Turks in Algeria
|(600,000 to 2,000,000
(2008 Turkish Embassy in Algeria estimate)
other estimates: 1,740,000 3,300,000
5% to as much as 25% of Algeria's population are of Turkish origin)
|Regions with significant populations|
The Turks in Algeria, also known as Turco-Algerians and Algerian Turks, (Arabic: أتراك الجزائر French: Turcs d'Algérie; Turkish: Cezayir Türkleri) are the ethnic Turks who constitute a minority group in Algeria. During the Ottoman rule, the Turks moved to the region; as a result, the ethnic mix of Algeria changed with the migration of Turks from Anatolia and the evolvement of the "Kouloughlis" who are people of mixed Turkish and central Maghrebis blood.
The foundation of Ottoman Algeria was directly linked to the establishment of the Ottoman province (beylerbeylik) of the Maghreb at the beginning of the 16th century. At the time, fearing that their city would fall into Spanish hands, the inhabitants of Algiers called upon Ottoman corsairs for help. Headed by Oruç Reis and his brother Hayreddin Barbarossa, they took over the rule of the city and started to expand their territory into the surrounding areas. Sultan Selim I (r. 1512-20) agreed to assume control of the Maghreb regions ruled by Hayreddin as a province, granting the rank of governor-general (beylerbey) to Hayreddin. In addition, the Sultan sent 2,000 janissaries, accompanied by about 4,000 volunteers to the newly established Ottoman province of the Maghreb, whose capital was to be the city of Algiers. These Turks, mainly from Anatolia, called each other "yoldaş" (a Turkish word meaning "comrade") and called their sons born of unions with local women "Kuloğlu’s", implying that they considered their children's status as that of the Sultan's servants. Likewise, to indicate in the registers that a certain person is an offspring of a Turk and a local woman, the note "ibn al-turki" (or "kuloglu") was added to his name.
The exceptionally high number of turks greatly affected the character of the city of Algiers, and that of the province at large. In 1587, the province was divided into three different provinces, which were established where the modern states of Algeria, Libya and Tunisia, were to emerge. Each of these provinces was headed by a Pasha sent from Constantinople for a three-year term. The division of the Maghreb launched the process that led eventually to the janissary corps' rule over the province. From the end of the 16th century, Algiers's Ottoman elite chose to emphasize its Turkish identity and nurture its Turkish character to a point at which it became an ideology. By so doing, the Algerian province took a different path from that of its neighboring provinces, where local-Ottoman elites were to emerge. The aim of nurturing the elite's Turkishness was twofold: it limited the number of the privileged group (the ocak) while demonstrating the group's loyalty to the Sultan. By the 18th century there was 50,000 janissaries concentrated in the city of Algiers alone.
The lifestyle, language, religion, and area of origin of the Ottoman elite's members created remarkable differences between the Algerian Ottoman elite and the indigenous population. For example, members of the elite adhered to Hanafi law while the rest of the population subscribed to the Maliki school. Most of the elites originated from non-Arab regions of the Empire. Furthermore, most members of the elite spoke Ottoman Turkish while the local population spoke Algerian Arabic and even differed from the rest of the population in their dress.
Recruiting the military-administrative elite
From its establishment, the military-administrative elite worked to reinvigorate itself by enlisting volunteers from non-Arab regions of the Ottoman Empire, mainly from Anatolia. Hence, local recruiting of Arabs was almost unheard of and during the 18th century a more or less permanent network of recruiting officers was kept in some coastal Anatolian cities and on some of the islands of the Aegean Sea. The recruitment policy was therefore one of the means employed to perpetuate the Turkishness of the Ottoman elite and was practiced until the fall of the province in 1830.
Marriages to local women and the Kuloğlus
During the 18th century, the militia practiced a restrictive policy on marriages between its members and local women. A married soldier would lose his right of residence in one of the city's eight barracks and the daily ration of bread to which he was entitled. He would also lose his right to purchase a variety of products at a preferential price. Nonetheless, the militia's marriage policy made clear distinctions among holders of different ranks: the higher the rank, the more acceptable the marriage of its holder. This policy can be understood as part of the Ottoman elite's effort to perpetuate its Turkishness and to maintain its segregation from the rest of the population. Furthermore, the militia's marriage policy, in part, emerged from fear of an increase in the number of the kuloğlus.
The kuloğlu’s refers to the male offspring of members of the Ottoman elite and the local Algerian women. Due to their link to the local Algerian population via his maternal family, the kuloğlus' loyalty to the Ottoman elite was suspected because of the fear that they might develop another loyalty; they were therefore considered a potential danger to the elite. However, the son of a non-local woman, herself an "outsider" in the local population, represented no such danger to the Ottoman elite. Therefore, the Algerian Ottoman elite had a clear policy dictating the perpetuation of its character as a special social group separated from the local population. In the neighbouring province of Tunisia, the maintenance of the Turkishness of the ruling group was not insisted upon, and the kuloğlus could reach the highest ranks of government. However, the janissary corps had lost its supremacy first to the Muradid dynasty (Murad Bey's son was appointed bey), and then to the Husainid Dynasty. The Tunisian situation partly explains the continuation of the Algerian janissary corps' recruitment policy and the manifest will to distance the kuloğlus from the real centres of power. Nonetheless, high-ranking kuloğlus were in the service of the ocak, in military and in administrative capacities, occupying posts explicitly considered out of bounds for them; although there were no kuloğlus who was dey during the 18th century, this seems to be the only exception.
The Algerian Turks generally take pride in their Ottoman-Turkish heritage but also have integrated successfully into Algerian society. Their identity is based on their ethnic Turkish roots and links to mainland Turkey but also to the customs, language, and local culture of Algeria. Due to the three centuries of Turkish rule in Algeria, today many cultural, architectural, as well as musical elements of Algeria are of Turkish origin or influence, though their Turkish heritage is most notably present in their cuisine which they have introduced to Algeria (such as Turkish coffee, Lahmacun, Börek's, desserts and pastries). Furthermore, the Turkish language has influenced many words and vocabulary, family surnames such as Barbaros, Hayreddin, Osmanî, Stambouli, Torki, Turki, and Uluçali are very common; job titles or functions have also become family names within the Algerian-Turkish community (such as Hazneci, Demirci, Başterzi, Silahtar).
According to the Turkish Embassy in Algeria there is between 600,000-700,000 people of Turkish origin living in Algeria, however, according to the French Embassy the Turkish population is about 2 million. In 1953, Sabri Hizmetli suggested that people of Turkish origin make up 25% of Algeria's total population. However, a report by the Oxford Business Group in 2008 stated a more prudent estimate, suggesting that people of Turkish descent make up 5% of Algeria's total population; according to the report, in 2006, Algeria's population was 34.8 million which would place the population of the Turkish minority at about 1,740,000. An article by the Zaman newspaper in 2007 stated that Turks formed 10% of Algeria's 33.3 million inhabitants, accounting to 3,300,000 people of Turkish origin. As of 2012, Algeria's National Office of Statistics has placed the country's total population at 37.1 million.
Areas of settlement
The Turkish minority mainly live in the big cities, they have traditionally had a strong presence, and were alongside the native Moors, a significant part of Tlemcen's population. Due to the long presence and ruling by the Turks, there are also remains of the old Turkish cities, such as the Casbah in Algiers. The community also has notable populations in cities such as Biskra, Zammora in Kabylie, Mostaganem and Mazagran-Arzew, Oued Zitoun and Médéa and Constantine. During the French conquest, Kouloughli land owners in Mazagran, Arzew and Mostaganem, joined by many others from Tlemcen and soldiers from Oran would have parked themselves in Mostaganem turning it into a fortress in the premice to get protect from French and local Arab-Berber armies.
There are many Algerian Turks who have emigrated to other countries and hence make up part of Algeria's diaspora; for example, there is a noticeable Algerian community of Turkish descent living in England. Many Algerians attend the Suleymaniye Mosque which is owned by the British-Turkish community. France, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, and Spain are also top receiving countries of Algerian citizens.
Organizations and associations
- The Association of Algerian Turks (Association des Turcs algériens)
- Isabelle Adjani, actress
- Mahieddine Bachtarzi, actor and singer
- Mohamed Bencheneb, writer
- Larbi Bensari, musician
- Ahmed Bey ben Mohamed Chérif, the last Bey of Constantine
- Abdelkrim Dali, musician
- Mustapha Haciane, poet
- Messali Hadj, politician
- Salim Halali, singer
- Hamdan Khodja, scholar and merchant
- Mohammed Racim, artist
- Ahmed Tewfik El Madani, politician
- Omar Racim, artist and writer
- Benjamin Stambouli, football player
- Henri Stambouli, football player
- Mustapha Stambouli, politician
- Ottoman Algeria
- List of Pashas and Deys of Algiers
- Turkish minorities in the former Ottoman Empire
- Aïn El Turk
- Turkish Embassy in Algeria 2008, 4.
- Oxford Business Group 2008, 10.
- Zaman. "Türk'ün Cezayir'deki lakabı: Hıyarunnas!". Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- Hizmetli 1953, 10.
- Toussaint-Samat 2009, 10.
- Today's Zaman. "Turks in northern Africa yearn for Ottoman ancestors". Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- UNESCO 2009, 9.
- Ruedy 2005, 22.
- Stone 1997, 29.
- Milli Gazete. "Levanten Türkler". Retrieved 2012-03-19.
- Shuval 2000, 325.
- Shuval 2000, 328.
- Shuval 2000, 326.
- Shuval 2000, 327.
- Shuval 2000, 329.
- "When the French took over on 5 July 1830, most Turks (around 15,000) returned to Turkey" Language Planning and Policy in Africa - Page 40 - 2007 Read here
- Algeria: The Topography and History - John Reynell Morell - Citation
- Cultures in Contact: World Migrations in the Second Millennium - Dirk Hoerder - 2002 Read here
- Shuval 2000, 330.
- Shuval 2000, 331.
- Shuval 2000, 332.
- Shuval 2000, 333.
- Slate Afrique. "Que reste-t-il des Turcs et des Français en Algérie?". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- Oakes 2008, 23.
- Al Turkiyya. "Cezayir deki Türkiye". Retrieved 2013-09-17.
- National Office of Statistics Algeria. "Démographie". Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- Appiah & Gates 2010, 475.
- Britannica (2012), Tlemcen, Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
- Oakes 2008, 5.
- Tableau de la situation des établissements français dans l'Algérie, précédé de l'exposé des motifs et du projet de loi portant demande de crédits extraordinaires au titre de l'exercice de 1838. Impr. Royale. 1838. p. 66. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- Rozet 1850, 107.
- Les Enfants de Médéa et du Titteri. "Médéa". Retrieved 2012-04-13.
- Institut des hautes-études marocaines (1931). Hespéris: archives berbères et bulletin de l'Institut des hautes-études marocaines. 13. Emile Larose. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- Communities and Local Government 2009, 34.
- Communities and Local Government 2009, 53.
- Communities and Local Government 2009, 22.
- People. "Isabelle Adjani Has the Face That's Launching a Thousand Scripts". Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- Love Film. "French Heartbreakers". Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- Bencheneb 1971, 15.
- Cheurfi 2001, 73.
- Tocqueville 2006, 205.
- Déjeux 1984, 121.
- Adamson 2006, 25.
- Ruedy 2005, 137.
- VH magazine (2010). "Salim Halali: Le roi des nuits Csablancaises" (PDF). p. 66. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
- Panzac 2005, 224.
- Benjamin 2004, 100.
- McDougall 2006, 158.
- Ruedy 2005, 35.
- Adamson, Fiona (2006), The Constitutive Power of Political Ideology: Nationalism and the Emergence of Corporate Agency in World Politics, University College London
- Adem, Ismail (2004), Küçük ve Orta Ölçekli İşletmeleri Geliştirme ve Destekleme Başkanlığı Cezayir Ülke Raporu (PDF), KOSGEB.
- Appiah, Anthony; Gates, Henry Louis (2010), Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-533770-0.
- Bencheneb, Rachid (1971), "Les mémoires de Mahieddine Bachtarzi ou vingt ans de théâtre algérien", Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Méditerranée, 9 (9): 15–20, doi:10.3406/remmm.1971.1098
- Benjamin, Roger (2004), "Orientalism, modernism and indigenous identity", in Edwards, Steve; Wood, Paul (eds.), Art of the Avant-Gardes, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10230-5.
- Boyer, Pierre (1970), "Le problème Kouloughli dans la régence d'Alger", Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Méditerranée, 8: 77–94
- Cheurfi, Achour (2001), La Classe Politique Algérienne (de 1900 à nos jours): Dictionnaire Biographique, University of Michigan, ISBN 9961-64-292-9.
- Communities and Local Government (2009), The Algerian Muslim Community in England: Understanding Muslim Ethnic Communities (PDF), Communities and Local Government, ISBN 978-1-4098-1169-5.
- Déjeux, Jean (1984), Dictionnaire des Auteurs Maghrébins de Langue Française, KARTHALA Editions, ISBN 2-86537-085-2.
- Dokali, Rachid (1974), Les mosquées de la période Turque à Alger, University of Michigan: SNED, ASIN B0000EA150.
- Hizmetli, Sabri (1953), "Osmanlı Yönetimi Döneminde Tunus ve Cezayir'in Eğitim ve Kültür Tarihine Genel Bir Bakış" (PDF), Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 32 (0): 1–12
- McDougall, James (2006), History and the Culture of Nationalism in Algeria, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-84373-1.
- Oakes, Jonathan (2008), Bradt Travel Guide: Algeria, Bradt Travel Guides, ISBN 184162232X
- Oxford Business Group (2008), The Report: Algeria 2008, Oxford Business Group, ISBN 1-902339-09-6.
- Panzac, Daniel (2005), Barbary Corsairs: The End of a Legend, 1800-1820, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-12594-9.
- Parzymies, Anna (1985), Anthroponymie Algérienne: Noms de Famille Modernes d'origine Turque, Éditions scientifiques de Pologne, ISBN 83-01-03434-3.
- Rozet, Claude (1850), Algérie, Firmin-Didot.
- Ruedy, John Douglas (2005), Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-21782-2.
- Saoud, R. (2004), The Impact of Islam on Urban Development in North Africa (PDF), Foundation for Science Technology and Cilisation.
- Shuval, Tal (2000), "The Ottoman Algerian Elite and Its Ideology", International Journal of Middle East Studies, Cambridge University Press, 32 (3): 323–344, doi:10.1017/s0020743800021127
- Shuval, Tal (2002), "Remettre l'Algérie à l'heure ottomane. Questions d'historiographie", Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée (95-98): 423–448, doi:10.4000/remmm.244
- Stone, Martin (1997), The Agony of Algeria, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-177-9.
- Tocqueville, Alexis de (2006), "Second Letter on Algeria (August 22, 1837)", in Bronner, Stephen Eric; Thompson, Michael (eds.), The Logos Reader: Rational Radicalism and the Future of Politics, University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0813191483 line feed character in
|title=at position 19 (help).
- Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne (2009), "Coffee and Politics", A History of Food, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 1-4443-0514-X.
- Turkish Embassy in Algeria (2008), Cezayir Ülke Raporu 2008, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
- UNESCO (2009), Diversité et interculturalité en Algérie (PDF), UNESCO.