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Р.С.Ф.С.Р. - Авт. Чувашская С.С.Р..jpg Cheboksary
Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast 1921–1936 Nalchik
Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast 1922-1926
Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast 1922-1991
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast 1923-1991 Location Nagorno-Karabakh2.png Stepanakert
Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast 1924–1936 Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Киргизская А.С.С.Р..jpg Bishkek
Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast 1925–1932 To‘rtko‘l
Karachay Autonomous Oblast 1926-1957
Khakassian Autonomous Oblast 1930-1992
Tuvan Autonomous Oblast 1944–1961 Uryankhay-Tuva AO.png

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Demographics of Azerbaijan.
  2. ^ Demographics of Kazakhstan.
  3. ^ Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
  4. ^ Demographics of Turkmenistan
  5. ^ Demographics of Uzbekistan
  6. ^ Recognized only by Turkey and the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan in | Azerbaijan, see Cyprus dispute.
  7. ^ Gagauzia
  8. ^ Xinjiang
  9. ^ Veronika Veit, ed. (2007). The role of women in the Altaic world: Permanent International Altaistic Conference, 44th meeting, Walberberg, 26-31 August 2001. Volume 152 of Asiatische Forschungen (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 61. ISBN 3447055375. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  10. ^ Michael Robert Drompp (2005). Tang China and the collapse of the Uighur Empire: a documentary history. Volume 13 of Brill's Inner Asian library (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 126. ISBN 9004141294. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  11. ^ Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; "The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics...".
  12. ^ Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; "..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.".
  13. ^ Peter Sarris (2011). Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500-700. p. 308. 
  14. ^ Wudai Shi, ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a "Chinese" emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in early 3rd century.
  15. ^ a b According to Old History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 99, and New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to Wudai Huiyao, vol. 1 Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han
  16. ^ Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
  17. ^ a b M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  18. ^ Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
  19. ^ Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
  20. ^ K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
  21. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  22. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  23. ^ M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  24. ^ Thackston 1996
  25. ^ Findley 2005
  26. ^ Saunders 1970, p.177
  27. ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Retrieved 2011-07-06. ; "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  28. ^ Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313.
  29. ^ Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145.
  30. ^ Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77.
  31. ^ Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, IB Tauris (March 30, 2006).
  32. ^
  33. ^ Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3
  34. ^ Richard N. Frye and Lewis V. Thomas. The United States and Turkey and Iran, Harvard University Press, 1951, p. 217

Further reading[edit]