Enamel hypoplasia

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Enamel hypoplasia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 K00.4
ICD-9-CM 520.4

Enamel hypoplasia is a defect of the teeth in which the enamel is hard but thin and deficient in amount,[1] caused by defective enamel matrix formation. Usually the condition involves part of the tooth having a pit in it. In some cases, the natural enamel crown has a hole in it, and in extreme cases, the tooth has no enamel, exposing the dentin.


It can be caused by any of the following:

Turner's hypoplasia[edit]

Turner's hypoplasia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 K00.4
ICD-9-CM 520.4

Turner's hypoplasia is an abnormality found in teeth. Its appearance is variable, though usually is manifested as a portion of missing or diminished enamel on permanent teeth. Unlike other abnormalities which affect a vast number of teeth, Turner's hypoplasia usually affects only one tooth in the mouth and, it is referred to as a Turner's tooth.


If Turner's hypoplasia is found on a canine or a premolar, the most likely cause is an infection that was present when the primary (baby) tooth was still in the mouth. Most likely, the primary tooth was heavily decayed and an area of inflamed tissues around the root of the tooth (called a periapical inflammation), affecting the development of the permanent tooth. The tooth most likely affected by this cause is the canine tooth. The appearance of the abnormality will depend on the severity and longevity of the infection.

If Turner's hypoplasia is found in the front (anterior) area of the mouth, the most likely cause is a traumatic injury to a primary tooth. The traumatized tooth, which is usually a maxillary central incisor, is pushed into the developing tooth underneath it and consequently affects the formation of enamel. Because of the location of the permanent tooth's developing tooth bud in relation to the primary tooth, the most likely affected area on the permanent tooth is the facial surface (the side closer to the lips or cheek). White or yellow discoloration may accompany Turner's hypoplasia. Enamel hypoplasia may also be present.

Turner's hypoplasia usually affects the tooth enamel if the trauma occurs prior to the third year of life. Injuries occurring after this time are less likely to cause enamel defects since the enamel is already calcified.

The same type of injury is also associated with the dilaceration of a tooth.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ash, Major M., Jr. & Nelson, S.J (2003). Dental anatomy, physiology, and occlusion (8th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-9382-2. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Kanchan T, Machado M, Rao A, Krishan K, Garg AK (Apr 2015). "Enamel hypoplasia and its role in identification of individuals: A review of literature". Indian J Dent (Revisión). 6 (2): 99–102. doi:10.4103/0975-962X.155887. PMC 4455163Freely accessible. PMID 26097340. 
  3. ^ Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease National Institute of Health (NIH)
  4. ^ Ferraz EG, Campos Ede J, Sarmento VA, Silva LR (2012). "The oral manifestations of celiac disease: information for the pediatric dentist". Pediatr Dent (Review). 34 (7): 485–8. PMID 23265166. 
  5. ^ Giuca MR, Cei G, Gigli F, Gandini P (2010). "Oral signs in the diagnosis of celiac disease: review of the literature". Minerva Stomatol (Review). 59 (1–2): 33–43. PMID 20212408. 


  • Kahn, Michael A. Basic Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Volume 1. 2001.