Twelfth United States Army Group
|Twelfth United States Army Group|
Twelfth Army Group Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
|Branch||United States Army|
|Role||Army Group Headquarters|
|Size||1.3 million men|
|Part of||Allied Expeditionary Force|
|Engagements||World War II|
The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful United States Army formation ever to take to the field. It controlled the majority of American forces on the Western Front in 1944 and 1945. It was commanded by General Omar Bradley with its headquarters established in London on 14 July 1944.
Bradley's First United States Army, which later formed part of the Twelfth Army Group, formed the right wing of the Allied lines during the Normandy landings and the Battle of Normandy. They were joined during July by the Third United States Army, under the command of General George S. Patton. Until September, when General Eisenhower assumed overall command of the Allied land forces in Northwest Europe, the U.S. forces in Normandy were included with the British Second Army and the First Canadian Army in the British headquarters formation 21st Army Group, commanded by General Montgomery.
After the breakout from the beach-head at Normandy, the Twelfth Army Group formed the center of the Allied forces on the Western Front. To the north was the British 21st Army Group (the 2 aforementioned field armies) and, to the south, advancing from their landing on the Mediterranean coast, was the Sixth United States Army Group (Seventh United States Army and French First Army).
As the Twelfth advanced through Germany in 1945, it controlled four field armies: First United States Army, Third United States Army, Ninth United States Army and Fifteenth United States Army. By V-E Day, the Twelfth Army Group was a force that numbered over 1.3 million men.
Order of Battle – 8 May 1945
- 12th Army Group – General Omar N. Bradley
- First Army – General Courtney H. Hodges
- Third Army – General George S. Patton, Jr.
- 1st Infantry Division – Major General Clift Andrus
- 2nd Infantry Division – Major General Walter M. Robertson
- 9th Armored Division – Major General John W. Leonard
- 70th Infantry Division – Major General Allison J. Barnett
- 97th Infantry Division – Brigadier General Milton B. Halsey
- III Corps – Major General James Van Fleet
- V Corps – Major General Clarence R. Huebner
- XII Corps – Major General Stafford LeRoy Irwin
- XX Corps – Major General Walton H. Walker
- Ninth Army – Lieutenant General William H. Simpson
- 2nd Armored Division – Major General Isaac D. White
- VIII Corps – Major General Troy H. Middleton
- XIII Corps – Major General Alvan C. Gillem, Jr.
- XVI Corps – Major General John B. Anderson
- XIX Corps – Major General Raymond S. McLain
- Fifteenth Army – Lieutenant General Leonard T. Gerow
- 66th Infantry Division – Major General Herman F. Kramer
- 106th Infantry Division – Major General Donald A. Stroh
- XVIII Airborne Corps – Major General Matthew B. Ridgway
- XXII Corps – Major General Ernest N. Harmon
- XXIII Corps – Major General Hugh J. Gaffey
Source: Bradley, Omar, A Soldier's Story, New York: Henry Holt and Company (1950), pp. 557–561
The Library of Congress possesses over 400 military situation maps created by the Engineering Section of the 12th Army Group: