Turks in North Macedonia
On municipal level
On settlement level
|77,959 (2002 census) |
3.8% of total population
|Regions with significant populations|
|Part of a series of articles on|
Turks in North Macedonia, also known as Macedonian Turks, (Macedonian: Македонски Турци, Turkish: Makedonya Türkleri) are the ethnic Turks who constitute the third largest ethnic group in the Republic of North Macedonia. According to the 2002 census, there were 77,959 Turks living in the country, forming a minority of some 3.8% of the population. The community form a majority in Centar Župa and Plasnica.
The Turkish community claim higher numbers than the census shows, somewhere between 170,000 and 200,000. There are additionally roughly 100,000 Torbeš and some of them still maintain a strong affiliation to Turkish identity.
Once the Ottoman Empire fell at the beginning of the 20th century, many of the Turks fled to Turkey. Many left under Yugoslav rule, and more left after World War II. Others intermarried or simply identified themselves as Macedonians or Albanians to avoid stigma and persecution.
|Population of Macedonian Turks according to national censuses|
|Census||Turks||Total population of North Macedonia||% Turks|
³ 143,615 gave Turkish, 32,392 gave Macedonian and 27,086 gave Albanian as their mothertongue.
After 1953, a large emigration of Turks based on an agreement between the Republic of Turkey and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia took place— around 80,000 according to Yugoslav data and over 150,000 according to Turkish sources.
Macedonian Turks speak the Turkish language and secondly Albanian in the west and Macedonian in the east. Turkish is spoken with Slavic and Greek admixtures creating a unique Macedonian Turkish dialect. However, Macedonian is also widely used amongst the community.
Turkish population in Macedonia according to the 2002 census (Turkish majority in bold):
|Mavrovo and Rostuša||2,680||31.1%|
The Turks in Macedonia also have an own national day, the Day of Education in Turkish Language. By a decision of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia in 2007, December 21 became a national and non-working day for the Turkish community in the country.
There are both radio and television broadcasts in Turkish. Since 1945, Macedonian Radio-Television transmits one hour daily Turkish television programs and four and a half hours of Turkish radio programs. Furthermore, the newspaper Birlik is published in Turkish three times a week.
The Turks have 3 political parties in Macedonia: Turkish Democratic Party (Türk Demokratik Partisi - TDP), Turkish Movement Party (Türk Hareket Partisi - THP) and Turkish National Unity Movement (Türk Millî Birlik Hareketi - TMBH). There is also the Union of Turkish NGOs in Republic of Macedonia (Makedonya Türk Sivil Toplum Teşkilatlar Birliği - MATÜSİTEB).
The first political party of the Turks in Macedonia is the Turkish Democratic Party (TDP). Because of political and economic changes in Macedonia, the Turks, like other communities, have decided to get organized in order to protect and develop their political rights. As a result, a political association named the Turkish Democratic Union was established on 1 July 1990. The association identified its major goal to defend national and moral interests of the Turks in Macedonia and launched activities in this direction. Such developments allowed the Turks to transform their association into a political party. The transformation was completed on 27 June 1992, when the Turkish Democratic Union was renamed the Turkish Democratic Party at the second extraordinary congress under the leadership Avni Engüllü in Skopje. Since its establishment, TDP has been protecting the rights and interests of Turks in Macedonia.
Moreover, several people of Turkish origin serve in high-ranking levels of Macedonian politics. Furkan Çako from the Turkish Democratic Party (TDP) serves as Minister without Portfolio in the Macedonian government. In the parliament, the Turks are represented by Kenan Hasip, TDP leader, and Enes İbrahim (THP). In addition, Salih Murat, an ethnic Turk, is a member of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Macedonia.
The first school in Turkish language in Macedonia was opened in 1944. As of 2008 there were over 60 schools that offered lessons in Turkish. Turks have the right of education in Turkish for four years in East Macedonia. There are 264 teachers in these schools. There is a lycee in Gostivar and a technical college in Tetovo where students are trained in Turkish. Few quota is spared for Turkish students at universities in Skopje and Bitola. There are also private Turkish schools established by Turkish entrepreneurs. Macedonian Turks show great interest in these schools.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Turks in North Macedonia.|
- Torbeš (Slavophone Muslims)
- Turkish minorities in the former Ottoman Empire
- Turks in the Balkans
- Macedonia–Turkey relations
- Plasnica Municipality
- Centar Župa Municipality
- Macedonian Muslims
- Democratic Party of Turks
- Languages of the Republic of Macedonia
- Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office 2005, 34.
- Knowlton 2005, 66.
- Abrahams 1996, 53.
- Skutsch, Carl (7 November 2013). "Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities". Routledge. Retrieved 19 August 2017 – via Google Books.
- Evans 2010, 11.
- Ortakovski 2001, 26.
- Der Islam im Spiegel zeitgenössischer Literatur der islamischen Welt, Johann Christoph Bürge, page 89, 1985
- Muslim Identity and the Balkan State, Hugh Poulton,Suha Taji-Farouki, page 96-97, 1997
- Minahan 1998, 173.
- Abrahams 1996, 54.
- Nielsen, Akgonul & Alibasic 2009, 221.
- "Премиерот Никола Груевски во работна посета на Република Италија". Влада на Република Македонија. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- Knowlton 2005, 107.
- Ortakovski 2001, 32.
- "Turks in Macedonia: current situation". The Politicon. The Politicon. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- "Contact Support". www.mia.com.mk. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- Abrahams, Fred (1996), A Threat to "Stability": Human Rights Violations in Macedonia, Human Rights Watch, ISBN 1-56432-170-3.
- Dawisha, Karen; Parrott, Bruce (1997), Politics, power, and the struggle for democracy in South-East Europe, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-59733-1.
- Gaber, Natasha; Joveska, Aneta (2004), Macedonian census results – controversy or reality? (PDF) (1/2004), South-East Europe Review, pp. 99–110, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16
- Evans, Thammy (2010), Macedonia, Bradt Travel Guides, ISBN 1-84162-297-4.
- Knowlton, MaryLee (2005), Macedonia, Marshall Cavendish, ISBN 0-7614-1854-7.
- Minahan, James (1998), Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-30610-9.
- Nielsen, Jørgen S.; Akgonul, Samim; Alibasic, Ahmet (2009), Yearbook of Muslims in Europe, Volume 1, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-17505-9.
- Ortakovski, Vladimir T (2001), "Interethnic Relations and Minorities in the Republic of Macedonia" (PDF), Southeast European Politics, 2 (1): 25–45
- Oustinova-Stjepanovic, Galina (2008), Religion and Politics of Sufi Turks in Macedonia A pre-field proposal (PDF), University College London
- Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office (2005), Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002 (PDF), Republic of Macedonia — State Statistical Office