Twelve Bens

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Twelve Bens (Twelve Pins)
Irish: Na Beanna Beola; the peaks of Beola[a]
Boats and mountains, Roundstone (6047965086).jpg
View from Roundstone village.
Highest point
PeakBenbaun
Elevation729 m (2,392 ft) [1]
Coordinates53°30′N 9°49′W / 53.50°N 9.81°W / 53.50; -9.81Coordinates: 53°30′N 9°49′W / 53.50°N 9.81°W / 53.50; -9.81
Dimensions
Area161.3 km2 (62.3 sq mi)
Naming
English translationThe peaks of Beola[a]
Language of nameIrish language
Geography
Twelve Bens (Twelve Pins) is located in Ireland
Twelve Bens (Twelve Pins)
Twelve Bens (Twelve Pins)
Location of the Twelve Bens
LocationConnemara, County Galway, Ireland
Provinces of IrelandConnacht
Topo mapOSI Discovery 37, 44
Geology
Age of rockPrecambrian-Cambrian
Type of rockquartzites, grits, graphitic
Climbing
Normal route
  • "Glencoaghan Horseshoe" (Irish: Gleann Chóchan)[b]
  • "Twelve Bens Challenge"[c]

The Twelve Bens or Twelve Pins (Irish: Na Beanna Beola; the peaks of Beola)[a] is a mountain range of mostly sharp-peaked quartzite summits and ridges located in the Connemara National Park[d] in County Galway, in the west of Ireland. The widest definition of the range includes the Garraun Complex to the north as well as several isolated peaks to the west, and is designated a 16,163-hectare Special Area of Conservation.[3] Topographically, the range is partnered with the Maumturks range to the east of the Inagh valley (a Western Way route).[4] The highest point is Benbaun 729 metres (2,392 ft).[4]

Naming[edit]

While "Ben" is the Irish language for "Binn", meaning "peak", according to academic Paul Tempan, "nobody seems to know exactly which are the twelve peaks in question", noting that there are almost 20 peaks with "Ben" or "Binn" in their name.[2] Tempan notes the notion of "twelve peaks" goes back to at least the time of Irish historian Ruaidhrí Ó Flaithbheartaigh, who wrote in 1684: "On the north-west of Ballynahinsy [Ballynahinch], are the twelve high mountaines of Bennabeola, called by marriners the twelve stakes [stacks], being the first land they discover as they come from the maine [sea]", but he did not list them.[2]

The most common list of the twelve peaks in question are the peaks with a elevation above 500 metres in the core range, and that are not considered subsidiary peaks (e.g. they have a non-trivial prominence, and have been traditionally noted as peaks on historic maps; see § List of peaks below).[4]

Tempan notes that in the Irish language name, the question of the number "twelve" doesn't arise, as they are just "Na Beanna Beola", or "the peaks of Beola".[2] Beola was a giant and chieftain of the Fir Bolg, whose name also features in the name of the Connemara village Toombeola, or Irish language "Tuaim Beola".[2]

Geography[edit]

Glencoaghan River from Bencullaghduff

The Twelve Bens range is a core massif of 22 peaks above 100 metres in elevation, centred around the highest peak in the range, Benbaun 729 metres (2,392 ft). To the north of this core massif lies the separate subsidiary massif of the Garraun Complex with 9 peaks around Garraun 598 metres (1,962 ft). To the west of the core massif lies 7 other isolated or subsidiary "outlier" peaks, thus giving a total of 38 Bens with an elevation above 100 metres.[4][5]

While the Bens are not as high as those of the ranges in Kerry (e.g. MacGillycuddy's Reeks and the Mountains of the Dingle Peninsula), their rocky peaks and ridges contrast with the surrounding sea-level landscape (unlike Kerry, there are no mountain-passes in Connemara), and give the range an imposing feel.[4][5]

The range is bounded by the Inagh Valley and the R344 road to the east, while the N59 road (or, the "Clifden Road"), circles and bounds the core massif (and most of the outliers), from the southerly, westerly and northerly directions. The Garraun Complex lies to the north of the N59 road at Kylemore Lough.[4][5]

Core massif[edit]

The 22 peaks in the core massif of the Twelve Bens range naturally split into three sections:[6]

  1. Southern Bens, 12 southern Bens form a horseshoe around the Glencoaghan Valley, and include the 7 major Bens of: Derryclare, Bencorr, Bencollaghduff, Benbreen, Bengower, Benlettery, and Benglenisky; and 5 subsidiary Bens of: Bencorr North Top, Benbreen Central Top, Benbreen North Top, Binn an tSaighdiúra, and Bencorrbeg; and
  2. Central Bens, 7 central Bens that sit along a large east-west ridge with Benbaun at its centre, and include the 4 major Bens of Benbaun, Benfree, Muckanaght, and Bencullagh; and the 3 subsidiary Bens of Knockpasheemore, Maumonght, and Maumonght SW Top; and
  3. Northern Bens, 3 northern Bens that lies on the small massif of the major Ben of Benbrack, and include the 2 subsidiary Bens of Knockbrack and another smaller peak called, Benbaun; just beside the Northern Bens lies the outlier Ben of Diamond Hill.

The core massif is also known for its deep glaciated U-shaped valleys, around which groups of Bens lie in a "horseshoe formation":[6]

  1. Glencoaghan: most southerly valley from which the Glencoaghan river flows; the Glencoaghan Horseshoe is a major hill-walking route in Ireland;[7][5][4]
  2. Owenglin: western valley from which the Owenglin river flows; the Owenglin Horseshoe is also a noted hill-walking route;[8]
  3. Gleninagh: eastern valley from which the Gleninagh river flows; contains Carrot Ridge, an important area for rock-climbing;[9]
  4. Polladirk: north-westerly valley from which the Polladirk river flows; a popular scenic view from Diamond Hill is into this valley;
  5. Glencorbet: north-easterly valley from which the Kylemore river flows; the Glencorbet Horseshoe is a popular route in the Bens.[10][11]

Geology[edit]

Quartzite peaks and rocky ridges of Bencorr and it’s subsidiary peaks and spurs

The core massif of the Twelve Bens range are largely composed of metamorphic marine rocks, being predominantly resistant quartzite but with deposits of schists in the valleys (known as Connemara Dalradian rocks).[12][3][13]

Such rocks came from sediments deposited in a warm shelf sea between 700 to 550 million years ago (e.g. Precambrian-Cambrian).[13] Movements in the earth’s crust, and the closure of the Iapetus Ocean, transformed these sediments into crystalline schists within the roots of a long mountain range, which local erosion and uplift then brought to the surface.[12][13] The summits of the core massif (and some outliers) are resistant quartzite, while the flanks of the peaks consist of less resistant schists and grey marbles.[13]

In contrast, the mountains to the north of the core Twelve Bens massif, the Garraun Complex, have a different type of geology, and consist of gneiss and various types of sandstones and mudstones.[3]

Spread across the range, are areas of gabbro (Doughruagh and Currywongaun), mica schist (Muckanaght), and marble outcrops (south of Kylemore Lough).[3]

The last Ice Age, ending 10,000 years ago, imposed a final shaping to the landscape leaving behind deposits of sand and gravel; there are widespread boulder-clay and erratic boulders across the range.[13]

Special Area of Conservation (SAC)[edit]

The range includes extensive bog habitats

The entire Twelve Bens range (including the Garraun Complex) is a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) (Site Code:002031), as selected for a range of habitats and species listed under the Annex I / II of the E.U. Habitats Directive.[3] The items of note on the SAC habitats list includes: Oligotrophic Waters, Alpine Heaths, Active Blanket Bogs, remnants of Oak Woodland, Rhynchosporion Vegetation, and Siliceous Scree and Rocky Slopes; while the species list includes: Freshwater Pearl Mussel, Atlantic Salmon, Otter, and Slender Naiad.[3] In addition, the 16,163-hectare site includes a number of rare Red Data Book plant species.[3] The SAC directive on the range describes it as "One of the largest and most varied sites of conservation interest in Ireland".[3]

Climbing[edit]

The range is popular with hill walkers, fell runners, and rock climbers,[14]

Hill walking[edit]

View of Polladirk Valley from Diamond Hill.

The 16–kilometre 8–9 hour Glencoaghan Horseshoe (Irish: Gleann Chóchan)[b] is noted as providing some of the "most exhilarating mountaineering in Ireland",[18] and is called "a true classic" by guidebook authors.[5][4][7] Other similar distanced "horseshoe" loop walks are the 19–kilometre 10–12 hour Owenglin Horseshoe,[8] the 15–kilometre 8–9 hour Gleninagh Horseshoe,[9] and the 14–kilometre 6–7 hour Glencorbet Horseshoe.[11][10]

However, an even more serious undertaking is the 28–kilometre Twelve Bens Challenge, climbing all 12 Bens in a single 24-hour day.[c]

Rock climbing[edit]

Carrot Ridge in the Gleninagh Valley

The Twelve Bens have a number of rock climbing locations, the most notable of which is in the Gleann Eighneach valley at the eastern spur of Benncorr (from Binn an tSaighdiúra to Bencorrbeg; also called "Carrot Ridge" Irish: Meacan Buí). The climbs vary from Diff (D) to Very Severe (VS) and range from 150 metres to 320 metres in length, with notable routes being Carrot Ridge (275m D), and Seventh Heaven (330m HS).[14]

In addition, the large easterly corrie between the summits of Derryclare and the summit of Bencorr, known as Irish: Log an Choire Mhóir (meaning "wood of the big corrie"), also contains several large 200 metre multi-pitch graded rock climbs at grades of Diff (D) to Very Diff (VD), the most notable of which is The Knave (VD, 225 m); and the smaller corrie between the summit of Bencorr and the summit of Bencorr North Top, known as Irish: Log an Choire Bhig (meaning "wood of the small corrie"), has a number of shorter but harder climbs including Corner Climb (VS 4c, 30 m).[20]

List of peaks[edit]

The following is a download from the MountainViews Online Database, who list 38 identifiable peaks in the wider Twelve Bens range (i.e. core massif, Garraun complex, and various outliers to the west), with an elevation, or height, above 100 metres (328 ft)

The list highlights the 12 Bens most associated with being the Twelve Bens from Ó Flaithbheartaigh's original record.[4] Of the separately named Bens (i.e. not listed as a "Top" of a parent Ben), that are over 500 metres (1,640 ft) in height but are not listed in the original 12, Binn an tSaighdiúra has a prominence of only 8 metres and would not qualify as an independent mountain on any recognised scale (the lowest prominence is 15 metres for the Vandeleur-Lynam classification); Maumonght does have a prominence exceeding 50 metres, and even has a subsidiary peak (Maumonght SW Top), however, Maumonght rarely appears on historic maps of the range, and would not have been included;[2] Bencorrbeag also has a non-trivial prominence of 42 metres, however it is unlikely given its positioning that it could have been distinguished by mariners from the sea (Ó Flaithbheartaigh's original premise).[4][2]

  One of the original Twelve Bens; equated to all non-subsidary peaks in the core massif with height above 500 metres (1,640 ft)
  Marilyn: Any height, and prominence over 150 metres (492 ft).
Peaks of the Twelve Bens Mountain range (MountainViews Online Database, July 2019)
Height
Rank
Prom.
Rank
Name Irish Name (if different) Translation Area Height
(m)
Prom.
(m)
Height
(ft)
Prom.
(ft)
Topo
Map
OSI Grid
Reference
1 1 Benbaun Binn Bhán White Peak[e] 12 Bens - Core 729 684 2,392 2,244 37 L786539
2 4 Bencorr Binn Chorr[f] Pointed Peak 12 Bens - Core 711 306 2,333 1,004 37 L812522
3 10 Bencollaghduff Binn Dubh Black Peak/Peak of Black Hags[g] 12 Bens - Core 696 191 2,283 627 37 L798530
4 11 Benbreen Binn Braoin Braon's Peak[h] 12 Bens - Core 691 186 2,267 610 37 L783515
5 38 Bencorr North Top 12 Bens - Core 690 5 2,264 16 37 L809524
6 31 Benbreen Central Top 12 Bens - Core 680 25 2,231 82 37 L781520
7 16 Derryclare Binn Doire Chláir[i] Peak of Derryclare 12 Bens - Core 677 129 2,221 423 37 L815510
8 35 Benbreen North Top 12 Bens - Core 674 16 2,211 52 37 L784522
9 9 Bengower[j] Binn Gabhar Goats' Peak 12 Bens - Core 664 196 2,178 643 37 L783507
10 12 Muckanaght Muiceanach Hill like a Pig 12 Bens - Core 654 179 2,146 587 37 L767541
11 37 Binn an tSaighdiúra Peak of the Soilder[k] 12 Bens - Core 653 8 2,142 26 37 L811528
12 24 Benfree Binn Fraoigh Peak of the Heather[l] 12 Bens - Core 638 48 2,093 157 37 L778544
13 14 Bencullagh An Chailleach Peak of the Hag/Witch[m] 12 Bens - Core 632 154 2,073 505 37 L756537
14 23 Maumonght[n] Mám Uchta Pass of the Breast/Ridge 12 Bens - Core 602 54 1,975 177 37 L749539
15 2 Garraun[o] Maolchnoc Bald Hill Garraun Complex 598 553 1,962 1,814 37 L767610
16 36 Benchoona East Top Garraun Complex 585 15 1,919 49 37 L766616
17 7 Benbrack Binn Bhreac Speckled Peak[p] 12 Bens - Core 582 264 1,909 866 37 L766558
18 28 Benchoona Binn Chuanna Peak of Cuanna[q] Garraun Complex 581 36 1,906 118 37 L763617
19 21 Benlettery Binn Leitrí Peak of the Wet Hillsides[r] 12 Bens - Core 577 62 1,893 203 44 L775495
20 26 Bencorrbeg Binn an Choire Bhig Peak of the Little Corrie 12 Bens - Core 577 42 1,893 138 37 L816533
21 29 Garraun South Top Garraun Complex 556 31 1,824 102 37 L763606
22 32 Garraun South-West Top Garraun Complex 549 21 1,801 69 37 L755607
23 8 Doughruagh Dúchruach Black Stack Garraun Complex 526 211 1,726 692 37 L751594
24 33 Doughruagh South Top Garraun Complex 525 17 1,722 56 37 L751592
25 25 Benglenisky Binn Ghleann Uisce Peak of the Glen of Water 12 Bens - Core 516 48 1,693 157 37 L766501
26 27 Benbaun (477 m) Binn Bhán/Maolán White Peak 12 Bens - Core 477 42 1,565 138 37 L765568
27 30 Maumonght SW Top Binn Bhreac Speckled Peak 12 Bens - Core 454 29 1,490 95 37 L744534
28 5 Diamond Hill Binn Ghuaire Guaire's Peak[s] 12 Bens - Outlier 442 277 1,450 909 37 L732571
29 22 Knockbrack  Cnoc Breac Speckled Hill 12 Bens - Core 442 55 1,450 180 37 L749565
30 34 Knockpasheemore  Binn Charrach Rocky Peak 12 Bens - Core 412 17 1,352 56 37 L807557
31 3 Tully Mountain 12 Bens - Outlier 356 331 1,168 1,086 37 L673611
32 6 Letterettrin[t] Binn Mhór Big Peak Garraun Complex 333 268 1,093 879 37 L796620
33 15 Cregg 12 Bens - Outlier 297 142 974 466 37 L715524
34 20 Currywongaun Corr Uí Mhongáin Uí Mhongáin's Hill Garraun Complex 273 109 896 358 37 L731596
35 18 Townaloughra East Top 12 Bens - Outlier 216 112 709 367 37 L688541
36 19 Gortrumnagh (unknown) (unknown) 12 Bens - Outlier 174 110 571 361 37 L628516
37 13 Maumfin Mám Fionn White Pass 12 Bens - Outlier 172 157 564 515 37 L647588
38 17 Knockaunbaun An Cnocán Bán White Hillock 12 Bens - Outlier 146 128 479 420 37 L605596

Further reading[edit]

Range from north-west at Clifden.
  • Lynam, Joss; Robinson, Tim (1988). Mountains of Connemara: Hill Walker's Guide. Folding Landscape. ISBN 978-0950400242.
  • Dillion, Paddy (1993). The Mountains of Ireland: A Guide to Walking the Summits. Cicerone. ISBN 978-1852841102.
  • Dillion, Paddy (2001). Connemara: Collins Rambler's guide. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0002201216.
  • Paul Phelan (2011). Connemara & Mayo - A Walking Guide: Mountain, Coastal & Island Walks. Collins Press. ISBN 978-1848891029.
  • Fairbairn, Helen (2014). Ireland's Best Walks: A Walking Guide. Collins Press. ISBN 978-1848892118.
  • Connemara (Superwalker) Map (Waterproof Folded Map) (1:30,000 scale). Harvey Maps. 2015. ISBN 978-1851373383.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The translation is "the peaks of Beola" who was believed to be a giant and chieftain of the Fir Bolg, whose name features in the village Tuaim Beola (Toombeola).[2]
  2. ^ a b Also known as the "Derryclare Horseshoe" as it is normally started from the Derryclare end (e.g. counterclockwise), is a 14 to 16 kilometre "horseshoe"-shaped circuit (the final length depending on whether the "loop" is completed by walking back to the base of "Derryclare"), that takes in six of the twelve bens, almost 5,000 ft of elevation, and takes circa 6 to 9 hours to complete depending on ability and fitness.[15][16][17]
  3. ^ a b The "12 Bens Challenge" was organised by the Beanna Beola Hillwalking Club on a yearly basis since 2006; it is for advanced hill-walkers only, and covers 28 kilometres, 8,300 ft of elevation, and takes circa 12–14 hours to complete.[19]
  4. ^ Only part of the range is inside the boundary of the Connemara National Park; the rest is on private property, but climbing access is granted.
  5. ^ The name is assumed to derive from the abundance of white quartzite rock on its summit[2]
  6. ^ Cartographer and climbing author Tim Robinson gave an alternative name of Irish: Binn an Choire Mhóir meaning "peak of the big corrie". The British sappers set up a beacon on this peak during the first Ordnance Survey in Ireland.[2]
  7. ^ The "black hags" are not referring to witches, but to cormorant birds.[2]
  8. ^ Braon in the Irish language can mean "drip" or "drop", but is more likely related to the Irish personal name, and it is the basis of the surnames Ó Braoin and Mac Braoin, anglicised as Breen and McBreen in the area.[2]
  9. ^ The Irish language term "clár", can mean both a "plain" and a "board"/"plank-bridge". Thus Derryclare, from "Doire Chláir", could mean 'oak-wood of the plain' or 'oak-wood of the plank-bridge'. The name seems to have been transferred by the Ordnance Survey from the townland of Derryclare situated to the east to the mountain itself.[2]
  10. ^ Mistakenly marked as "Glengower" on the Discovery series OS map.[2]
  11. ^ It is said that a British sapper from the first Ordnance Survey in Ireland fell to his death here during survey work on the first 6-map series in the 1830s.[2]
  12. ^ On the Discovery OS map this peak is marked as "Luggatarriff", meaning "hollow of the bull", which Paul Tempan notes probably applies to a hollow on the slopes of Benfree.[2]
  13. ^ A woman known as "Cailleach an Chlocháin", meaning "the witch of Clifden", was a famous character in the 19th-century.[2]
  14. ^ Despite is non-trivial prominence, Maumonght is unnamed on many maps, including Tim Robinson's map, however, a lower peak to the SW at 454 metres, is named Binn Bhreac (properly Maumonght SW Top). This may explain why Maumonght rarely appears in any list of the actual 12 Bens. "Maumonght" is also odd as an anglicised form, as Paul Tempan notes that it does not suggest any Irish version, and wonders if it was a typo for "Maumought".[2]
  15. ^ Paul Tempan notes that Garraun is clearly also a name of Irish origin, and may either be from the Irish name "garrán" (meaning grove), or, more likely, from the Irish name "géarán" (meaning "fang"). While the summit of Garraun is flattish, the eastern ridge leading to it is sharp enough to have deserved the name of "fang". Tempan notes that the name "Maolchnoc" could be the true Irish name for the rounded summit, while "An Géarán" would denote the sharp ridge descending to Lough Fee.[2]
  16. ^ The summit of this mountain is strewn with lumps of white quartz.[2]
  17. ^ Cuanna is probably a personal name. A townland nearby is named Tooreenacoona ("Tuairín Uí Chuanna", meaning "O'Cooney's Green").[2]
  18. ^ The townland of Lettery (Irish: Leitrí, "wet hillsides") is on the southerly slopes of the peak. Another name Bindowglass or Bendouglas (Irish: Binn Dúghlais, "peak of the black stream") is recorded as early as 1684 by Ruaidhrí Ó Flaithbheartaigh; both names referring to the wet state of the peak. Ó Flaithbheartaigh mentions a pool of water on the summit which turns the hair white of anyone who washes in it.[2]
  19. ^ Guaire Aidne was a king of Connacht, and Bengooria is an anglicised form of Binn Ghuaire.[2]
  20. ^ This hill is in the townland of Letterettrin / Irish: Leitir Eitreann, meaning "hillside of furrows".[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Benbaun". MountainViews Online Database. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Paul Tempan (February 2012). "Irish Hill and Mountain Names" (PDF). MountainViews.ie.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Site Name: The Twelve Bens/Garraun Complex SAC" (PDF). Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2019. Site Code: 002031
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dillion, Paddy (2001). Connemara: Collins Rambler's guide. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0002201216. Walk 30: Gleann Chóchan Horseshoe
  5. ^ a b c d e Helen Fairbairn (30 December 2014). Ireland's Best Walks: A Walking Guide (Walking Guides). Collins Press. ISBN 978-1848892118. ROUTE 34: The Glencoaghan Horseshoe. A true classic
  6. ^ a b Lynam, Joss; Robinson, Tim (1988). Mountains of Connemara: Hill Walker's Guide. Folding Landscape. ISBN 978-0950400242.
  7. ^ a b Paul Phelan (2011). Connemara & Mayo - A Walking Guide: Mountain, Coastal & Island Walks. Collins Press. ISBN 978-1848891029. Route 12: Glencoaghan Horseshoe. one of Ireland's most dramatic walks
  8. ^ a b Dillion, Paddy (2001). Connemara: Collins Rambler's guide. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0002201216. Walk 24: Owenglin Horseshoe
  9. ^ a b Dillion, Paddy (2001). Connemara: Collins Rambler's guide. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0002201216. Walk 28: Gleann Eidhneach Horseshoe
  10. ^ a b Paul Phelan (2011). Connemara & Mayo - A Walking Guide: Mountain, Coastal & Island Walks. Collins Press. ISBN 978-1848891029. Route 11: Glencorbet Horseshoe
  11. ^ a b Helen Fairbairn (30 December 2014). Ireland's Best Walks: A Walking Guide (Walking Guides). Collins Press. ISBN 978-1848892118. ROUTE 33: The Glencorbet Horseshoe. A true classic
  12. ^ a b Ronán Hennessy (29 August 2012). "Connemara before Clifden: The Geology of Connemara". University College Cork. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Connemara National Park: Geology". Connemara National Park. 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  14. ^ a b "Glenn Eighneach". Irish Climbing Wiki. The finest rock formations in the Twelve Bens are found in the south wall of Gleann Eidheanach (Glen Inagh), running from Binn an Choire Bhig to Mám na bFhonsaí, east of Binn Dubh (L808530).
  15. ^ Liam Johnson (12 September 2015). "Glencoaghan Horseshoe: Viewranger Statistics". theramblers.ie.
  16. ^ "Glencoaghan Horseshoe (anticlockwise)". viewranger maps. 2013.
  17. ^ "More Challenging Climbing: The Glencoaghan Horseshoe". Walk Conemara.
  18. ^ Tom Doherty (22 June 2016). "A walk for the weekend: The Twelve Bens of Connemara are a hard walk but worth it". Irish Times. Even if you had to crawl across bogs to get to them, it would be worth it as the nine [should be six] peaks which form the Glencoaghan Horseshoe provide some of the most exhilarating mountaineering on this island.
  19. ^ "12 Bens Challenge". Na Beanna Beola Hill Walking Club. 2018. The route begins at the Inagh Valley Inn and ends at the Bard’s Den in Letterfrack. The total distance covered is approximately 28km and the total height gain for the route is approximately 2530m (8300ft). On average it takes 12–14 hours to complete and should only be attempted by competent hill-walkers.
  20. ^ "Inagh Valley: Log an Choire Mhóir, Log and Choire Bhig". Irish Online Climbing Wiki. Retrieved 1 August 2019.

External links[edit]