Turks in Germany
|(1.55 million (Turkish citizens, in 2013)
2.71 million (Residents in Germany with at least one parent from Turkey)
Turkey: 193,000 (Former German residents of Turkish background living in Turkey))
|Regions with significant populations|
|North Rhine-Westphalia · Stuttgart · Munich · Berlin · Frankfurt · Hanover · Nuremberg|
|German language, Turkish language |
|Part of a series of articles on|
Turks in Germany (German: Türken in Deutschland or Deutsch-Türken; Turkish: Almanya Türkleri, "Almancılar") refers to people living in Germany originating from Turkey. They form the largest ethnic minority in Germany. Before, some older sources overestimate and underestimate the number of people with Turkish background. 1.55 million people still hold Turkish citizenship, thus forming the largest group of non-citizens in Germany.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Culture
- 4 Integration issues
- 5 Political behaviour
- 6 Popular culture
- 7 Timeline
- 8 Notable people
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Large-scale migration of Turkish citizens to West Germany developed during the Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle") of the 1960s and 1970s. Suffering from an acute labour shortage because of the economic boom, the West German government negotiated a trade of labour with their Turkish counterparts. Turkish workers were invited to move to West Germany to fill in this void, particularly to work in the factories to do simple repetitive tasks. Turkish citizens soon became the largest group of Gastarbeiter—literally, guest workers—in West Germany, labouring alongside Italians, Yugoslavs, Spaniards, Greeks and other immigrants. The perception at the time on the part of both the West German Government and the Turkish Republic representatives was that working in Germany would only be temporary. Within a few years, the migrant workers showed considerable signs of distress and were permitted to re-unite with their existing and abandoned families. Eventually, many became settled permanent residents by default with the birth of offspring, school and other obligations in the new lands.
According to the census 2011 there are almost 3 million people having at least one parent immigrated from Turkey. In 2013, there were 1,550,000 Turkish citizens in Germany which accounted for 22.1% of Germany's foreign population and thus the largest ethnic minority. The official number of Turks with Turkish citizenship in Germany is falling, partly because about 30-70,000 are taking on German citizenship per year (with a downward trend, however), and since the year 2000, children born in Germany are entitled to adopt German citizenship if at least one parent has lived for eight years in Germany and has a perpetual residence permit.
In 2005, there were 840,000 German citizens of Turkish origin. Overall, the number of German residents with origins in Turkey was approximately 2,998,000 or approximately 3.7% of Germany's population.
Turks in Germany are concentrated predominantly in urban centers. Currently, about 60% of Turkish immigrants live in cities whilst at least a quarter of Turks live in smaller towns. The vast majority are found in the former West Germany. The majority live in industrial regions such as the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, and Baden-Württemberg and the working-class neighbourhoods of cities like Berlin (especially in Neukölln), Hamburg, Bremen, Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Mannheim, Mainz, Nuremberg, Munich, and Stuttgart.
|State||Number of Turks||% of State population||% of Turks in Germany|
|Neue Länder (former East Germany)||
The German state does not categorize immigrants in terms of ethnicity so, therefore, categorizes all ethnic groups originating from Turkey as being of Turkish national origin. This has the consequence of ethnic minorities from Turkey living in Germany being referred to as "Turks". For example, About one-fourth to one-fifth[needs update] of Turkish nationals are ethnic Kurds (amounting to some 1,150,000) and around 100,000 are Assyrians. Other minority groups could include Zazas, Circassians, Greeks, Jews, Armenians and some others. This works for ethnic Turks as well, with the number of ethnic Turks who have immigrated to Germany from Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Romania and other areas of Turkish settlement which were once part of the Ottoman territories in Europe being unknown, as these Turkish minorities are categorised by their nation of origin rather than their Turkish ethnicity.
Other Turkish communities
The official estimates of the Turkish immigrant population in Germany does not include the Turks whose origins go back to the Ottoman Empire. In Germany, there are ethnic Turkish people such as Turks from Bulgaria, Turks from Cyprus, Turks from Greece (Crete / Dodecanese / Western Thrace), Turks from Romania and Yugoslavia. These populations, which have different nationalities, share the same ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious origins as Turkish nationals.
From the early 1990s Western Europe began to attract Turks from Bulgaria for the first time in their social history. Migration to Germany, in particular, was initiated by those Bulgarian Turks who, for various reasons, were unable to join the first massive migration wave to Turkey in 1989 or who were part of the subsequent return wave which was dissatisfied with the conditions of life or the social adjustment prospects there. The majority of Turks from Bulgaria migrated to Germany in the 1990s asylum regime, which provided generous social benefits.
There are some members of the Greek Muslim community among the some 300,000 Greeks living in Germany who are Turkish-speaking or who espouse a Turkish identity. The majority of Greek Muslims come from Western Thrace. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Thracian tobacco industry was affected by a severe crisis and many tobacco growers lost their income. This resulted in many Muslims leaving Greece and immigrating to Germany with estimates suggesting that today there are now between 19,000 and 29,000 residing in Germany.
In 1950, thousands of Turks left the Turkish city of Mardin and headed for Lebanon because of the economic crises and unemployment in Turkey. Though the first Turks who left for Lebanon were originally just going to make money, they started to plan the rest of their lives there (mainly in Beirut). However, most of these Turks then migrated to European countries due to the war between the Arabs and the Israelis. When the Israel Lebanon war took place in 2006, more than 20,000 Turks fled Lebanon, forced to take refuge in Germany and various other European countries.
Republic of Macedonia
Due to the geographic proximity of Germany and Turkey, cultural transfer and influence from the country of origin has remained considerable among the Turkish minority. Furthermore, the majority of second-generation Turks appear to have developed emotional and cultural ties to their parents' country and also to the country which they live in and intend to remain. Most Turks live in two conflicting cultures with contrasting behaviour codes and patterns of belonging. At work or school, German culture tends to dominate, while during leisure time social networks divide along ethnic lines of the Turkish culture. In the first generation of migrants, social networks were almost exclusively Turkish, and now in the second and third generations this segregation line remains just as effective as ever.
The Turkish language is Germany’s main immigrant language. The second and third generation Turks often speak a variety of German referred to as "Kiezdeutsch." Some modify their Turkish by adding German grammatical and syntactical structures or the other way round. In the early 1990s a new sociolect called "Türkendeutsch" emerged which is often seen as "ghetto-language". Grammatically poor German and a certain pronunciation as well as a colloquial tone are characteristic of this lingual variety. Today it is not only used by many people with Turkish background but also by different ethnic groups including ethnic Germans in urban areas with a high concentration of migrants. In some schools of Germany, Turkish has even been approved as a subject to be studied for the Abitur.
Turks are the predominant Muslim ethnic group in Germany. In fact, by the 1960s, the label Turk in Germany was synonymous with Muslim. Today, Turks make up 63.2% of Germany’s Muslim population. Thus, Islam in Germany has a largely Turkish character. Religion has proven to be of particular importance for Turks in Germany for reasons more to do with ethnic reassurance rather than faith. More than any other manifestation of their cultural values, Islam is regarded as the one feature that most strongly differentiates them in terms of identity from the majority of the German population.
A study comparing Turkish Muslim youths living in Germany and German youth found that the former were more likely to attend religious services regularly (35% versus 14%). 41% of young Turkish Muslim boys and 52% of the girls said they prayed "sometimes or regularly", 64% of boys and 74% of girls said they wanted to teach their children religion. 25% of the Turkish women from the first generation and 17% from the second generation wear a headscarf.
Turkish immigrants from the onset were regarded as temporary settlers, hence the name guest workers. Consequently, Germany did not put into place structures that would facilitate the integration of the Turks in the new society, and neither did the Turks themselves work toward becoming integrated into the new society. Furthermore, Turks are perceived by some to be the 'most foreign' group in Germany.
For Turks in German society, patterns of discrimination maintain disadvantages of low economic and social status, whilst also restraining social advancement. The number of violent acts by right-wing extremists in Germany increased dramatically between 1990 and 1992. On November 25, 1992, three Turkish residents were killed in a firebombing in Mölln (Western Germany). The attack prompted even further perplexity since the victims were neither refugees nor lived in a hostel. Author Greg Nees, writing in 2000, stated that "Because Turks are both darker-skinned and Muslim, conservative Germans are largely against granting them citizenship."
In recent years, some in the Turkish minority have shown cultural problems in integrating into German society. A recent non-governmental telephone survey, carried out jointly by Liljeberg and the Berlin-based INFO polling company sampled 1011 Turkish migrants living in Germany. It showed 72% of the Turks surveyed in Germany believe that Islam is the only true religion, 62% prefer social contacts only to fellow Turks, 46% wish that one day more Muslims live in Germany than Christians, 25% think atheists are inferior human beings and 18% felt that Jews are inferior people.
In 2009, The Local and Der Spiegel reported that a new study reveals Turks in Germany lag behind other migrant groups when it comes to education and jobs. Immigrants of Turkish origin were also found to be the least successful in the labour market: they were often jobless, the percentage of housewives was high and many were dependent on welfare.
Under previous German law, children born to foreigners in Germany were not entitled to German citizenship by birth. This was modified in 1991. In 2000, legislation was passed which conferred German citizenship on the German-born children of foreigners (born after 1990), and the naturalisation process was made easier, although dual citizenship is only permitted to citizens of the EU and Switzerland and any other national possessing it (including citizens of Turkey) by virtue of birth must choose between the ages of 18 and 23 which citizenship she or he wishes to retain, and renounce their other passport. If one parent is German, a dual citizen is not required to give up the German citizenship if they keep the other citizenship. These strict limits on dual citizenship are criticised by liberal parties in Germany and institutions which promote German-Turkish relations. Former Turkish citizens who have given up their Turkish citizenship can apply for the "Blue Card" (Mavi Kart), which gives them some citizens' rights back, e.g. the right to live and work in Turkey, the right to possess land or the right to inherit, but not, for example, the right to vote.
In 2014, the annual report into organized crime, presented in Berlin by interior minister Thomas de Maizière, showed that there were 57 Turkish gangs in Germany. According to the report, alongside their more traditional fields of drug smuggling, gangs are also increasingly turning their attention to burglary, car theft and fraud. Ten percent of Germany's gang members were reported to be Turkish and according to statistics, the activity of Turkish gangs in Germany had decreased.
In 2016, the Die Welt and Bild reported that new Turkish motorbike gang, the Osmanien Germania is growing rapidly. The Hannoversche Allgemeine newspaper claimed that the Osmanien Germania is advancing more and more into red-light districts, which increases the likelihood of a bloody territorial battle with established gangs like the The Hells Angels Motorcycle Club and the The Mongols Motorcycle Club.
Turks have been a somewhat inert force in German politics because the first generation of Turks saw their stay in Germany as temporary. Moreover, few Turks have German citizenship and the attention of many Turks focuses on Turkish rather than German politics. However, in recent years, there has been increasing political participation by Turks in Germany, even those who are not citizens. Because of its supportive stand on immigration and naturalisation, most Turks favour the Social Democratic Party (SPD). A survey following the 2005 Federal election revealed close to 90 percent voted for Gerhard Schröder's SPD/Green alliance. There are now many parliamentarians — both at state and federal level — with family origins in Turkey. In 2008 German-born second generation Turk Cem Özdemir became leader of the German Green Party.
Turkish-German Cinema developed in the late 1990s and 2000s, dealing prominently with issues of transcultural contact and integration. One of the internationally most acclaimed Turkish-German directors is Fatih Akın, who is known for his movies Head-On (2004, with Sibel Kekilli) and The Edge of Heaven (2007). Especially since the 2000s, Turkish-German contributors and issues also entered German television, e.g. with the critically acclaimed television comedy-drama series Türkisch für Anfänger ('Turkish for Beginners', ARD 2006 – 2009, created by Bora Dağtekin). Its 2012 movie spin-off of the same title became the most successful German movie of the year.
- Kurds in Germany
- Demographics of Germany
- Diyanet İşleri Türk İslam Birliği
- German–Turkish relations
- List of Turkish Germans
- Turks in Berlin
- Turks in Europe
- Turks in the Netherlands
- Turkish American
- Turks in Denmark
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