Turks in Russia

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Turks in Russia
Total population
(12,309,883 (2010 census)
75,000 Meskhetian Turks[1]
plus 130,437 Turkish nationals[2]
Total at least 120,000-150,000 (academic estimates)[3])
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Turkish and Russian
Religion
Sunni Muslim, Orthodox Christianity

Turks in Russia (Turkish: Rusya Türkleri) are Turkish people who live in Russia. The community is largely made up of Meskhetian Turks and expatriates from Turkey as well as children of mixed ethnicity.[4]

History[edit]

Ottoman migration[edit]

The First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union in 1926 recorded 8,570 Ottoman Turks living in the Soviet Union. The Ottoman Turks are no longer listed separately in the census, as it is presumed that those who were living in Russia in the 1920s have subsequently either been assimilated into Russian society or have left the country.[5]

Meskhetian Turks migration[edit]

Turks in Russia according to the Russian Census
Russian census Turks
1939[6] 2,936
1959[7] 1,377
1970[8] 1,568
1979[9] 3,561
1989[10] 9,890
2002[11] 95,672a[›]
2010[12] 109,883b[›]

During World War II, the Soviet Union was preparing to launch a pressure campaign against Turkey. Vyacheslav Molotov, who was at the time the Minister of Foreign Affairs, made a request of the Turkish Ambassador in Moscow that Turkey surrender three Anatolian provinces (Kars, Ardahan and Artvin).[11] Thus, war against Turkey seemed possible, and Joseph Stalin wanted to commit a genocide to the strategic Turkish population situated in Meskheti, near the Turkish-Georgian border, since during the Russo-Turkish Wars the Turks of the region had been loyal to the Ottoman Empire and were therefore likely to be hostile to Soviet intentions.[11][12] In 1944, the Meskhetian Turks were forcefully deported from Meskheti, Georgia and accused of smuggling, banditry and espionage in collaboration with their kin across the Turkish border.[13]

Soviet authorities issued an official ruling that 17,000 Meskhetian Turks, virtually the entire Turkish population in the Ferghana Valley, be transported to Russia. Another 70,000 Meskhetian Turks from other parts of Uzbekistan soon followed the first wave of migrants and settled mainly in Azerbaijan and Russia.

In the late 1970s, the Stavropol and Krasnodar authorities visited various regions of Uzbekistan to invite and recruit Meskhetian Turks to work in agriculture enterprises in southern Russia.[13] In 1985, Moscow issued a proposal inviting more Meskhetian Turks to move to villages in southern Russia that had been abandoned by ethnic Russians who were moving to the cities. However, the Meskhetian Turks response was that they would only leave Uzbekistan if the move were to be to their homeland.[14] Then, in 1989, ethnic Uzbeks began a series of actions against the Turks; they became the victims of riots in the Ferghana valley which led to over a hundred deaths. Within days, Decision 503 was announced "inviting" the Turks to occupy the empty farms in southern Russia that they had resisted moving to for years and around 17,000 Meskhetian Turks were evacuated to Russia.[1][15] Meskhetian Turks maintain that Moscow had planned the Uzbek riots.[15] By the early 1990s, the 70,000 Meskhetian Turks who were still resident in Uzbekistan left for Azerbaijan, Russia and Ukraine due to fears of continued violence.[1]

Mainland Turkish migration[edit]

During the 2000s, Russia witnessed increasing numbers of immigrants from Turkey; the number of Turkish labour migrants grew, on average, by 30–50% per annum.[16] By 2008, over 130,000 Turkish citizens were working in Russia; most Turkish immigrants are those who married Russians in Turkey and then came to reside in the homeland of their spouse. [16]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2010 Russian Census, 105,058 people declared themselves as "Turks" and 4,825 stated that they were "Meskhetian Turks"; hence, the census showed that there was a total of 109,883 Turks living in the country.[12]

Federal subjects Turks (2002 census)
Rostov Oblast 75,285
Krasnodar Krai 55,496
Kabardino-Balkaria 180,770
Stavropol Krai 95,484
Volgograd Oblast 95,049
Belgorod Oblast 9,984
Voronezh Oblast 18,436
Kalmykia 9,124
North Ossetia–Alania 13,135
Moscow 310,358
Chechnya 9, 115
Tyumen Oblast 390,203
Orenburg Oblast 400,199
Kurskaya Oblast 4,774
Astrakhan Oblast 270,128
Ingushetia 1000
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug 250,000
Orlovskaya Oblast 3,881
Karachay–Cherkessia 180,683
Tatarstan 2,365,540
Novgorod Oblast 66, 950
Bashkortostan 2,368, 470
Saint Petersburg 63,551
Samara Oblast 310,416
Ryazan Oblast 10,000
Smolensk Oblast 4,000
Moscow Oblast 110,341
Saratov Oblast 170, 304
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 1,550
Republic of Dagestan 520,181
Khabarovsk Krai 9,159
Tula Oblast 14,152
Kemerovo Oblast 25,143
Tomsk Oblast 24,107
Adygea 5,000
Chelyabinsk Oblast 390,000
Omsk Oblast 142,000
Novosibirsk Oblast 30, 093
Sverdlovsk Oblast 240,000
Irkutsk Oblast 85, 000
Lipetsk Oblast 5,200
Ulyanovsk Oblast 320,000
Kaluzhskaya Oblast 11,000
Krasnoyarsk Krai 105,000
Perm Oblast 11,000
Tver Oblast 13,000
Tuva 235,659
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 62,000
Buryatia 9000
Altai Krai 37,551
Kaliningrad Oblast 10,000
Sakha Republic 414,547
Primorsky Krai 35,000
Komi Republic 30,000
Kostroma Oblast 4, 200
Vladimir Oblast 14,000
Leningrad Oblast 14,000
Udmurtia 115,930
Penza Oblast 3,600
Murmansk Oblast 12,000
Arkhangelsk Oblast 1,000
Ivanovo Oblast 13,000
Chuvash Republic 900,320
Bryansk Oblast 5, 000
Amur Oblast 7, 000
Mordovia 50.000
Kurgan Oblast 60,000
Republic of Karelia 1700
Vologda Oblast 3,600
Khakassia 75,615
Tambov Oblast 8,000
Mari El 50,000
Yaroslavl Oblast 12,000
Zabaykalsky Krai 25,000
Pskov Oblast 2,3000
Kirov Oblast 30,000
Kamchatka Krai 3,000
Sakhalin Oblast 6,000
Komi-Permyak Okrug 1,000
Altai Republic 85, 000
Jewish Autonomous Oblast 2,500
Magadan Oblast 3,600
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug 7,250
Agin-Buryat Okrug 1,000
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 2,200
Evenkiysky District 1,200
Koryak Okrug 2,000
Nenets Autonomous Okrug 250
Ust-Ordynsky 3,500
(Source: Russian census)

Discrimination[edit]

Meskhetian Turks in Russia, especially those in Krasnodar, have faced hostility from the local population. The Meskhetian Turks of Krasnodar have suffered significant human rights violations, including the deprivation of their citizenship. They have been deprived of civil, political and social rights and are prohibited from owning property and employment.[17] Since 2004, many are now leaving the Krasnodar region for the United States as refugees.[18]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ryazantsev 2009, 167.
  2. ^ Ryazantsev 2009, 160.
  3. ^ Ryazantsev 2009, 172.
  4. ^ Ryazantsev 2009, 155.
  5. ^ Akiner 1983, 381.
  6. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2011-06-04. 
  7. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1959 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2011-06-04. 
  8. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1970 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2011-06-04. 
  9. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2011-06-04. 
  10. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2011-06-04. 
  11. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года.". Retrieved 2011-06-04. 
  12. ^ a b Демоскоп Weekly. "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 г. Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации". Retrieved 2012-01-30. 
  13. ^ Ryazantsev 2009, 168.
  14. ^ Goltz 2009, 124.
  15. ^ a b Goltz 2009, 125.
  16. ^ a b Ryazantsev 2009, 159.
  17. ^ Barton, Heffernan & Armstrong 2002, 9.
  18. ^ Coşkun 2009, 5.

Notes[edit]

^ a: The 2002 census recorded 92,415 Turks and 3,257 Meskhetian Turks.
^ b: The 2010 census recorded 105,058 Turks and 4,825 Meskhetian Turks.

Bibliography[edit]