Turn-by-turn navigation

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Navit turn-by-turn navigation

Turn-by-turn Navigation is a feature of some satellite navigation devices where directions for a selected route are continually presented to the user in the form of spoken or visual instructions.[1] The system keeps the user up-to-date about the best route to the destination, and is often updated according to changing factors such as traffic and road conditions.[2] Turn-by-turn systems typically use an electronic voice to inform the user whether to turn left or right, the street name, and the distance to the next turn.[3]

Mathematically, turn by turn navigation is based on the shortest path problem within graph theory, which examines how to identify the path that best meets some criteria (shortest, cheapest, fastest, etc.) between two points in a large network.


Real-time turn-by-turn navigation instructions by computer was first developed at the MIT Media Laboratory by James Raymond Davis and Christopher M. Schmandt in 1988.[4] Their system, Backseat Driver, monitored the car's position using a system developed by NEC that communicated over a cellular modem with software running on a Symbolics LISP Machine at the Media Lab. The computer then used a speech synthesizer to compute appropriate directions and spoke them to the driver using a second cellular phone.

A TomTom device

Devices and services[edit]

Major mapping services that offer turn-by-turn navigation, grouped by map data provider:[5]


  1. ^ Button, Kenneth J.; David A. Hensher (2001). Handbook of transport systems and traffic control. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 497. ISBN 978-0-08-043595-4.
  2. ^ Targowski, Andrzej (1998). Global information infrastructure: the birth, vision, and architecture. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-878289-32-2.
  3. ^ Jacko, Julie A. (2009). Human computer interaction. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 141. ISBN 978-3-642-02579-2.
  4. ^ James Raymond Davis; Christopher M. Schmandt (1989). "The Back Seat Driver: Real Time Spoken Driving Instructions" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved 2019-01-06.
  5. ^ See comparison of web map services
  6. ^ "HERE WeGo | Maps & Navigation | Applications | HERE". www.here.com. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  7. ^ "Automotive". Garmin Automotive GPS. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  8. ^ "Garmin Product Updates". aoem.garmin.com. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  9. ^ Technologies, Abalta. "Genius Maps by Mireo Supports Abalta's WebLink". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  10. ^ "Home". KaiOS. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  11. ^ "TomTom Car GPS | Latest TomTom GO Series for drivers". Tomtom. 2022-01-05. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  12. ^ "Automotive – Our Customers". TomTom. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  13. ^ "AmiGO by TomTom". Tomtom. 2021-06-30. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  14. ^ "Apple rebuilds mapping app, but will still tap TomTom". Reuters. 2018-06-29. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  15. ^ "Apple Maps". Apple. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  16. ^ "HUAWEI Uses TomTom Map and Traffic Data". TomTom. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  17. ^ "Microsoft Azure | Location Data for Azure cloud platform". TomTom. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  18. ^ "Karta GPS". www.kartagps.com. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  19. ^ "Locus Map - mobile outdoor navigation app". Locus Map - mobile outdoor navigation app. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  20. ^ "Magic Earth - Free Navigation & Maps App for Android and iPhone". Magic Earth. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  21. ^ "MAPS.ME (MapsWithMe), detailed offline maps of the world for iPhone, iPad, Android". MAPS.ME (MapsWithMe), detailed offline maps of the world for iPhone, iPad, Android. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  22. ^ "Mapy.cz". Mapy.cz. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  23. ^ "OsmAnd | OsmAnd". osmand.net. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  24. ^ "Scout GPS Link". www.scoutgpslink.com. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  25. ^ "App Store". Apple. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  26. ^ "Sygic The most advanced offline GPS Navigation app". www.sygic.com. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  27. ^ "Driving Directions, Traffic Reports & Carpool Rideshares by Waze". www.waze.com. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  28. ^ "Waze - Microsoft Store". Microsoft.