Turks in Algeria

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Turks in Algeria
Total population
600,000 to 2,000,000
(2008 Turkish Embassy Report)[1]

~1,740,000 - 5% of Algeria's 34.8 million inhabitants of Turkish descent
(2008 Oxford Business Group estimate)[2]

Up to 25% of Algeria's total population (including those of full and partial Turkish origin)[3][4]

(see also population)
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Religion
Sunni Islam (Hanafi school)

The Turks in Algeria, also commonly referred to as Algerian Turks,[5][6][7][8][9] Algerian-Turkish[10][11] Algero-Turkish[12] and Turkish-Algerians[13] (Arabic: أتراك الجزائر‎‎ French: Turcs d'Algérie; Turkish: Cezayir Türkleri[3]) are ethnic Turkish descendants who, alongside the Arabs and Berbers, constitute a strong admixture to Algeria's population.[14][15][16][17] During Ottoman rule, Turkish settlers began to migrate to the region predominately from Anatolia[18][19] and many intermarried with the native population; the male offspring of these marriages were referred to as Kouloughlis (Turkish: kuloğlu) due to their mixed Turkish and central Maghrebi blood.[20][21] Consequently, the terms "Turks" and "Kouloughlis" have traditionally been used to distinguish between those of full and partial Turkish ancestry.[22]

In the late nineteenth century the French colonisers in North Africa classified the populations under their rule as "Arab" and "Berber", despite the fact that these countries had diverse populations, which were also composed of ethnic Turks and Kouloughlis.[23] According to the U.S. Department of State "Algeria's population, [is] a mixture of Arab, Berber, and Turkish in origin";[16] whilst Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs has reported that the demographics of Algeria includes a "strong Turkish admixture".[15]

Thus, today, numerous estimates suggest that Algerians of Turkish descent still represent 5%[2][24] to 25% (including partial Turkish origin)[3][4] of the country's population. Since the Ottoman era, the Turks settled mostly in the coastal regions of Algeria; indeed, Turkish descendants continue to live in the big cities today.[2] Moreover, Turkish descended families also continue to practice the Hanafi school of Islam (in contrast to the ethnic Arabs and Berbers who practice the Maliki school)[25] and many retain their Turkish-origin surnames—which mostly express a provenance or ethnic Turkish origin from Anatolia.[26][27] The Turkish minority have formed the Association des Turcs algériens ("The Association of Algerian Turks") to promote their culture.[26]

History[edit]

Ottoman era (1515–1830)[edit]

Hayreddin Barbarossa, an Ottoman admiral, was the founder of the Regency of Algiers (Ottoman Algeria).

The foundation of Ottoman Algeria was directly linked to the establishment of the Ottoman province (beylerbeylik) of the Maghreb at the beginning of the 16th century.[28] At the time, fearing that their city would fall into Spanish hands, the inhabitants of Algiers called upon Ottoman corsairs for help.[28] Headed by Oruç Reis and his brother Hayreddin Barbarossa, they took over the rule of the city and started to expand their territory into the surrounding areas. Sultan Selim I (r. 1512-20) agreed to assume control of the Maghreb regions ruled by Hayreddin as a province, granting the rank of governor-general (beylerbey) to Hayreddin. In addition, the Sultan sent 2,000 janissaries, accompanied by about 4,000 volunteers to the newly established Ottoman province of the Maghreb, whose capital was to be the city of Algiers.[28] These Turks, mainly from Anatolia, called each other "yoldaş" (a Turkish word meaning "comrade") and called their sons born of unions with local women "Kuloğlu’s", implying that they considered their children's status as that of the Sultan's servants.[28] Likewise, to indicate in the registers that a certain person is an offspring of a Turk and a local woman, the note "ibn al-turki" (or "kuloglu") was added to his name.[29]

The exceptionally high number of Turks greatly affected the character of the city of Algiers, and that of the province at large. In 1587, the province was divided into three different provinces, which were established where the modern states of Algeria, Libya and Tunisia, were to emerge. Each of these provinces was headed by a Pasha sent from Constantinople for a three-year term. The division of the Maghreb launched the process that led eventually to the janissary corps' rule over the province.[30] From the end of the 16th century, Algiers's Ottoman elite chose to emphasize its Turkish identity and nurture its Turkish character to a point at which it became an ideology.[30] By so doing, the Algerian province took a different path from that of its neighboring provinces, where local-Ottoman elites were to emerge. The aim of nurturing the elite's Turkishness was twofold: it limited the number of the privileged group (the ocak) while demonstrating the group's loyalty to the Sultan.[30] By the 18th century there was 50,000 janissaries concentrated in the city of Algiers alone.[30]

The lifestyle, language, religion, and area of origin of the Ottoman elite's members created remarkable differences between the Algerian Ottoman elite and the indigenous population.[31] For example, members of the elite adhered to Hanafi law while the rest of the population subscribed to the Maliki school.[31] Most of the elites originated from non-Arab regions of the Empire. Furthermore, most members of the elite spoke Ottoman Turkish while the local population spoke Algerian Arabic and even differed from the rest of the population in their dress.[31]

Recruiting the military-administrative elite[edit]

From its establishment, the military-administrative elite worked to reinvigorate itself by enlisting volunteers from non-Arab regions of the Ottoman Empire, mainly from Anatolia.[29] Hence, local recruiting of Arabs was almost unheard of and during the 18th century a more or less permanent network of recruiting officers was kept in some coastal Anatolian cities and on some of the islands of the Aegean Sea.[32] The recruitment policy was therefore one of the means employed to perpetuate the Turkishness of the Ottoman elite and was practiced until the fall of the province in 1830.[32]

Marriages to local women and the Kuloğlus[edit]

Contrary to all custom, Ahmed Bey ben Mohamed Chérif - a kouloughli - was the last Ottoman Bey of Constantine, in the Regency of Algiers, ruling from 1826 to 1848.[33]

During the 18th century, the militia practiced a restrictive policy on marriages between its members and local women. A married soldier would lose his right of residence in one of the city's eight barracks and the daily ration of bread to which he was entitled. He would also lose his right to purchase a variety of products at a preferential price.[32] Nonetheless, the militia's marriage policy made clear distinctions among holders of different ranks: the higher the rank, the more acceptable the marriage of its holder.[34] This policy can be understood as part of the Ottoman elite's effort to perpetuate its Turkishness and to maintain its segregation from the rest of the population.[34] Furthermore, the militia's marriage policy, in part, emerged from fear of an increase in the number of the kuloğlus.[35]

The kuloğlu’s refers to the male offspring of members of the Ottoman elite and the local Algerian women.[35] Due to their link to the local Algerian population via his maternal family, the kuloğlus' loyalty to the Ottoman elite was suspected because of the fear that they might develop another loyalty; they were therefore considered a potential danger to the elite.[35] However, the son of a non-local woman, herself an "outsider" in the local population, represented no such danger to the Ottoman elite. Therefore, the Algerian Ottoman elite had a clear policy dictating the perpetuation of its character as a special social group separated from the local population.[35]

Nonetheless, John Douglas Ruedy points out that the kuloğlu’s also sought to protect their Turkishness:

"Proud and distinctive appearing, Kouloughlis often pretended to speak only Turkish and insisted on worshipping in Hanafi [i.e. Ottoman-built] mosques with men of their own ethnic background. In times of emergency they were called upon to supplement the forces of the ojaq."[36]

In the neighbouring province of Tunisia, the maintenance of the Turkishness of the ruling group was not insisted upon, and the kuloğlus could reach the highest ranks of government. However, the janissary corps had lost its supremacy first to the Muradid dynasty (Murad Bey's son was appointed bey), and then to the Husainid Dynasty. The Tunisian situation partly explains the continuation of the Algerian janissary corps' recruitment policy and the manifest will to distance the kuloğlus from the real centres of power.[37] Nonetheless, high-ranking kuloğlus were in the service of the ocak, in military and in administrative capacities, occupying posts explicitly considered out of bounds for them; although there were no kuloğlus who was dey during the 18th century, this seems to be the only exception.[38]

French era (1830–1962)[edit]

Ahmed Messali - commonly known as Messali Hadj - was the leader of populist Algerian nationalism. He was of Turkish origin and founder of the first modern movement for Algerian independence.[39][40][41]
Ahmed Tewfik El Madani, of Turkish origin,[42] was an Algerian historian, nationalist, and leader of the Association of Algerian Muslim Ulema.

Once Algeria came under French colonial rule in 1830, approximately 10,000 Turks were expelled and shipped off to Smyrna; moreover, many Turks (alongside other natives) fled to other regions of the Ottoman realms, particularly to Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Egypt.[43] Nonetheless, by 1832, many Algerian-Turkish descended families, who had not left Algeria, joined a coalition with Emir Abdelkader in order to forge the beginning of a powerful resistance movement against French colonial rule.[10]

In 1926 Messali Hadj - an Algerian of Turkish origin - founded the first modern nationalist movement for Algerian independence.[39] Another prominent Algerian nationalist leader of Turkish origin was Ahmed Tewfik El Madani[42] who, as the leader of the Association of Algerian Muslim Ulema, continued to influence Algerian nationalism. Ahmed Tewfik was also a historian who argued that the Turkish era in Algeria was defamed by European historians and provided the French with convincing arguments to justify their colonial actions.[44] He maintained that the Ottoman Turks had unified Algeria's territory and saved the country from the grip of Christianity as well as from the fate of Muslim Spain. Furthermore, he stated that the Turks who settled in Algeria were "perfection and nobility itself" and emphasised their contributions to Algerian society, such as the establishment of religious endowments, mosques and waterworks.[45] By 1956 the Reformist Ulema, under the leadership of Ahmed Tewfik, joined the Algerian National Liberation Front to fight for Algerian independence.[46]

Algerian Republican era (1962–present)[edit]

In 2011 Algerian journalist Mustafa Dala reported in the "Echorouk El Yawmi" that Algerians of Turkish origin - particularly the youth - are seeking to revive the Turkish language in Algeria. In his investigation, Dala found that the Turkish minority are already distinguishable by their different customs, especially in regards to clothes and foods, as well as by their Turkish surnames. However, he states that the revival of the Turkish language is a sign of the minority restoring their identity and highlights the "new Ottomans" in Algeria.[47]

Common surnames used by the Turkish minority[edit]

By provenance[edit]

The following list are examples of Turkish origin surnames which express an ethnic and provenance origin from Eastern Thrace and Anatolia - regions which today form the modern borders of the Republic of Turkey:

Surname used in Algeria Turkish English translation
Baghlali Bağlılı from Bağlı (in Çanakkale)[48]
Bayasli Payaslı from Payas[49]
Benkasdali
Benkazdali
Ben Kazdağılı I am from Kazdağı[50][51]
Benmarchali Ben Maraşlı I am from Maraş[52]
Benterki Ben Türk I am Turk/Turkish[53]
Bentiurki
Benturki
Ben Türk I am Turk/Turkish[53]
Ben Turkia
Ben Turkiya
Ben Türkiye I am [from] Turkey[53]
Bersali
Borsali
Borsari
Borsla
Bursalı from Bursa[53][54]
Boubiasli Payaslı from Payas[49]
Chatli Çatlı from Çat (in Erzurum)[55]
Chilali Şileli from Şileli (in Aydın)[56]
Cholli Çullu from Çullu (in Aydın)[56]
Coulourli Kuloğlu Kouloughli (mixed Turkish and Algerian origin)[57]
Dengezli
Denizli
Denzeli
Denizli from Denizli[58]
Dernali Edirneli from Edirne[59]
Djabali Cebali from Cebali (a suburb in Istanbul)[60]
Djeghdali Çağataylı Chagatai (Turkic language)[61]
Djitli Çitli from Çit (in Adana or Bursa)[62]
Douali Develi from Develi (in Kayseri)[59]
Guellati Galatalı from Galata (in Istanbul)[61]
Kamen Kaman Kaman (in Nevşehir)[63]
Karabaghli Karabağlı from Karabağ (in Konya)[63]
Karadaniz Karadeniz from the Black Sea region[63]
Karaman Karaman from Karaman[63]
Kasdali
Kasdarli
Kazdağılı from Kazdağı[50]
Kaya
Kayali
Kayalı from Kaya (applies to the villages in Muğla and Artvin)[50]
Kebzili Gebzeli from Gebze (in Kocaeli)[50]
Keicerli Kayserili from Kayseri[51]
Kermeli Kermeli from the Gulf of Kerme (Gökova)[50]
Kezdali Kazdağılı from Kazdağı[51]
Kissarli
Kisserli
Kayserili from Kayseri[51]
Korghlu
Korglu
Koroghli
Korogli
Kuloğlu Kouloughli (mixed Turkish and Algerian origin)[64]
Koudjali
Kouddjali
Kocaeli from Kocaeli[51][57]
Koulali Kulalı from Kulalı (in Manisa)[57]
Kouloughli
Koulougli
Kouroughli
Kouroughlou
Kuloğlu A Kouloughli (mixed Turkish and Algerian origin)[57]
Kozlou Kozlu from Kozlu (in Zonguldak)[51]
Manamani
Manemeni
Manemenni
Menemenli from Menemen (in Izmir)[65]
Mansali Manisalı from Manisa[65]
Meglali Muğlalı from Muğla[65]
Merchali
Mersali
Maraşlı from Maraş[65]
Osmane
Othmani
Osman
Osmanlı
Ottoman[66]
Ould Zemirli
Ould Zmirli
İzmirli from Izmir[67]
Rizeli Rizeli from Rize[68]
Romeili
Roumili
Rumeli from Rumelia[68]
Sanderli Çandarli from Çandarlı[68]
Sandjak
Sangaq
Sancak from [a] sanjak (an administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire)[55]
Satli Çatlı from Çat (in Erzurum)[55]
Sekelli İskeleli from Iskele (in Muğla, Seyhan, or the island of Cyprus)[55]
Sekli Sekeli from Seke (in Aydın)[55]
Skoudarli Üsküdarlı from Üsküdar (in Istanbul)[56]
Stamboul
Stambouli
İstanbulu from Istanbul[69]
Tchambaz Cambaz Cambaz (in Çanakkale)[70]
Takarli Taraklı from Taraklı (in Adapazarı)[56]
Tchanderli
Tchenderli
Çandarlı from Çandarlı[59][68]
Tekali Tekeeli from Tekeeli (a coastal area between Alanya and Antalya)[69]
Terki
Terqui
Türki Turkish (language)[71]
Terkman
Terkmani
Türkmenli Turkmen (from Anatolia/Mesopotamia)[71]
Torki Türk Turkish[71]
Tourki
Tourquie
Turki
Türk Turk/Turkish[71]
Yarmali Yarmalı from Yarma (in Konya)[67]
Zemerli
Zemirli
Zmerli
Zmirli
İzmirli from Izmir[67][72]
Zemir
Zmir
İzmir Izmir[72]

The following list are examples of Turkish origin surnames which express a provenance settlement of Turkish families in regions of Algeria:

Surname used in Algeria Turkish Meaning in English
Tlemsanili
Tilimsani
Tilimsanılı from Tlemcen[71]

The following list are examples of Turkish origin surnames traditionally used by Turkish families in Constantine:

Acheuk-Youcef,[73] Ali Khodja,[73] Bachtarzi,[73] Benabdallah Khodja,[73] Benelmadjat,[73] Bestandji,[73] Bendali Braham,[73] Bentchakar,[73] Bensakelbordj,[73] Bentchikou,[73] Khaznadar,[73] Salah Bey,[73] Tchanderli Braham.[73]

By occupation[edit]
The singer, actor, and writer Mahieddine Bachtarzi was of Turkish origin.[74] His surname "Bachtarzi" is a Turkish origin surname ("Baş Terzi") meaning "chief tailor".[75]

The following list are examples of some Turkish origin surnames which express the traditional occupation of Turkish families which settled in Algeria:

Surname used in Algeria Turkish English translation
Agha ağa agha[76]
Ahtchi ahçı, aşçı cook, keeper of restaurant[76]
Anberdji ambarcı storekeeper[76]
Aoulak ulak messenger, courier[48]
Arbadji arabacı driver[76]
Atchi atçı horse breeder[76]
Bacha paşa a pasha[75]
Bachagha başağa head agha[75]
Bachchaouch başçavuş sergeant major[75]
Bachesais başseyis head stableman[75]
Bachtaftar başdefterdar treasurer[75]
Bachtarzi baş terzi chief tailor[75]
Bachtoubdji baştopçu chief cannoneer, artilleryman[75]
Baldji balcı maker or seller of honey[75]
Bazarbacha
Bazarbarchi
pazarbaşı head of bazaar[49]
Benabadji ben abacı [I am a] maker or seller of garments[77]
Benchauch ben çavuş [I am a] sergeant[52]
Benchoubane ben çoban [I am a] shepherd[53]
Bendamardji ben demirci [I am a] metalworker[77][59]
Bendali ben deli [I am a] deli (Ottoman troops)[77]
Benlagha ben ağa [I am a] agha[52]
Benstaali ben usta [I am a] master, workman, craftsman[52]
Bentobdji ben topçu [I am a] cannoneer[53]
Bestandji
Bostandji
bostancı bostandji[54]
Bouchakdji bıçakçı cutler[70]
Boudjakdji ocakçı chimney sweep[70]
Boyagi boyacı painter[54]
Chalabi
Challabi
çelebi educated person, gentlemen[70]
Chaouche çavuş sergeant[55]
Chembaz
Chembazi
cambaz acrobat[56]
Damardji
Damerdji
demirci metalworker[77][59]
Debladji tavlacı stable boy or backgammon player[58]
Dey dayı officer or maternal uncle[58]
Djadouadji kahveci coffee maker or seller[78]
Djaidji çaycı tea seller[78]
Doumandji dümenci helmsman[78]
Doumardji tımarcı stableman[60]
Dumangi dümenci helmsman[78]
Dumargi tımarcı stableman[60]
Fenardji fenerci lighthouse keeper[60]
Fernakdji fırıncı baker[60]
Hazerchi hazırcı seller of ready-made clothing[62]
Kahouadji kahveci café owner or coffee maker/grower[62]
Kalaidji kalaycı tinner[63]
Kaouadji kahveci café owner or coffee maker/grower[62]
Kasbadji kasapcı butcher[50]
Kaznadji hazinedar keeper of a treasury[50]
Kebabdji kebapçı kebab seller[79]
Kehouadji kahveci café owner or coffee maker/grower[50]
Ketrandji katrancı tar seller[51]
Khandji hancı innkeeper[62]
Khaznadar hazinedar keeper of a treasury[62]
Khaznadji hazinedar keeper of a treasury[79]
Khedmadji hizmetçi maid, helper[79]
Khodja
Khoudja
hoca teacher[79]
Louldji lüleci maker or seller of pipes[65]
Koumdadji komando commando[57]
Moumdji
Moumedji
mumcu candle maker[80]
Ouldchakmadji çakmakçı maker or seller of flints/
maker or repairer of flintlock guns[80]
Nefradji nüfreci prepares amulets[80]
Pacha paşa a pasha[80]
Rabadji arabacı driver[57]
Rais reis chief, leader[57]
Saboudji
Saboundji
sabuncu maker or seller of soap[68]
Selmadji silmeci cleaner or to measure[56]
Serkadji sirkeci maker or seller of vinegar[56]
Slahdji silahçı gunsmith[56]
Staali usta master, workman, craftsman[69]
Tchambaz cambaz acrobat[70]
Other surnames[edit]
The French-Algerian writer Leïla Sebbar is paternally of Turkish origin.[81] Her paternal grandmother's surname "Déramchi"[81] is a Turkish origin surname ("Diremci") meaning "currency" or "money".[58]
Surname used in Algeria Turkish English translation
Arslan aslan a lion[76]
Arzouli arzulu desirous, ambitious[76]
Baba
Babali
baba a father[48]
Badji bacı elder sister[48]
Bektach bektaş member of the Bektashi Order[49]
Belbey bey mister, gentlemen[49]
Belbiaz beyaz white[49]
Benchicha ben şişe [I am] a bottle[52]
Benhadji ben hacı [I am] a Hadji[77]
Benkara ben kara [I am] dark[52]
Bensari ben sarı [I am] blonde[52]
Bentobal
Bentobbal
ben topal [I am] crippled[53]
Bermak parmak finger[53]
Beiram
Biram
bayram holiday, festival[54]
Beyaz beyaz white[53]
Bougara
Boulkara
bu kara [this is] dark[53][70]
Boukendjakdji kancık mean[70]
Caliqus çalıkuşu goldcrest[70]
Chalabi
Challabi
çelebi educated person, gentlemen[68]
Chelbi çelebi educated person, gentlemen[55]
Cherouk çürük rotten[56]
Dali
Dalibey
Dalisaus
deli brave, crazy[59]
Damir demir metal[59]
Daouadji davacı litigant[59]
Deramchi diremci currency[58]
Djabali çelebi educated person, gentlemen[60]
Doumaz duymaz deaf[60]
Eski eski old[60]
Gaba kaba rough, heavy[60]
Goutchouk küçük small, little[62][64]
Gueddjali gacal domestic[61]
Guendez gündüz daytime[61]
Guermezli görmezli blind[62][64]
Guertali kartal eagle[62]
Hadji hacı Hadji[62]
Hidouk haydut bandit[79]
Ioldach yoldaş companion, comrade[80][80]
Kara kara dark[80]
Karabadji kara bacı dark sister[63]
Kardache kardeş brother[63]
Karkach karakaş dark eyebrows[80]
Kermaz görmez blind[62][64]
Kerroudji kurucu founder, builder, veteran[51]
Kertali kartal eagle[51]
Koutchouk küçük small, little[62][64]
Lalali
Lalili
laleli tulip[64]
Maldji malcı cattle producer[80]
Mestandji mestan drunk[80]
Oldach yoldaş companion, comrade[80][80]
Oualan oğlan boy[67]
Ouksel yüksel to succeed, achieve[67]
Ourak orak sickle[67]
Salakdji salakça silly[68]
Salaouatchi
Salouatchi
salavatçaı prayer[68]
Sari sarı yellow or blond[55]
Sarmachek sarmaşık vine[55]
Sersar
Sersoub
serseri layabout, vagrant[56]
Tache taş stone, pebble[70]
Tarakli taraklı having a comb, crested[70]
Tchalabi çelebi educated person, gentlemen[70]
Tchalikouche çalıkuşu goldcrest[70]
Tenbel tembel lazy[71]
Tobal
Toubal
topal cripple[71]
Yataghan
Yataghen
yatağan yatagan[67]
Yazli yazılı written[67]
Yekkachedji yakışmak to suit[72]
Yesli yaslı mourning[72]
Yoldas yoldaş companion, comrade[80][80]

Culture[edit]

Turkish women of Algeria in their traditional dress (c. 1876 – 1888).
The Ketchaoua Mosque (Turkish: Keçiova Camii[82]) in Algiers was built in 1612 by the Ottoman Turks. It was recently restored by the Turkish government.

The Algerian Turks generally take pride in their Ottoman-Turkish heritage but also have integrated successfully into Algerian society. Their identity is based on their ethnic Turkish roots and links to mainland Turkey but also to the customs, language, and local culture of Algeria.[66] Due to the three centuries of Turkish rule in Algeria, today many cultural (particularly in regards to food, religion, and dress - and to a lesser extent language), architectural, as well as musical elements of Algeria are of Turkish origin or influence.[66]

Language[edit]

During the Ottoman era, the Ottoman Turkish language was the official governing language in the region, and the Turkish language was spoken mostly by the Algerian Turkish community.[31] However, today most Algerian Turks speak the Arabic language as their mother tongue. Nonetheless, the legacy of the Turkish language is still apparent and has influenced many words and vocabulary in Algeria. An estimated 634 Turkish words are still used in Algeria today.[83] Therefore, in Algerian Arabic it is possible for a single sentence to include an Arabic subject, a French verb, and for the predicate to be in Berber or Turkish.[84]

Moreover, families of Turkish origin have retained their Turkish family surnames; common names include Barbaros, Hayreddin, Osmanî, Stambouli, Torki, Turki, and Uluçali; job titles or functions have also become family names within the Algerian-Turkish community (such as Hazneci, Demirci, Başterzi, Silahtar).[66][85]

The Hassan Pasha Mosque (Turkish: Paşa Camii[82]) in Oran was built in 1797 by the Ottoman Turks.

Religion[edit]

The Ottoman Turks brought the teaching of the Hanafi law of Sunni Islam to Algeria; consequently, their lifestyle created remarkable differences between the Ottoman Turks and the indigenous population because the ethnic Arabs and Berbers practiced the Maliki school.[31][86]

Today, the Hanafi school is still practiced among the Turkish descended families. Moreover, the Ottoman mosques in Algeria - which are still used by the Turkish minority - are distinguishable by their octagonal minarets which were built in accordance with the traditions of the Hanafi rite.[87][88]

Cuisine[edit]

Today the Turkish heritage in Algeria is most notably present in their cuisine which they have introduced to Algeria (such as Turkish coffee, Lahmacun, Börek's, desserts and pastries).[66][89]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

The Turkish minority is estimated to form between 5%[2][24] to 25%[3][4] of Algeria's total population, the latter including those of partial Turkish origin.

In 1993 the Turkish scholar Prof. Dr. Metin Akar estimated that there was 1 million Turks living in Algeria.[90] By 2008 a country report of Algeria by the Oxford Business Group stated that 5% of Algeria's 34.8 million inhabitants were of Turkish descent (accounting to 1.74 million).[2] In the same year, a report by the Turkish Embassy in Algeria stated that there was between 600,000-700,000 people of Turkish origin living in Algeria; however, the Turkish Embassy report also stated that according to the French Embassy's records there was around 2 million Turks in Algeria.[1]

In recent years, several Turkish academics,[91] as well as Turkish official reports,[92] have reiterated that estimates of the Turkish population range between 600,000 to 2 million. However, a 2010 report published by the Directorate General for Strategy Development points out that these estimates are likely to be low because 1 million Turks migrated and settled in Algeria throughout the 315 years of Ottoman rule. Moreover, the report suggests that due to intermarriages with the local population, 30% of Algeria's population was of Turkish origin in the eighteenth century.[92] In 1953 the Turkish scholar Dr. Sabri Hizmetli claimed that people of Turkish origin still made up 25% of Algeria's population.[4]

By 2013 the American historian Dr. Niki Gamm argued that the total population of Turkish origin remains unclear and that estimates range between 5-10% of Algeria's population of 37 million (accounting to between 1.85 million and 3.7 million)[24] However, by 2015 the Russian government-controlled news agency Sputnik, citing the 2014 Algerian population statistics, reported that there are 760,000 people of full Turkish origin (i.e. 2% of Algeria's population), whilst those of full and partial Turkish origin account to 9.5 million of Algeria's 38 million inhabitants (i.e. 25% of Algeria's population).[3]

Areas of settlement[edit]

The Turkish minority mainly live in the big cities of Algeria.[2] For example, they have a strong presence in Tlemcen where they live within their own sectors of the city.[93]
The Aïn El Turk (the "Fountain of the Turks") in Oran is one of several regions in Algeria named after the Turks.

Since the Ottoman era, urban society in the coastal cities of Algeria evolved into an ethnic mix of Turks and Kouloughlis as well as other ethnic groups (Arabs, Berbers, Moors, and Jews).[94] Thus, the Turks settled mainly in the big cities of Algeria and formed their own Turkish quarters; remnants of these old Turkish quarters are still visible today,[95] such as in Algiers (particularly in the Casbah)[96][97] Annaba,[98] Biskra,[99] Bouïra,[100] Médéa,[101][102] Mostaganem,[102] and Oran (such as in La Moune[97] and the areas near the Hassan Basha Mosque[103]). Indeed, today, the descendants of Ottoman-Turkish settlers continue to live in the big cities.[2] In particular, the Turks have traditionally had a strong presence in the Tlemcen Province; alongside the Moors, they continue to make up a significant portion of Tlemcen's population and live within their own sectors of the city.[104][93]

The Turkish minority have traditionally also had notable populations in various other cities and towns; there is an established Turkish community in Arzew,[105] Bougie,[106] Cherchell,[107] Constantine,[106] Djidjelli,[106] Mascara, Mazagran[105] Oued Zitoun,[108] and Tebessa.[106] There is also an established community in Kabylie (such as Tizi Ouzou[109] and Zammora).

Moreover, several suburbs, towns and cities, which have been inhabited by the Turks for centuries, have been named after Ottoman rulers, Turkish families or the Turks in general, including: the Aïn El Turk district (literally "Fountain of the Turks") in Oran, the town of Aïn Torki in the Aïn Defla Province, the Aïn Turk commune in Bouïra, the town of Bir Kasdali and the Bir Kasd Ali District in the Bordj Bou Arréridj Province,[110][50] the town of Bougara and the Bougara District located in Blida Province,[53] the suburb of Hussein Dey and the Hussein Dey District in the Algiers Province, as well as the town of Salah Bey and the Salah Bey District in the Sétif Province.[73]

The Algerian writer Mustapha Haciane is of Turkish origin.[111] He currently resides in Paris, France.[111]

Diaspora[edit]

There are many Algerian Turks who have emigrated to other countries and hence make up part of Algeria's diaspora. Initially, the first wave of migration occurred in 1830 when many Turks were forced to leave the region once the French took control over Algeria; approximately 10,000 were shipped off to Turkey whilst many others migrated to other regions of the Ottoman Empire, including Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Egypt.[43] Furthermore, some Turkish/Kouloughli families also settled in Morocco (such as in Tangier and Tétouan).[112]

In regards to modern migration, there is a noticeable Algerian community of Turkish descent living in England.[3][113] Many Algerians attend the Suleymaniye Mosque which is owned by the British-Turkish community.[114] There is also thousands of Algerian Turks living in France.[3] Furthermore, some Algerian Turks have also migrated to other European countries;[3] in particular, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, as well as Canada in North America, are top receiving countries of Algerian citizens.[115]

Organizations and associations[edit]

  • The Association of Algerian Turks (Association des Turcs algériens)[66]

Notable people[edit]

The acclaimed French actress Isabelle Adjani is paternally of Algerian-Turkish origin.[116][117][118][119][120]
The Algerian musician Salim Halali was paternally of Turkish origin.[121][122]
The acclaimed Algerian painter Mohammed Racim is of Turkish origin.[123]
The Algerian feminist writer and lawyer Wassyla Tamzali is paternally of Turkish origin.[124]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ a: "Kouloughlis" refers to the offspring (or descendants) of Turkish fathers and Algerian mothers.[36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Turkish Embassy in Algeria (2008), Cezayir Ülke Raporu 2008, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, p. 4, archived from the original on 13 July 2017, Bunun dışında, büyük bir bölümü Tlemcen şehri civarında bulunan ve Osmanlı döneminde buraya gelip yerleşen 600-700 bin Türk kökenli kişinin yaşadığı bilinmektedir. Fransız Büyükelçiliği, kendi kayıtlarına göre bu rakamın 2 milyon civarında olduğunu açıklamaktadır. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Oxford Business Group (2008), The Report: Algeria 2008, Oxford Business Group, p. 10, ISBN 1-902339-09-6, ...the Algerian population reached 34.8 million in January 2006...Algerians of Turkish descent still represent 5% of the population and live mainly in the big cities [accounting to 1.74 million] 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Cezayir Türkleri: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun etkili mirası, Sputnik (news agency), 2015, 2014 nüfus sayımlarında çıkan 38 milyon kişilik sonuç baz alındığında, 760 bin ile 9,5 milyon arasında bir Türk azınlıktan söz etmek mümkün. 760 bin rakamı, saf Türkleri işaret ediyorken, diğer kaynakların rakamı ise farklı halklarla ‘karışmış' Cezayir Türkleri'ne ait olabilir. Bunların yanında, özellikle İngiltere ve Fransa'da olmak üzere, Avrupa ülkelerinde de binlerce Cezayir Türkü bulunduğunu belirtmek gerekiyor. 
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  8. ^ Fumerton, Patricia (2006), Unsettled: The Culture of Mobility and the Working Poor in Early Modern England, University of Chicago Press, p. 85, ISBN 0226269558 
  9. ^ Today's Zaman. "Turks in northern Africa yearn for Ottoman ancestors". Retrieved 2012-03-18. 
  10. ^ a b Knauss, Peter R. (1987), The Persistence of Patriarchy: Class, Gender, and Ideology in Twentieth Century Algeria, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 19, ISBN 0275926923 
  11. ^ Killian, Caitlin (2006), North African Women in France: Gender, Culture, and Identity, Stanford University Press, p. 145, ISBN 0804754209 
  12. ^ Murray, Roger; Wengraf, Tom (1963), "The Algerian Revolution (Part 1)", New Left Review, 1 (22): 41 
  13. ^ McMurray, David Andrew (1992), "The Contemporary Culture of Nador, Morocco, and the Impact of International Labor Migration", University of Texas: 390 
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  24. ^ a b c Gamm, Niki (2013), The Keys to Oran, Hürriyet Daily News, How many there are in today’s population is unclear. Estimates range from five percent to ten percent out of a total population of around 37 million 
  25. ^ Ferchiche, Nassima (2016), "Religious Freedom in the Constitutions of the Maghreb", in Durham, W. Cole; Ferrari, Silvio; Cianitto, Cristiana; Thayer, Donlu, Law, Religion, Constitution: Freedom of Religion, Equal Treatment, and the Law, Routledge, p. 186, ISBN 1317107381, The majority of Algerians observe the Sunni Malekite rite. There are also "Amerites" (Sunnis of Turkish origin), Ibadists (neither Sunni nor Shia) in M'Zab, and brotherhoods mostly in the South. 
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  118. ^ a b Verlant, Gilles; Mikaïloff, Pierre (2011), Le Dictionnaire des années 80, Larousse, p. 14, ISBN 2035861500, Adjani(Isabelle) Née à Paris le 27 juin 1955, d'un père algérien d'origine turque et d'une mère allemande, Isabelle Adjani grandit dans la banlieue nordouest de Paris, à Gennevilliers. 
  119. ^ a b Auzias, Dominique; Labourdette, Jean-Paul (2005), Petit Futé Hauts-de-Seine, Nouvelles Editions de l'Université, p. 35, ISBN 2746913518, Isabelle Adjani (1955). Isabelle Yasmine Adjani est née le 27 juin 1955 à Paris d'une mère allemande et d'un père algérien d'origine turque. 
  120. ^ a b Thompson, Chantal; Phillips, Elaine (2012), Cengage Advantage Books: Mais Oui! - Volume 1, Cengage Learning, p. 13, ISBN 1111835829, Isabelle ADJANI BIOGRAPHIE Née Isabelle Yasmine Adjani, le 27 juin 1955, Gennevilliers, France Père algérien d'origine turque, mère allemande 
  121. ^ a b Ameskane, Mohamed (2005). "Décès du troubadour de l'amour: Salim Halali". La Gazette du Maroc. Son père est d'origine turque et sa mère (Chalbia) une judéo-berbère d'Algèrie. 
  122. ^ a b VH magazine (2010). "Salim Halali: Le roi des nuits Csablancaises" (PDF). p. 66. Retrieved 2013-03-27. Salim Hilali, est né un 30 juillet 1920 à Bône (Annaba), à la frontière algéro-tunisienne. Il est issu d’une famille de Souk Ahras, berceau des plus grandes tribus Chaouia, les Hilali, descendants de la Kahéna la magnifique, la prêtresse aurésienne qui régna sur l’Ifriquia (actuel Maghreb) avant la conquête arabe. Son père est d’origine turque et sa mère (Chalbia) une judéo-berbère d’Algérie. 
  123. ^ a b c Benjamin, Roger (2004), "Orientalism, modernism and indigenous identity", in Edwards, Steve; Wood, Paul (eds.), Art of the Avant-Gardes, Yale University Press, p. 100, ISBN 0-300-10230-5, Mohammed Racim ...was born into an Algerine family of artisans of Turkish origin... Like his older brother, Omar, he was schooled to enter the family workshop... .
  124. ^ a b "France Culture à l'heure algérienne". Télérama. 2012. Retrieved 2017-05-03. Ecouter la parole libre de Wassyla Tamzali, c'est approcher de près toute ... Née dans une famille d'origine turque et espagnole 
  125. ^ Afrique-Asie, Issues 178-190: Sports, Société d'Éditions Afrique, Asie, Amérique Latine, 1979, p. 414, Les Jeux méditerranéens vont s'ouvrir à Alger, quand on apprend que le perchiste français Patrick Abada a émis le souhait de ... La vérité est pourtant toute simple : Abada est d'une vieille famille algéroise (d'origine turque) dont de ... .
  126. ^ Denaud, Patrick (1998), Algerie: Le Fis: Sa direction parle, L'Harmattan, p. 30, ISBN 2296355137, Ghemati Abdelkrim Né à Cherchell en 1961, d'une famille sans doute d'origine turque,... .
  127. ^ People. "Isabelle Adjani Has the Face That's Launching a Thousand Scripts". Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  128. ^ Benkada, Saddek (1999), "Elites émergentes et mobilisation de masse L'affaire du cimetière musulman d'Oran (février-mai 1934)", Emeutes et mouvements sociaux au Maghreb: perspective comparée, KARTHALA Editions, p. 80, ISBN 2865379981, Benaouda Hadj Hacène Bachterzi, né et décédé à Oran (1894-1958). Homme politique et publiciste, il appartenait à l'une des plus anciennes familles algéro-turques. .
  129. ^ Vidal-Bué, Marion (2000), Alger et ses peintres, 1830-1960, Paris-Méditerranée, p. 249, ISBN 2842720954, BENABOURA HACÈNE Alger 1898 - Alger 1961 Descendant d'une famille de notables d'origine turque demeurant à Alger depuis les frères Barbe- rousse, Benaboura est peintre en carrosserie avant de se livrer à sa passion pour la peinture. .
  130. ^ Cheurfi, Achour (2001), La Classe Politique Algérienne (de 1900 à nos jours): Dictionnaire Biographique, University of Michigan, p. 73, ISBN 9961-64-292-9, BENCHENEB Mohamed (1869-1929)... Mohamed ben Larbi ben Mohamed Bencheneb est né le 26 octobre 1869 à Ain Dheheb (Takbov, Médéa) au sein d'une famille dont les ancêtres, originaires de Brousse (Turquie)... .
  131. ^ a b Tahri, Hamid (2012), Mohamed Bencheneb raconté par son fils, El Watan, Bencheneb est père de 4 filles et 5 garçons, Saâdedine (1907), Larbi (1912), Rachid (1915), Abdelatif (1917) et le dernier Djaffar. .
  132. ^ ALI BENCHENEB (2003-2007), Réseau Canopé, Ali Bencheneb est né le 13 juin 1947 à Alger dans une famille d'universitaires (son grand-père, Mohamed Bencheneb, a été un enseignant et un humaniste reconnu au début du XXe siècle). .
  133. ^ Cheurfi, Achour (2004), Écrivains algériens: dictionnaire biographique, Casbah éditions, p. 77, ISBN 9961643984, BEN CHERIF Lakhdar (1899-1967). - Poète populaire. Lakhdar B. Cherif Al Imam B. Ibrahim B. Ahmed naquit à El-Oued. Sa mère, d'origine turque, s'appelait Mériem bent Salah Khiari. .
  134. ^ Benbelgacem, Ali (2015), "L’émergence de l’Algérie moderne", La Nouvelle République (fr), retrieved 6 August 2017, le parti politique du Docteur Bendjelloul (d'origine turque mais natif de Constantine) .
  135. ^ Maison "Dar Bengui", La Nouvelle République, 2017, Selon nos sources, cette maison d'époque ottomane appartenait à El Haj Omar Bengui, suite à son mariage avec la fille de Mostefa Ben Karim. Cette dernière était une notable de la famille Bey Kara Ali une famile d'origine Turque, proche du Bey Brahim El Greitli (l'avant dernier Bey de Constantine de l'Empire Ottoman). Leur fils, Slimane Bengui, était manufacturier de tabac, au coeur de la médina. En 1893, Slimane Bengui devient directeur du premier journal algérien de langue française, « El Hack » (« La Vérité », en arabe), .
  136. ^ Gallissot, René; Bouayed, Anissa (2006), Algérie: engagements sociaux et question nationale : de la colonisation à l'indépendance de 1830 à 1962, Volume 8, Éditions de l'Atelier, p. 73, ISBN 2708238655, Né le 23 octobre 1903 à Tlemcen, Djelloul Benkalfat est issu d'une vieille famille dite turque qui a donné beaucoup d'artisans d'art à la ville. .
  137. ^ Aggarwal, Jatendra M., ed. (1962), "Profile. PREMIER. REN. KHEDDA, Ben Youcef Ben Khedda", Indian Foreign Affairs, 5: 4, Turkish by origin, journalist by circumstances, Ben Khedda was the "most wanted man" when General Jacques Massu was confronted to deal with the terrorist activities of the F.L.N, in Algiers. .
  138. ^ Cheurfi, Achour (2001), La Classe Politique Algérienne (de 1900 à nos jours): Dictionnaire Biographique, University of Michigan, p. 96, ISBN 9961-64-292-9, BENSMANIA Abdelhalim (1866-1933) Né à Alger dans une famille d'origine turque, son père Ali Ben Abderrahmane Khodja, dernier muphti malékite d'Alger, attacha une grande importance à son éducation morale et religieuse. .
  139. ^ Conférence sur cheikh Abderrahmane El Djillali. : Un niveau d'érudition élevé, El Watan, 2015, retrieved 5 August 2017, Abdelhalim Ben Smaya, Algérois d'origine turque, un des prestigieux notables et érudits d' Alger... .
  140. ^ Meynier, Gilbert (2001), "Le FLN/ALN dans les six wilayas: etude comparee", Militaires et guérilla dans la guerre d'Algérie, Editions Complexe, p. 156, ISBN 2870278535, Dans d'autres régions d'Algérie, cela a existé : par exemple, le Kouloughli Ben Tobbal dans le Nord-Constanti- nois, ... .
  141. ^ Dib, Souhel (2007), Pour une poétique du dialectal maghrébin: expression arabe, Editions ANEP, p. 99, ISBN 9947213188, BEN-TRIKI Ahmad (A) Né en 1650 à Tlemcen, Turc d'origine par son père, il meurt, centenaire... .
  142. ^ Kadi, Nadir (2015), Histoire / Mémoire / Edition: Abderrahmane Berrouane raconte le MALG chez Barzakh, Reporters, né à Relizane en juin 1929 d’une mère « d’origine arabo-turque » .
  143. ^ Establet, Colette (1992), "Les Gaba, les Chaouch, deux dynasties de caïds dans l'Algérie coloniale, de 1851 à 1912 (Cercle de Tébessa)", Cahiers de la Méditerranée, 45 (1): 52, Ahmed Chaouch... est Kouloughli, descendant des Turcs ; on sait que son père et sa famille ont servi sous les Turcs. .
  144. ^ Tocqueville, Alexis de (2006), "Second Letter on Algeria (August 22, 1837)", in Bronner, Stephen Eric; Thompson, Michael (eds.), The Logos Reader: Rational Radicalism and the Future of Politics, University Press of Kentucky, p. 205, ISBN 0813191483 .
  145. ^ a b Cezayir Türkleri: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun etkili mirası, Sputnik (news agency), 2015, Türklerin üst düzey görevlerde bulunması, yaşanan gelişmelerin sebeplerinden biri. Bu isimler arasında, farklı gruplarda olmalarına rağmen, Cezayir ordusunun gizli servisi DRS'nin başında Muhammed Meden, halef Atman Tartag ve Devlet Başkanı Abdülaziz Buteflika yer alıyor. 
  146. ^ Chellabi, Leïla (2008), Autoscan: Autobiographie d’une intériorité, LCD Médiation, p. 237, ISBN 290953975X, Mon père, né Algérien d'origine turque, a quitté l'Algérie pour le Maroc où il a fait sa vie après être devenu, par choix, français. Mais à chaque démarche on le croit d'abord marocain puis on sait qu'il est d'origine algérienne et turque, cela se complique. .
  147. ^ Elwatan (2009). "Cheikh Abdelkrim Dali . Monument de la musique algérienne : Le rossignol passeur". Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  148. ^ Ruedy 2005, 137.
  149. ^ Daughter of Messali Hadj (who is paternally of Turkish origin)
  150. ^ Spiaggia, Josette (2012), J'ai six ans: et je ne veux avoir que six ans, Editions du Félibre Laforêt, p. 104, ISBN 2953100997, Mourad Kaoua (par la suite député d'Alger de 1958 à 1962) d'origine turque... .
  151. ^ Panzac, Daniel (2005), Barbary Corsairs: The End of a Legend, 1800-1820, BRILL, p. 224, ISBN 90-04-12594-9 .
  152. ^ S, Fodil (2016), Une initiative qui mérite des encouragements Création d'une fonderie d'art à Jijel, El Watan, retrieved 5 August 2017, C'est dans cette coquette ville côtière de Jijel qu'est né en 1951 Mohamed-Réda Benabdallah Khodja, deux ans après l'installation de sa famille constantinoise d'origine turque, dans ce plaisant littoral méditerranéen. .
  153. ^ Carlier, Omar (2007), "'émergence de la culture moderne de l'image dans l'Algérie musulmane contemporaine", Sociétés & Représentations, 2 (24): 340, le Dr Ben Lerbey, issu d’une vieille famille turque d’Alger, peut-être le premier médecin algérien .
  154. ^ McDougall, James (2006), History and the Culture of Nationalism in Algeria, Cambridge University Press, p. 158, ISBN 0-521-84373-1 .
  155. ^ Ouaglal, Djamel (2009), InfoSoir s'invite chez les Magdy, L'exemple de réussite d'une famille mixte, Info Soir, retrieved 5 August 2017, Ahmed Magdy semble très fier, même s'il se sent beaucoup plus Egyptien. «Je trouve que c'est un privilège d'être doté d'une double nationalité. Il faut savoir que ce n'est pas un fait nouveau chez nous. Ma grand-mère paternelle est d'origine turque et mon grand-père est Egyptien, alors que mes grands- parents du côté maternel ont des origines arabe et berbère. .
  156. ^ Kauffer, Rémi (2015), Histoire Mondiale des Services Secrets, Librairie Académique Perrin, ISBN 2262064571, La second objectif de Lang s'appelle Abdelmalek Ben Mohieddine. Bien que sujet algérien, cet officier se réclame de la Turquie. Fils de l'émir Abdelkader, il appartient en effet au clan de celui qui fut l'âme de la résistance algérienne à la colonisation française. .
  157. ^ Bey, A Salah (2010), L'exclusivité «Les splendeurs du Mouloudia, 1921 -1956», Info Soir, retrieved 5 August 2017, sachant que d'autres avant lui avaient mis l'ancrage à l'image de Benmahmoud Omar Ali Raïs, d'origine turque, considéré comme le père du sport algérien à travers l'Avant-Garde d' Alger en 1895. .
  158. ^ Rahal, Malika (2010), Ali Boumendjel, 1919-1957: une affaire française, une histoire algérienne, Vol 5, Belles lettres, p. 97, ISBN 2251900055, Maître Kaddour Sator est, comme lui, très proche de Ferhat Abbas au sein de l'UDMA : il écrit dans La République algérienne mais appartient plutôt à la génération d'Ahmed, et est issu d'une des grandes familles algéroise d'origine turque. .
  159. ^ Diff, Fazilet (2013), Mohamed Sfinja (1844-1908), maître Andalou : l'ange gardien, El Watan, retrieved 5 August 2017, Au lendemain de la prise d'Alger, le recensement des familles d'Alger compta les Sfindja, d'origine turque, parmi les plus riches de la ville. 
  160. ^ a b Forzy, Guy (2002), Ça aussi -- c'était De Gaulle, Volume 2, Muller édition, p. 134, ISBN 2904255494, La secrétaire d'Etat musulmane Nafissa Sidkara, d'une vieille famille d'origine turque établie en Algérie, et caution involontaire, comme son frère le Docteur Sid Cara lui aussi membre du gouvernement français... .
  161. ^ "L’artiste aux doigts d’or". La Nouvelle République. 2007. Mustapha Skandrani a vu le jour le 17 novembre 1920, à la Casbah d’Alger. Selon lui, ses origines seraient d’Iskander, ville turque. 
  162. ^ Benzerga, Mohamed. "Hommage à cheikh Mustapha Stambouli : l'imam qui n'aimait pas les spéculateurs!". Djazairess. Retrieved 2017-04-27. cheikh Mustapha Stambouli appartenait à une famille de lettrés d'origine turque et de rite hanafite 
  163. ^ Mokhtari, Rachid (2002), Cheikh El Hasnaoui: La voix de l'errance: Essai, Chihab, p. 24, ISBN 9961634608 .

Bibliography[edit]