Turkmen alphabet

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The Turkmen alphabet used for official purposes in Turkmenistan is a variant of the Latin alphabet.

At the start of the 20th century, when Turkmen started to be written, it used the Arabic script, but in 1928 the Latin script was adopted. In 1940, the Russian influence in Soviet Turkmenistan prompted a switch to a Cyrillic alphabet, and a Turkmen Cyrillic alphabet (shown below in the table alongside the Latin) was created. When Turkmenistan became independent in 1991, President Saparmurat Niyazov immediately instigated a return to the Latin script. When it was reintroduced in 1993 it was supposed to use some unusual letters, such as the pound (£), dollar ($), yen (¥), and cent signs (¢), but these were replaced by more conventional letter symbols in 1999. The political and social forces that have combined to bring about these changes of script, then modifications of the Latin script, have been documented by Victoria Clement (2008).

Turkmen is still often written with an Arabic alphabet in other countries where the language is spoken and where the Arabic script is dominant (such as Iran and Afghanistan).

Evolution of Latin script[edit]

Current
Latin,
1999
Cyrillic,
1940–1993
IPA Latin,
1993–1999
Latin
(project),
1992
Latin,
1927–1940
Latin
(based on Common Turkic Alphabet)
A a А а [ɑ] A a A a A a A a
B b Б б [b] B b B b B b B b
Ç ç Ч ч [tʃ] Ç ç C c C c Ç ç
D d Д д [d̪] D d D d D d D d
E e initial Э э
non-init. Е е
[e] E e E e E e E e
Ä ä Ә ә [æ] Ä ä Ea ea Ә ә Ə ə
F f Ф ф [ɸ] F f F f F f F f
G g Г г [g~ɢ~ʁ] G g G g G g G/Ğ g/ğ
H h Х х [h~x] H h H h H/X h/x H/X h/x
I i И и [i] I i I i I i İ i
J j Җ җ [dʒ] J j J j Ç ç C c
Ž ž Ж ж [ʒ] £ ſ Jh jh Ƶ ƶ J j
K k К к [k~q] K k K k K/Q k/q K/Q k/q
L l Л л [l~ɫ] L l L l L l L l
M m М м [m] M m M m M m N n
N n Н н [n] N n N n N n N n
Ň ň Ң ң [ŋ~ɴ] Ñ ñ Ng ng Ŋ ŋ Ñ ñ
O o О о [o] O o O o O o O o
Ö ö Ө ө [ø] Ö ö Q q Ө ө Ö ö
P p П п [p] P p P p P p P p
R r Р р [ɾ~r] R r R r R r R r
S s С с [θ] S s S s S s S s
Ş ş Ш ш [ʃ] $ ¢ Sh sh Ş ş Ş ş
T t Т т [t̪] T t T t T t T t
U u У у [u] U u U u U u U u
Ü ü Ү ү [y] Ü ü V v Y y Ü ü
W w В в [β] W w W w V v V v
Y y Ы ы [ɯ] Y y X x Ь ь I ı
Ý ý Й й [j] ¥ ÿ Y y J j Y y
Z z З з [ð] Z z Z z Z z Z z

Sample text (Article 1 of the UDHR)[edit]

  • Hemme adamlar öz mertebesi we hukuklary boýunça deň ýagdaýda dünýä inýärler. Olara aň hem wyždan berlendir we olar bir-birleri bilen doganlyk ruhundaky garaýyşda bolmalydyrlar. (Latin 1995–present)
  • Hemme adamlar öz mertebesi we hukuklary boÿunça deň ÿagdaÿda dünÿä inÿärler. Olara aň hem wyſdan berlendir we olar bir-birleri bilen doganlyk ruhundaky garaÿy¢da bolmalydyrlar. (Latin 1993–1995)
  • Hemme adamlar qz mertebesi we hukuklarx boyunca deng yagdayda dvnyea inyearler. Olara ang hem wxjhdan berlendir we olar bir-birleri bilen doganlxk ruhundakx garayxshda bolmalxdxrlar. (Latin 1992–1993)
  • Хемме адамлар өз мертебеси ве хукуклары боюнча дең ягдайда дүнйә инйәрлер. Олара аң хем выждан берлендир ве олар бир-бирлери билен доганлык рухундакы гарайышда болмалыдырлар. (Cyrillic)
  • Hemme adamlar өz mertebesi ve hukuklarь bojunca deŋ jagdajda dynjә injәrler. Olara aŋ hem vьƶdan berlendir ve olar bir-birleri bilen doganlьk ruhundakь garajьşda bolmalьdьrlar. (Latin 1927–1940)
  • Hemme adamlar öz mertebesi ve xuquqları boyunça deñ yağdayda dünyə inyərler. Olara añ hem vıjdan berlendir ve olar bir-birleri bilen doğanlıq ruxundaqı ğarayışda bolmalıdırlar. (Common Turkic Alphabet)
  • [he̞mːe̞ ɑdɑmɫɑɾ ø̞ð me̞ɾt̪e̞be̞θi βe̞ χuquqɫɑɾɯ bo̞jund͡ʒɑ d̪e̞ŋ jaʁd̪ɑjd̪ɑ d̪ynjæ injæɾle̞ɾ ‖ o̞ɫɑɾɑ ɑɴ he̞m βɯʒd̪ɑn be̞ɾle̞nd̪iɾ βe̞ o̞ɫɑɾ biɾbiɾle̞ɾi bile̞n d̪o̞ʁɑnɫɯq ruχund̪ɑqɯ ɢɑɾɑjɯʃd̪ɑ bo̞ɫmɑɫɯd̪ɯɾɫɑɾ ‖] (IPA transcription)

Correspondence chart[edit]

Latin
letter
Cyrillic
equivalent
Arabic
equivalent
Phonetic
value
English Approximation
A a А а ا [a, aː] Father
B b Б б ب [b] Ball
Ç ç Ч ч چ [t͡ʃ] Cheek
D d Д д د [d] Dean
E e Е е اِ– ە [je], [e] Yes, Egg
Ä ä Ә ә أ [æ, æː] Hat, Had
F f Ф ф ف [ɸ] Face
G g Г г غ - گ - ق [ɡ~ʁ] Get
H h Х х ح - خ - هـ [h~x] Hat, Loch
I i И и ای [i, iː] Mini
J j Җ җ ج [d͡ʒ] Joke
Ž ž Ж ж ژ [ʒ] Treasure
K k К к ق - ك [k~q] Look
L l Л л ل [l] Lake
M m М м م [m] Mole
N n Н н ن [n] Nest
Ň ň Ң ң نگ [ŋ] Sing
O o О о اوْ [o, oː] Horse
Ö ö Ө ө اؤ [ø, øː] Measure
P p П п پ [p] Loop
R r Р р ر [r] Rim
S s С с ث - س - ص [θ, s] Thick, Sick
Ş ş Ш ш ش [ʃ] Shimmer
T t Т т ت - ط [t] Austin
U u У у اوُ [u, uː] Fluent
Ü ü Ү ү اۆ [y, yː] Pure
W w В в و [β] Valley
Y y Ы ы اؽ [ɯ, ɯː] Roses
Ý ý Й й ی [j] Yacht
Z z З з ز - ذ - ض - ظ [ð, z] There, Zoo

Letter names and pronunciation[edit]

Pronunciation of the Latin alphabet[edit]

Türkmen elipbiýi

Letter Name IPA Letter Name IPA
A, a a /a, aː/ N, n en /n/
B, b be /b/ Ň, ň /ŋ/
Ç, ç çe /tʃ/ O, o o /o, oː/
D, d de /d/ Ö, ö ö /ø, øː/
E, e e /e/ P, p pe /p/
Ä, ä ä /æ, æː/ R, r er /r/
F, f fe /ɸ/ S, s es /θ, s/
G, g ge /ɡ~ʁ/ Ş, ş şe /ʃ/
H, h he /h~x/ T, t te /t/
I, i i /i, iː/ U, u u /u, uː/
J, j je /dʒ/ Ü, ü ü /y, yː/
Ž, ž že /ʒ/ W, w we /β/
K, k ka /k~q/ Y, y y /ɯ, ɯː/
L, l el /l/ Ý, ý ýe /j/
M, m em /m/ Z, z ze /ð, z/

Cyrillic[edit]

түркмен элипбийи

Common in Russia

Arabic[edit]

توركمن الیپبایی

Common in Iran and Afghanistan

Vowels[edit]

[1]

Letter IPA Latin equivalent
آ /a, aː/ a
أ /æ, æː/ ä
اِ /e/ e
اوْ /o, oː/ o
اؤ /ø, øː/ ö
اوُ /u, uː/ u
اۆ /y, yː/ ü
ای /i, iː/ i
اؽ /ɯ, ɯː/ y

Consonants[edit]

Letter IPA Latin equivalent Letter IPA Latin equivalent
ب /b/ b ض /ð/ z
پ /p/ p ط /t/ t
ت /t/ t ظ /ð/ z
ث /θ/ s ع /ʔ/
ج /dʒ/ j غ /ɡ~ʁ/ g
چ /t͡ʃ/ ç ف /f/ f
ح /h/ h ق /ɡ~ʁ~q/ g-k
خ /x/ h ك /k/ k
د /d/ d گ /g/ g
ذ /z/ z ل /l/ l
ر /r/ r م /m/ m
ز /z/ z ن /n/ n
ژ /ʒ/ ž نگ /ŋ/ ň
س /θ/ s و /β/ w
ش /ʃ/ ş هـ /h/ h
ص /θ/ s ی /j/ ý

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  • Clement, Victoria. 2008. Emblems of independence: script choice in post-Soviet Turkmenistan in the 1990s. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 192: 171-185

External links[edit]