Turkish population

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The Turkish people are scattered throughout the former Ottoman Empire. Today they form a majority in Turkey and Northern Cyprus. There are also significant Turkish minorities in Balkans, the Caucasus, and the Arab world.

The Turkish population refers to the number of ethnic Turkish people in the world. During the Seljuk (1037–1194) and Ottoman (1299–1923) eras ethnic Turks were settled across the lands conquered by the two empires. In particular, the Turkification of Anatolia (modern Turkey) was the result of the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 and the formation of the Sultanate of Rum. Thereafter, the Ottomans continued Turkish expansion throughout the regions around the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Consequently, today the Turkish people form a majority in Turkey and Northern Cyprus. There are also significant Turkish minorities who still live in the Balkans, the Caucasus, and the Levant, and North Africa.

More recently, the Turkish people have emigrated from their traditional areas of settlement for various reasons, forming a large diaspora. From the mid-twentieth century onwards, unskilled workers from Turkey settled mainly in German and French speaking countries of Western Europe, in contrast, a "brain drain" of skilled workers from Turkey migrated mostly to North America. Moreover, ethnic Turks from other traditional areas of Turkish settlement have emigrated mostly due to political reasons. For example, the Meskhetian Turks were deported to Central Asia from Georgia in 1944; Turkish Cypriots have emigrated mostly as refugees to the English-speaking world during the Cyprus conflict and its immediate aftermath; Cretan Turks have significant populations in the Arab world as a result of being expelled from Greece; etc.

Traditional areas of Turkish settlement[edit]

Turkish majorities[edit]

The 1965 Turkish census was the last census in which people were asked about their mother tongue. This map shows the distribution of people who spoke Turkish during this period.
Prior to the Cyprus dispute Turkish Cypriots lived throughout the island of Cyprus. However, the 1974 Cypriot coup d'état initiated by the Greek military junta, which sought to annex the island to Greece, prompted the Turkish invasion of Cyprus followed by the declaration of the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus. Since the establishment of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983 the majority of Turkish Cypriots live mostly in the northern region of the island. The break-away state remains internationally unrecognised, except by Turkey.
Country Official State census figures Other estimates Constitution recognition See also
 Turkey N/A. The Turkish census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 56,590,000 – 60,630,000[1][2] The Turkish language is the official language of the Republic of Turkey, under Article 3 of the 1982 Turkish constitution. Turkish people
 Northern Cyprus 286,257 (2011 Turkish Cypriot census)[3] 300,000[4]-500,000[5] (includes Turkish Cypriots and recent Turkish settlers)
According to Article 2(2) of the 1985 constitution of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is only recognised by Turkey, the Turkish language is the sole official language of the break-away state.[6] Turkish Cypriots

Turkish "communities"[edit]

Country Official State census figures Other estimates Constitution recognition See also
 Cyprus 1,128 (2011 Cypriot Census)[7] 2,000 Turkish Cypriots remain in the internationally recognized southern region of the Republic of Cyprus.[8] Under Article 2 of the Cypriot constitution the Turkish Cypriots, alongside the Greek Cypriots, form one of the two "Communities" in Cyprus. The Turkish Cypriots are therefore recognised as equal participants of the Republic rather than as a minority. Furthermore, under Article 3, the Greek and Turkish languages are the two official languages of Cyprus.[9]
Despite President Makarios III's attempt to amend the constitution and the aim to weaken the rights of Turkish Cypriots, under the 1963 Akritas plan, the original 1960 constitution is still legally in force today.
Turkish Cypriots

Turkish minorities[edit]

Turkish minorities in the Balkans[edit]

Map of the Turkish population in Bulgaria. According to the 2011 Bulgarian census the Turks make up a majority in the Kardzhali Province (66.2%) and the Razgrad Province (50.02%).
According to the 2011 census of Kosovo the Turks make up a majority in Mamuša (93.1%).
According to the 2002 census of the Republic of Macedonia the Turks make up a majority in the Centar Župa Municipality (80.2%) and the Plasnica Municipality (97.8%).
According to the 2011 census of Romania the Turks make up a majority in Dobromir (61.93%) located in the Constanța County.
Country Official State census figures Other estimates Constitutional recognition/Minority status Further information Lists of Turks by country
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 267 (1991 Bosnian census)[10] 50,000[11][12] The Turkish language is officially recognized as a minority language, in accordance with the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, under Article 2, paragraph 2, of the 2010 ratification.[13] Turks in Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Bulgaria 588,318 (2011 Bulgarian census)[14] 750,000[11] The Bulgarian constitution of 1991 does not mention any ethnic minorities and the Bulgarian language is the sole official language of the State. However, in accordance with Article 36(2), the Turkish minority has the right to study their own language alongside the compulsory study of the Bulgarian language. Moreover, under Article 54(1), the Turkish minority have the right to "develop their culture in accordance with his ethnic identification".[15] Turks in Bulgaria List of Bulgarian Turks
 Croatia 367 (2011 Croatian census)[16] 2,000[17] The Turks are officially recognised as a minority ethnic group, in accordance with the 2010 Constitution of Croatia.[18] Turks in Croatia
 Greece 179,895 (1951 Greek census)[19][20][21] 150,000[11]
(80,000[22] to 130,000 in Western Thrace,[23][24] 10,000[25] to 15,000 in Athens,[26] 5,000 in Rhodes and Kos,[27] and 5,000 in Thessaloniki)[26]
The Turks of Western Thrace have protected status to practice their religion and use the Turkish language, in accordance with the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. However, the other sizeable Turkish minorities in Greece have no official recognition.[28] Turks in Greece
 Kosovo 18,738 (2011 Kosovar census)[29] 30,000[30] to 50,000[11] The Turkish language is recognized as an official language in the municipalities of Prizren and Mamuša and has minority status in Gjilan, Pristina, Vučitrn, and Mitrovica.[31] Turks in Kosovo
 Republic of Macedonia 77,959 (2002 Macedonian census)[32] 170,000–200,000[33][34] Initially the 1988 draft constitution spoke of the "state of the Macedonian people and the Albanian and Turkish minority". Once the 1991 constitution came into force the Turkish language was used officially where Turks formed a majority in the Centar Župa Municipality and the Plasnica Municipality. Since the 2001 amendment to the constitution, the Turkish language is officially used where Turks form at least 20% of the population and hence it is also an official language of Mavrovo and Rostuša.[35] Turks in Macedonia
 Montenegro 104 (2011 Montenegrin census).[36] Turks in Montenegro
 Romania 28,226 (2011 Romanian census)[37] 55,000[38] to 80,000[39] The Turkish language is officially recognized as a minority language, in accordance with the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, under Part III of the 2007 ratification.[13] Turks in Romania
 Serbia 647 (2011 Serbian census)[40] Turks in Serbia
Total N/A 1,300,000 (2011 estimate)[11] Turks in the Balkans

Turkish minorities in the Caucasus[edit]

The Meskheti region of Georgia had the largest Turkish population in Caucasus prior to the Second World War. In 1944 Joseph Stalin deported the Meskhetian Turkish minority to other parts of the Soviet Union, where they now form a large diaspora.
Country Official State census figures Other estimates Constitutional recognition/ Minority status Further information Lists of Turks by country
 Abkhazia 731 (2011 Abkhazian census)[41] 15,000[42] Turks in Abkhazia
 Armenia Turkish minority N/A.
Although the USSR censuses recorded a small number of Turks: 19 in 1970,[43] 28 in 1979,[44] and 13 in 1989,[45] they were not recorded in the 2001 Armenian census.
Turks in Armenia
 Azerbaijan Turkish minority N/A.
The 2009 Azeri census recorded 38,000 Turks;[46] however, it does not distinguish between the Turkish minority (descendants of Ottoman settlers who remained in Azerbaijan), Meskhetian Turks who arrived after 1944, and recent Turkish arrivals.
(Descendants of Ottomans settlers who remained in Azerbaijan only. This does not include the much larger Meskhetian Turkish and mainland Turkish arrivals who form a part of the diaspora)
Turks in Azerbaijan
 Georgia *Pre-World War II:
137,921 (1926 USSR Census).[48] The Turkish population was not recorded in later censuses; nonetheless, it is estimated that 200,000 Turks from Meskheti were deported to Central Asia in 1944.[48]
*Post-World War II:
The Meskhetian Turkish population in the USSR was published for the first in the 1970 census. However, by this point, the Turkish minority in Georgia had already diminished to several hundred due to the forced deportation of 1944.[48] There were 853 Turks in Georgia in 1970,[43] 917 in 1979,[44] and 1,375 in 1989.[45]
Although a small number has returned to Georgia, they have not been recorded in the 2002 Georgian census.
1,500[49][50] Meskhetian Turks

Turkish minorities in the Levant[edit]

The Misak-ı Millî ("national oath") sought to include Turkish majority areas in the Mosul Vilayet (in Iraq) and the Aleppo Vilayet and the Zor Sanjak (in Syria) in the proposals for the new borders of a Turkish nation in 1920.
The majority of Iraqi Turks live in the so-called "Turkmeneli" region.
Turkish people form a majority in Kouachra and Aydamun, in the Akkar District of Lebanon.
Country Census figures Alternate estimates Legal recognition Further information Lists of Turks by country
 Iraq 567,000 or 9% of the total Iraqi population (1957 census)[51][52][53][54] 3,000,000 (Iraqi Ministry of Planning estimate, 2013)[55][56] In 1925 the Turks were recognised as a constitutive entity of Iraq, alongside the Arabs and Kurds, however, the minority were later denied this status.[57]

In 1997 the Iraqi Turkoman Congress adopted a Declaration of Principles, Article Three of which states the following: "The official written language of the Turkomans is Istanbul Turkish, and its alphabet is the new Latin alphabet."[58][59]
Iraqi Turkmens List of Iraqi Turks
 Israel N/A N/A N/A Turks in Israel
 Jordan N/A Turkish minority:

Palestinian-Turkish refugees:
55,000 in Irbid[60]
5,000 near Amman[60]
5,000 in El-Sahne[60]
3,000 in El-Reyyan[60]
2,500 in El-Bakaa[60]
1,500 in El-Zerkaa[60]
1,500 in Sahab[60]
N/A Turks in Jordan List of Jordanian Turks
 Lebanon N/A 80,000[61]
(plus 125,000 to 150,000 Syrian Turkmen refugees[62])
N/A Turks in Lebanon List of Lebanese Turks
 Palestine N/A est. West Bank: 35,000 to 40,000[63]
total Palestinian-Turkish community: est.400,000 to 500,000[64]
N/A Turks in Palestine
 Syria N/A 500,000–3.5 million[65][66][67][68] N/A Syrian Turkmens List of Syrian Turks

Turkish minorities in North Africa[edit]

Country Census figures Alternate estimates Legal recognition Further information Lists of Turks by country
 Algeria N/A 5%[69][70] to 25% of Algeria's population[70][71]
600,000 to 2 million[72][69][73][74]
up to 9.5 million (including partial Turkish origin)[70]
N/A Turks in Algeria List of Algerian Turks
 Egypt N/A 1,000000 to 1.200000[75]
plus 100,000 Cretan Turks[76]
N/A Turks in Egypt List of Egyptian Turks
 Libya 35,062 or 4.7% of Libya's population (1936 census)[77]
plus 100,000 Cretan Turks[76]
N/A Turks in Libya List of Libyan Turks
 Tunisia N/A up to 25% of Tunisia's population[71]
estimates: 500,000[79]-2,000,000[80]
N/A Turks in Tunisia List of Tunisian Turks

Other Arab countries[edit]

Country Census figures Alternate estimates Legal recognition Further information Lists of Turks by country
 Saudi Arabia N/A 150,000[81] N/A Turks in Saudi Arabia List of Saudi Arabian Turks
 Yemen N/A 10,000 to 100,000[82] or more than 200,000[81] N/A Turks in Yemen List of Yemeni Turks

Turkish diasporas[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Country Official State census figures Other estimates Further information Lists of Turks
 Kazakhstan 97,015 (2009 Kazakh census)[83] 150,000)[50]-180,000[49] (Meskhetian Turks only) Turks in Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan 39,133 (2009 Kyrgyz census)[84] 50,000[85] to 70,000[86] (Meskhetian Turks only) Turks in Kyrgyzstan
 Tajikistan 1,360 (2010 Tajik census)[87] Turks in Tajikistan
 Turkmenistan 13,000 (2012 Turkmen census)[88] Turks in Turkmenistan
 Uzbekistan 106,302 (1989 Uzbek census)[45] 15,000[89]-38,000[49][90] (Meskhetian Turks only) Turks in Uzbekistan


Country Official State census figures Other estimates Further information Lists of Turks
 Austria N/A. The Austrian census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 350,000[91][92][93]-500,000[94][95] Turks in Austria List of Austrian Turks
 Azerbaijan 38,000 (2009 Azeri census)[46]
90,000–110,000 (Meskhetian Turks only)[50] Turks in Azerbaijan
 Belarus 55 (1989 Belarusian Census)[45]
 Belgium N/A. The Belgian census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 200,000[96][97] to 250,000[98][99][100][101] Turks in Belgium List of Belgian Turks
 Czech Republic 1,700[102]
 Denmark N/A. The Danish census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 70,000[103] 80,000[104] Turks in Denmark
 Estonia 544 (2011 Estonian census)[105]
 Finland 10,000[106] Turks in Finland
 France N/A. The French census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 800,000[107]- 1,000,000[108][109]
plus thousands of Algerian Turks[110]
Turks in France List of French Turks
 Germany N/A. The German census collects data on country of birth and citizenship but does not collect data on ethnicity. 3,500,000[111][112] 4,000,000 [113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121]
2,000 Turkish Cypriots[122]
Turks in Germany List of German Turks
 Hungary 1,565 (2001 Hungarian census)[123] 2,500[124] Turks in Hungary
 Iceland 68[125]
 Ireland N/A. The Irish census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 3,000[126] Turks in Ireland
 Italy N/A. The Italian census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 30,000–40,000[127][128] (excluding the Turkish minority in Moena) Turks in Italy
 Latvia 142[129] lv:Turki Latvijā
 Liechtenstein 1,000[130] Turks in Liechtenstein
 Lithuania 35[131]
 Luxembourg 450[132]
 Malta 53[133]
 Moldova Turks in Moldova
 Monaco 57[134]
 Netherlands N/A. The Dutch census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 400,000-500,000[135] to 627,000[136]
Plus 10,000–30,000 Bulgarian Turks.[137]
Turks in the Netherlands List of Dutch Turks
 Norway N/A. The Norwegian census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 16,000[138] Turks in Norway
 Poland 2,500[139] Turks in Poland
 Portugal 250[140]
 Russia Recorded 105,058 Turks and 4,825 Meskhetian Turks (2010 Russian census)[141] 120,000–150,000[142] Turks in Russia
 Slovakia 150[143]
 Slovenia 259 (2002 Slovenian census)[144]
 Spain N/A. The Spanish census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 4,000[145] Turks in Spain
 Sweden N/A. The Swedish census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 100,000[146][147]-125,000[148]
Plus 30,000 Bulgarian Turks[149]
Turks in Sweden
  Switzerland N/A. The Swiss census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 100,000[150]-120,000[151][152] Turks in Switzerland List of Swiss Turks
 Ukraine Recorded 8,844 Turks and 336 Meskhetian Turks (2001 Ukrainian census)[153] 10,000 (Meskhetian Turks only)[50] Turks in Ukraine
 United Kingdom N/A. The British census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. 500,000 (including 300,000–350,000 Turkish Cypriots)[154] Turks in the United Kingdom List of British Turks
Total 9 to 10 million[11][155][156]

North America[edit]

Country Official State census figures Other estimates Further information Lists of Turks
 Canada 55,430 (2011 Canadian census)[157] 100,000[158][159][160]
Plus 1,800 Turkish Cypriots[122]
Turkish Canadians List of Turkish Canadians
 United States 230,342 (2016 American Community Survey estimate)[161] 500,000[162][163]
Plus 16,000 Meskhetian Turks[49]
Plus 5,000 Turkish Cypriots[122]
Turkish Americans List of Turkish Americans


Country Official State census figures Other estimates Further information Lists of Turks
 Australia 66,919 (2011 census)[164] 150,000[165] to 200,000[166]
Plus 40,000–120,000 Turkish Cypriots[122][167][168][169]
Turkish Australians List of Turkish Australians
 New Zealand 957 (2013 census)[170] 2,000–3,000[171]
Plus 1,600 Turkish Cypriots[122]
Turks in New Zealand

Other regions[edit]

Country Official State census figures Other estimates Further information Lists of Turks by country
 India N/A. The Indian census collects data on country of birth but does not collect data on ethnicity. but Turk peoples in India Have their organisation to protect their culture, they are mainly reside in the area of west Uttar Pradesh (state) consisting district of Moradabad, Sambhal, Amroha, Rampur, Turks are in majority in Sambhal town about 50%–60% 1500000-2000000[172] Turks in India
 Peru 12,000[173]

References and notes[edit]

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  2. ^ CIA. "Turkey". Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  3. ^ TRNC State Planning Organization (2011). "Nüfus ve Konut Sayımı" (PDF). National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. p. 4.
  4. ^ International Crisis Group (2010). "CYPRUS: BRIDGING THE PROPERTY DIVIDE". International Crisis Group. p. 2. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011.
  5. ^ Cole 2011, 95.
  6. ^ Embargoed. "The Constitution of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (PDF). Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  7. ^ Republic of Cyprus Statistics Service. "Population Enumerated with Cypriot Citizenship, By Ethnic/Religious Group, Age and Sex (1.10.2001)". Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  8. ^ Hatay, Mete (2007), "Is the Turkish Cypriot Population Shrinking?" (PDF), www.prio.no, International Peace Research Institute, p. 40, ISBN 978-82-7288-244-9, archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2011
  9. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Cyprus. "The Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  10. ^ Federal Office of Statistics. "Population grouped according to ethnicity, by censuses 1961–1991". Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Cole, Jeffrey (2011), Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, pp. 367–368, ISBN 978-1-59884-302-6, Today Turkish/Muslim populations residing in the former European Turkey approximately amounts to 1.3 million, with roughly 50,000 in Bosnia- Herzegovina, 50,000 in Kosovo, 55,000 in Romania, 150,000 in Greece, 200,000 in the Republic of Macedonia, 750,000 in Bulgaria, and the rest living in various Balkan countries. This estimate does not included those citizens of Turkey who work and reside in the Balkans...
  12. ^ Minahan, James (1998), Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 45, ISBN 978-0313306105
  13. ^ a b Council of Europe. "List of declarations made with respect to treaty No. 148". Retrieved 21 December 2013.
  14. ^ Национален статистически институт. "Население по местоживеене, възраст и етническа група1" (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  15. ^ Schwartz, Herman (2002), The Struggle for Constitutional Justice in Post-Communist Europe, University of Chicago Press, p. 184, ISBN 978-0226741963
  16. ^ "Stanovništvo prema narodnosti, popisi 1971. – 2011" (in Croatian). Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  17. ^ Zaman. "Altepe'den Hırvat Müslümanlara moral". Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  18. ^ Anita Skelin Horvat. "Language Policy in Istria, Croatia –Legislation Regarding Minority Language Use" (PDF) (in Bulgarian). p. 51. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  19. ^ Ortakovski, Vladimir (2000), Minorities in the Balkans, Transnational Publishers, p. 187, ISBN 978-1571051295
  20. ^ Clogg, Richard (2002), Minorities in Greece: Aspects of a Plural Society, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, p. xi, ISBN 978-1850657057
  21. ^ Trudgill, Peter; Schreier, Daniel (2006), "Greece and Cyprus / Griechenland und Zypern", in Ulrich, Ammon (ed.), Sociolinguistics / Soziolinguistik, Walter de Gruyter, p. 1885, ISBN 978-3110199871
  22. ^ "Demographics of Greece". European Union National Languages. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  23. ^ Western Thrace Minority University Graduates Association (2009), "Western Thrace Turkish Minority" (PDF), =www.pekem.org, Culture and Education Foundation of Western Thrace Minority, p. 2, archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011
  24. ^ Ergener, Rashid; Ergener, Resit (2002), About Turkey: Geography, Economy, Politics, Religion, and Culture, Pilgrims Process, p. 106, ISBN 978-0-9710609-6-8
  25. ^ Madianou, Mirca (2005), Mediating the nation: news, audiences and the politics of identity, Routledge Cavendish, pp. 36–37, ISBN 978-1-84472-028-6
  26. ^ a b Pettifer, James; Nazarko, Mentor (2007), Strengthening Religious Tolerance for a Secure Civil Society in Albania and the Southern Balkans, IOS Press, p. 68, ISBN 978-1-58603-779-6
  27. ^ Clogg, Richard (2002), Minorities in Greece, Hurst & Co. Publishers, p. 84, ISBN 978-1-85065-706-4
  28. ^ Trudgill & Schreier, 2006 p.1886.
  29. ^ European Centre for Minority Issues Kosovo. "Minority Communities in the 2011 Kosovo Census Results: Analysis and Recommendations" (PDF). p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  30. ^ OSCE (2010), "Community Profile: Kosovo Turks", Kosovo Communities Profile, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, p. 3.
  31. ^ European Centre for Minority Issues Kosovo. "Community Profile: Turkish Community" (PDF). p. 2. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  32. ^ Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office (2005), Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002 (PDF), Republic of Macedonia — State Statistical Office, p. 34
  33. ^ Knowlton, MaryLee (2005), Macedonia, Marshall Cavendish, p. 66, ISBN 978-0-7614-1854-2
  34. ^ Abrahams, Fred (1996), A Threat to "Stability": Human Rights Violations in Macedonia, Human Rights Watch, p. 53, ISBN 978-1-56432-170-1
  35. ^ Dzankic, Jelena (2016), Citizenship in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro: Effects of Statehood and Identity Challenges, Routledge, p. 81, ISBN 978-1317165798
  36. ^ Statistical Office of Montenegro. "Population of Montenegro by sex, type of settlement, etnicity, religion and mother tongue, per municipalities" (PDF). p. 7. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  37. ^ National Institute of Statistics (2011), Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele provizorii ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011 (PDF), Romania-National Institute of Statistics, p. 10
  38. ^ Phinnemore, David (2006), The EU and Romania: accession and beyond, The Federal Trust for Education & Research, p. 157, ISBN 978-1-903403-78-5
  39. ^ Constantin, Daniela L.; Goschin, Zizi; Dragusin, Mariana (2008), "Ethnic entrepreneurship as an integration factor in civil society and a gate to religious tolerance. A spotlight on Turkish entrepreneurs in Romania", Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 7 (20): 59
  40. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији: Становништво према националној припадности – "Остали" етничке заједнице са мање од 2000 припадника и двојако изјашњени" (PDF).
  41. ^ "Abkhazia Population Censuses (1886–2011)". Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  42. ^ Bul Turk. "Abhazya'da Yaşayan Osmanlı Türkleri ilgi bekliyor". Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  43. ^ a b Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1970 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  44. ^ a b Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  45. ^ a b c d Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  46. ^ a b The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan. "Population by ethnic groups". Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  47. ^ Minahan, James (1998), Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 19, ISBN 978-0313306105, ...numbering about 19,000. The Turks are the remnant of a larger Turkish population that has mostly assimilated into Azeri culture since the seventeenth century, aided by the similarity between the Turkish and Azeri languages and cultures. Many of the Turks came to the region when Azerbaijan formed part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Unlike the majority of the Azeris, the Turks are mostly Sunni Muslim.
  48. ^ a b c Zisserman-Brodsky, Dina (2003), "The Relevant Nationalities-Basic Facts", Constructing Ethnopolitics in the Soviet Union: Samizdat, Deprivation and the Rise of Ethnic Nationalism, Pelgrave Macmillan, p. 214, ISBN 978-1403973627
  49. ^ a b c d Al Jazeera (2014). "Ahıska Türklerinin 70 yıllık sürgünü". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  50. ^ a b c d Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çiğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006), "Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettlement Experiences" (PDF), www.cal.org, Center for Applied Linguistics, pp. 13–14, archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2007
  51. ^ International Crisis Group (2008), Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds: Conflict or Cooperation?, Middle East Report N°81 –13 November 2008: International Crisis Group, archived from the original on 12 January 2011, Turkomans are descendents of Ottoman Empire-era soldiers, traders and civil servants... The 1957 census, Iraq’s last reliable count before the overthrow of the monarchy in 1958, put the country’s population at 6,300,000 and the Turkoman population at 567,000, about 9 per cent...Subsequent censuses, in 1967, 1977, 1987 and 1997, are all considered highly problematic, due to suspicions of regime manipulation.
  52. ^ Knights, Michael (2004), Operation Iraqi Freedom And The New Iraq: Insights And Forecasts, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, p. 262, ISBN 978-0944029930, The 1957 Iraqi census — the last in which the Turkmens were permitted to register — counted 567,000 Turkmens.
  53. ^ Taylor, Scott (2004), Among the Others: Encounters with the Forgotten Turkmen of Iraq, Esprit de Corps, ISBN 978-1-895896-26-8, According to the second census of 1958, the Turkmen registry stood at 567,000...if the Turkmen simply kept pace with the rest of Iraq's birthrate, then they would now account for approximately 2,080,000 of the present 25 million inhabitants. Many Turkmen argue that their birthrate actually exceeds that of most of the other Iraqi ethnic groups. One need only visit the children-filled streets of Tal Afar to believe their claim.
  54. ^ Güçlü, Yücel (2007), Who Owns Kirkuk? The Turkoman Case (PDF), Middle East Quarterly, Winter 2007, p. 79, The last reliable census in Iraqi – and the only one in which participants could declare their mother tongue – was in 1957. It found that Turkomans were the third largest ethnicity in Iraq, after Arabs and Kurds. The Turkomans numbered 567,000 out of a total population of 6,300,000.
  55. ^ Bassem, Wassim (2016). "Iraq's Turkmens call for independent province". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Turkmens are a mix of Sunnis and Shiites and are the third-largest ethnicity in Iraq after Arabs and Kurds, numbering around 3 million out of the total population of about 34.7 million, according to 2013 data from the Iraqi Ministry of Planning.
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