Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt

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Egypt
1189 BC–1077 BC
Capital Pi-Ramesses
Languages Egyptian language
Religion Ancient Egyptian Religion
Government Absolute monarchy
Historical era Iron Age
 •  Established 1189 BC
 •  Disestablished 1077 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt

The Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XX, alternatively 20th Dynasty or Dynasty 20) is classified as the third and last Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1189 BC to 1077 BC. The 20th Dynasty and the 19th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Upon the death of last pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty, Queen Twosret, Egypt descended into a period of civil war, as attested by the Elephantine stela built by Setnakhte. The circumstances of Twosret's demise are uncertain, as she may have died peacefully during her reign or have been overthrown by Setnakhte, who was likely already middle aged at the time.[1]

20th Dynasty[edit]

A consistent theme of this Dynasty was the loss of pharaonic power to the High Priests of Amun. Horemheb, a pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, had restored the traditional Ancient Egyptian religion and the priesthood of Amun after their abandonment by Akhenaten. With the High Priests now acting as intermediaries between the Gods and the people rather than the Pharaoh, the position no longer commanded the same kind of power as in the past.[2][3]

Setnakhte[edit]

Setnakhte stabilized the situation in Egypt, and may have driven off an attempted invasion by the Sea Peoples. He ruled for about 4 years before being succeeded by his son Ramesses III.

Ramesses III[edit]

In Year 5 of his reign, Ramesses defeated a Libyan invasion of Egypt by the Libu, Meshwesh and Seped people through Marmarica, who had previously unsuccessfully invaded during the reign of Merneptah.[4]

Ramesses III is most famous for decisively defeating a confederacy of the Sea Peoples, including the DenyenTjekker, PelesetShardana and Weshesh in the Battle of the Delta and the Battle of Djahy during Year 8 of his reign. Within the Papyrus Harris I, which attests these events in detail, Ramesses is said to have settled the defeated Sea Peoples in "strongholds", most likely located in Canaan, as his subjects[2][5]

In Year 11 of Ramesses' reign, another coalition of Libyan invaders was defeated in Egypt.

Between regnal Year 12 and Year 29, a systematic program of reorganizing the varied cults of the Ancient Egyptian religion was undertaken, by creating new cults and funding them, and restoring temples.

In Year 29 of Ramesses' reign, the first recorded labor strike in human history took place, after food rations for the favored and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Set Maat (now known as Deir el-Medina), could not be provisioned.[6]

The king is also known for a harem conspiracy in which Queen Tiye, one of his lesser wives, was implicated in an assassination attempt against the king to put her son Pentawer on the throne. The coup was not successful, as while the king may have died from the attempt on his life, his legitimate heir and son Ramesses IV succeeded him to the throne, arresting and putting approximately 30 conspirators to death.[7][8]

Ramesses IV

At the start of his reign Ramesses IV started an enormous building program on the scale of Ramesses the Great's own projects. He doubled the number of work gangs at Set Maat to a total of 120 men and dispatched numerous expeditions to the stone quarries of Wadi Hammamat and the turquoise mines of the Sinai. One of the largest expeditions included 8,368 men, of which some 2,000 were soldiers.[9] Ramesses expanded his father's Temple of Khonsu at Kharnak and possibly began his own mortuary temple at a site near the Temple of Hatshepsut. Another smaller temple is associated with Ramesses north of Medinet Habu.

Ramesses IV saw issues with the provision of food rations to his workmen, similar to the situation under his father. Ramessesnakht, the High Priest of Amun at the time, began to accompany state officials as they went to pay the workmen their rations, suggesting that, at least in part, it was the Temple of Amun and not the Egyptian state that was responsible for their wages.[10]

He also produced the Papyrus Harris I, the longest known papyrus from Ancient Egypt, measuring in at 41 meters long with 1500 lines of text to celebrate the achievements of his father.

Ramesses V[edit]

Ramesses V reigned for no more than 4 years, dying of smallpox in 1143 BC. The only monument attested to him is a stela near Gebel el-Silsila.[11] The Turin Papyrus Cat. 2044 attests that during his reign the workmen of Set Maat were forced to periodically stop working on Ramesses' KV9 tomb out of "fear of the enemy", suggesting increasing instability in Egypt and an inability to defend the country from what are presumed to be Libyan raiding parties.[12]

The Wilbour Papyrus is thought to date from Ramesses V's reign. The document reveals that most of the land in Egypt by that point was controlled by the Temple of Amun, and that the Temple had complete control over Egypt's finances.[13]

Ramesses VI[edit]

Ramesses VI is best known for his tomb, which when built inadvertently buried the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun underneath, keeping it safe from grave robbing until its discovery by Howard Carter in 1922.

Ramesses VII[edit]

Ramesses VII's only monument is his tomb, KV1.[14]

Ramesses VIII[edit]

Almost nothing is known about Ramesses VIII's reign, which lasted for a single year. He is only attested at Medinet Habu and through a few plaques. The only monument from his reign is his modest tomb, which was used for Mentuherkhepeshef, son of Ramesses IX, rather than Ramesses VIII himself.[15]

Ramesses IX[edit]

During Year 16 and Year 17 of Ramesses IX's reign famous tomb robbery trials took place, as attested by the Abbott Papyrus. A careful examination by a vizierial commission was undertaken of ten royal tombs, four tombs of the Chantresses of the Estate of the Divine Adoratrix, and finally the tombs of the citizens of Thebes. Many of these were found to have been broken into, like the tomb of Pharaoh Sobekemsaf II, whose mummy had been stolen.[16][17]

Ramesses IX's cartouche has been found at Gezer in Canaan, suggesting that Egypt at this time still had some degree of influence in the region.[18]

Most of the building projects during Ramesses IX's reign were at Heliopolis.[19]

Ramesses X[edit]

Ramessex X's reign is poorly documented. The Necropolis Journal of Set Maat records the general idleness of the workmen at this time, due, at least in part, to the danger of Libyan raiders.[20]

Ramesses XI[edit]

Ramesses XI was the last pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty. During his reign the position grew so weak that in the south the High Priests of Amun at Thebes became the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt, while Smendes controlled Lower Egypt even before Ramesses XI's death. Smendes would eventually found the Twenty-First dynasty at Tanis.[21]

Decline[edit]

As happened under the earlier Nineteenth Dynasty, this dynasty struggled under the effects of the bickering between the heirs of Ramesses III. For instance, three different sons of Ramesses III are known to have assumed power as Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI and Ramesses VIII respectively. However, at this time Egypt was also increasingly beset by a series of droughts, below-normal flooding levels of the Nile, famine, civil unrest and official corruption – all of which would limit the managerial abilities of any king.

Pharaohs of the 20th Dynasty[edit]

The Pharaohs of the 20th dynasty ruled for approximately 120 years: from ca. 1187 to 1064 BC. The dates and names in the table are mostly taken from "Chronological Table for the Dynastic Period" in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill, 2006. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website.[22]

Pharaoh Image Throne Name / Prenomen Reign Burial Consort(s) Comments
Setnakhte Sethnakht closeup Lepsius.png Userkhaure-setepenre 1189 – 1186 BC KV14 Tiy-merenese May have usurped the throne from his predecessor, Twosret.
Ramesses III KhonsuTemple-Karnak-RamessesIII-2.jpg Usermaatre-Meryamun 1186 – 1155 BC KV11 Iset Ta-Hemdjert
Tiye
Ramesses IV M-Ramses IV.jpg Usermaatre Setepenamun, later Heqamaatre Setepenamun 1155 – 1149 BC KV2 Duatentopet
Ramesses V / Amenhirkhepeshef I Ramses V mummy head.png Usermaatre Sekheperenre 1149 – 1145 BC KV9 Henutwati
Tawerettenru
Ramesses VI / Amenhirkhepeshef II RamassesVIFragmentarySarcophagusHead-BritishMuseum-August19-08.jpg Nebmaatre Meryamun 1145 – 1137 BC KV9 Nubkhesbed
Ramesses VII / Itamun Tomb KV1 Ramesses VII Lepsius.jpg Usermaatre Setepenre Meryamun 1136 – 1129 BC KV1
Ramesses VIII / Sethhirkhepeshef SFEC-MEDINETHABU-Sethiherkhepeshef II.jpg Usermaatre-Akhenamun 1130 – 1129 BC
Ramesses IX / Khaemwaset I Ramesses9.jpg Neferkare Setepenre 1129 – 1111 BC KV6 Baketwernel
Ramesses X / Amenhirkhepeshef III RamsesXCrop.jpg Khepermaatre Setepenre 1111 – 1107 BC KV18 Tyti
Ramesses XI / Khaemwaset II Temple Khonsu Ramesses XI Lepsius.jpg Menmaatre Setpenptah 1107 – 1077 BC KV4 Tentamun

Timeline of the 20th Dynasty[edit]

Ramesses XI Ramesses X Ramesses IX Ramesses VIII Ramesses VII Ramesses VI Ramesses V Ramesses IV Ramesses III Setnakhte

Pharaonic Family tree[edit]

The Twentieth dynasty of Egypt was the last of the New Kingdom of Egypt. The familial relationships are unclear, especially towards the end of the dynasty.


 
 
 
 
 
 
Setnakhte
 
Tiy-merenese
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Isis-ta-Habadjilat
 
Ramesses III
 
 
 
Tiye
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pentawere
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nubkhesbed
 
Ramesses VI
 
Ramesses IV
 
Duatentopet
 
Amenhirkhopshef
 
Khaemwaset E
 
Ramesses VIII
 
Parahiremenef
 
Mentuhirkopshef B
 
Takhat B
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ramesses VII
 
 
 
 
 
Ramesses V
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Baketwernel
 
Ramesses IX
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tyti
 
 
 
Ramesses X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unknown
 
Ramesses XI
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Gallery of images[edit]

See also[edit]

Pharaoh is a historical novel by Bolesław Prus, set in Egypt at the end of the Twentieth Dynasty, which adds two fictional rulers: Ramesses XII and Ramesses XIII. It has been adapted into a film of the same title.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hartwig Altenmüller, "The Tomb of Tausert and Setnakht," in Valley of the Kings, ed. Kent R. Weeks (New York: Friedman/Fairfax Publishers, 2001), pp.222-31
  2. ^ a b "New Kingdom of Egypt". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  3. ^ "Ramesses IV, the Beginning the Empire's Collapse". www.touregypt.net. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  4. ^ Grandet, Pierre (2014-10-30). "Early–mid 20th dynasty". UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. 1 (1): Pg. 4. 
  5. ^ Lorenz, Megaera. "The Papyrus Harris". fontes.lstc.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  6. ^ William F. Edgerton, The Strikes in Ramses III's Twenty-Ninth Year, JNES 10, No. 3 (July 1951), pp. 137-145
  7. ^ Dodson and Hilton, pg 184
  8. ^ Grandet, Pierre (2014-10-30). "Early–mid 20th dynasty". UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. 1 (1): Pg. 5–8. 
  9. ^ Jacobus Van Dijk, 'The Amarna Period and the later New Kingdom' in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, ed. Ian Shaw, Oxford University Press paperback, (2002), pp.306-307
  10. ^ "Ramesses IV, the Beginning the Empire's Collapse". www.touregypt.net. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  11. ^ "Egypt: Rulers, Kings and Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt: Ramesses V". www.touregypt.net. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  12. ^ A.J. Peden, The Reign of Ramesses IV, (Aris & Phillips Ltd: 1994), p.21 Peden's source on these recorded disturbances is KRI, VI, 340-343
  13. ^ Alan H. Gardiner, R. O. Faulkner: The Wilbour Papyrus. 4 Bände, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1941-52.
  14. ^ "Egypt: Rulers, Kings and Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt: Ramesses VII". www.touregypt.net. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  15. ^ "Egypt: Rulers, Kings and Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt: Ramesses VIII". www.touregypt.net. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  16. ^ "Egypt: The Abbott Papyrus: An investigation into tomb robberies held under Ramses IX". www.touregypt.net. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  17. ^ Une enquête judiciaire à Thèbes au temps de la XXe dynastie : ...Maspero, G. (Gaston), 1846-1916.
  18. ^ Finkelstein, Israel. "Is the Philistine Paradigm Still Viable?": Pg. 517. 
  19. ^  Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books, 1992. p.289
  20. ^ E.F. Wente & C.C. Van Siclen, "A Chronology of the New Kingdom" in Studies in Honor of George R. Hughes, (SAOC 39) 1976, p.261
  21. ^ Dodson and Hilton, pg 185-186
  22. ^ Sites in the Valley of the Kings




Preceded by
Nineteenth dynasty
Dynasty of Egypt
1189−1077 BCE
Succeeded by
Twenty-first dynasty