|Five views of a shell of Turris crispa|
H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
Turridae is a taxonomic family name for a number of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Conoidea. The family name Turridae was originally given to a very large group of several thousand sea snail species that were thought to be closely related. However, that original grouping was discovered to be polyphyletic.
In recent years, the family Turridae has been much reduced in size, because a number of other families were created to contain the monophyletic lineages that had previously been thought to belong in the same family.
The common name "turrids" is still used informally to refer to the polyphyletic group.
Species in the family Turridae are found worldwide; most are found in the neritic zone.
Turrids are carnivorous, predatory gastropods. Most species have a poison gland used with the toxoglossan radula, used to prey on vertebrates and invertebrate animals (mostly polychaete worms) or in self-defense. Some turrids have lost the radula and the poison gland. The radula, when present, has two or three teeth in a row. It lacks lateral teeth and the marginal teeth are of the wishbone or duplex type. The teeth with a duplex form are not shaped from two distinct elements but grow from a flat plate, by thickening at the edges of the teeth and elevation of the rear edge from the membrane.
Female turrids lay their eggs in lens-shaped capsules.
History of the taxonomy
The family Turridae, in the older broadest sense of the group, was in the past perceived as one of the most difficult groups to study because of a large number of supra-specific described taxa, which were complicated by their species diversity. Although some species were relatively common, many were rare, some being known only from single specimens; this is another factor that made studying the group difficult.
- 2005 taxonomy
According to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005, which attempted to set out a stable taxonomy, this family consisted of the following five subfamilies:
- Turrinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (1838) - synonyms: Pleurotominae Gray, 1838; Lophiotominae Morrison, 1965 (n.a.)
- Cochlespirinae Powell, 1942
- Crassispirinae McLean, 1971 - synonym: Belinae A. Bellardi, 1875
- Zemaciinae Sysoev, 2003
- Zonulispirinae McLean, 1971
- 2011 taxonomy
The 2005 classification system for the group was greatly changed by the 2011 publication of an article revising the taxonomy of the superfamily Conoidea, Bouchet P., Kantor Yu.I., Sysoev A. & Puillandre N. (2011) A new operational classification of the Conoidea. Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273-308. The authors presented a new classification of the superfamily Conoidea on the genus level, based on anatomical characters but also on the molecular phylogeny as presented by Puillandre N., et al., 2008. The polyphyletic family Turridae was resolved into 13 monophyletic families (containing 358 currently recognized genera and subgenera) :
- Pseudomelatomidae (= Crassispiridae)
- Turridae s.s.
Genera in the family Turridae sensu stricto, now include:
- Cryptogemma Dall, 1918
- Decollidrillia Habe & Ito, 1965
- Epidirella Iredale, 1913
- Gemmula Weinkauff, 1875
- Iotyrris Medinskaya & Sysoev, 2001
- Kuroshioturris Shuto, 1961
- Lophiotoma Casey, 1904
- Lucerapex Iredale, 1936
- Pinguigemmula McNeil, 1961
- Pleuroliria De Gregorio, 1890
- Polystira Woodring, 1928
- Pseudexomilus Powell, 1944
- Ptychosyrinx Thiele, 1925
- Turridrupa Hedley, 1922
- Turris Röding, 1798 - type genus
- Unedogemmula MacNeil, 1961
- Xenuroturris Iredale, 1929
- Annulaturris Powell, 1966 accepted as Turris Batsch, 1789
- Austrogemmula Laseron, 1954 accepted as Epidirella Iredale, 1913
- Bathybermudia Haas, 1949 accepted as Ptychosyrinx Thiele, 1925
- Clamturris Iredale, 1931 accepted as Xenuroturris Iredale, 1929
- Eugemmula Iredale, 1931 accepted as Gemmula Weinkauff, 1875
- Lophioturris Powell, 1964 accepted as Lophiotoma Casey, 1904
- Oxytropa Glibert, 1955 accepted as Polystira Woodring, 1928
- Pleurotoma Lamarck, 1799 accepted as Turris Batsch, 1789
Subfamily ?Strictispirinae McLean, 1971 accepted as Strictispiridae McLean, 1971
- Duda, T.F., Jr., Kohn, A.J. & Palumbi, S.R. (2001) Origins of diverse feeding ecologies within Conus, a genus of venomous marine gastropods. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 73, 391–409.
- Kantor, Yuri I; John D.Taylor (2000). "Formation of marginal radular teeth in Conoidea (Neogastropoda) and the evolution of the hypodermic envenomation mechanism". Journal of Zoology (Cambridge University Press) 252 (2): 251–262. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00620.x.
- Sysoev, A.V. (1993) Appendix 2 Genus-group taxa of Recent Turridae S.L. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum of London, Zoology, 59, 163–169
- Sysoev, A.V. (1991) Preliminary analysis of the relationship between turrids (Gastropoda, Toxoglossa, Turridae) with different types of radular apparatus in various Recent and fossil faunas. Ruthenica, 1, 53–66.
- Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P.; Frýda J.; Hausdorf B.; Ponder W.; Valdés Á. & Warén A. (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks) 47 (1-2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997.
- Puillandre N., et al., 2008 " Starting to unravel the toxoglossan knot: molecular phylogeny of the “turrids” (Neogastropoda: Conoidea)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 2008;47:1122-1134
- Turridae. WoRMS, accessed 18 November 2015
- Kilburn R. N. (1983). "Turridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of southern Africa and Mozambique. Part 1. Subfamily Turrinae." Ann. Natal. Mus. 25: 549–585.
- McLean J. (1971). "A revised classification of the family Turridae, with the proposal of new subfamilies, genera, and subgenera from the Eastern Pacific". Veliger 14: 114–130.
- Powell A. W. B. (1964). "The family Turridae in the Indo-Pacific. Part 1, The subfamily Turrinae". Indo-Pacific Mollusca 1: 227–345.
- Tucker J. K. (2004). "Catalog of Recent and fossil turrids (Mollusca: Gastropoda)". Zootaxa 682: 1–1295. preview
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