Turrialba Volcano is an active volcano, most recently eruptive in October 2015, in central Costa Rica. Visitors used to be able to hike down into the main crater, but increased volcanic activity in 2014-15 has caused the surrounding Turrialba Volcano National Park to close.
Turrialba is adjacent to Irazú and both are among Costa Rica's largest volcanoes. Turrialba has had at least five large explosive eruptions in last 3500 years. On clear days both the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea can be seen from the summit.
The volcano is named after its canton, Turrialba, in Costa Rica's Cartago Province. There is no clear consensus on the origin of the name Turrialba, but historians disagree with attempts to attribute the name to the patronym Torrealba (from Aragon in Spain) or from the LatinTurris alba (white tower). The general consensus is that Turrialba derives from the local Indian (Huetar language), but there is no agreement on its actual roots.
During the 19th century, the volcano erupted and emitted ash several times (1847, 1853, 1855, 1859, 1866), producing pyroclastic flows. The last major eruption was in 1866.
Small signs of activity start in 1996.
In January 2001, the volcano reported increased activity, displaying strong fumarole activity at the central craters. The volcanic activities have increased since 2005.
On March 31, 2007, the volcano started to show some activity with ash eruptions.
The National Park area opened for visitors was closed from 2009 to 2011.
Turrialba in 2005
On January 8, 2010, a phreatic eruption occurred, creating a new opening near the crater on the southwest, and the temperature increased from 200 to 600 °C (392 to 1,112 °F). Two villages, La Central and El Retiro, were evacuated.
On January, 2012 a new opening on the west of the crater was created after a phreatic eruption.
On March 12, 2015, eruptions at around 11:00 and 14:12 sent ashes through all the Central Valley, it is regarded as the most significant activity since 1996. The Juan Suantamaría and Tobías Bolaños international airports were closed due to visibility being less than 100 meters.