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Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt

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Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt
732 BC–720 BC
Stela of Tefnakht
Stela of Tefnakht
Common languagesEgyptian language
Ancient Egyptian Religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
• 732-725 BC
• 725-720 BC
Historical eraThird Intermediate Period of Egypt
• Conquests of Tefnakht
732 BC
• Deposition of Bakenranef
720 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIV, alternatively 24th Dynasty or Dynasty 24) is usually classified as the fourth Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period.


The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty was a short-lived group of pharaohs who had their capital at Sais in the western Nile Delta.

Tefnakht I[edit]

Tefnakht I formed an alliance of the Delta kinglets, with whose support he attempted to conquer Upper Egypt; his campaign attracted the attention of the Nubian king, Piye, who recorded his conquest and subjection of Tefnakhte of Sais and his peers in a well-known inscription. Tefnakht is always called the "Great Chief of the West" in Piye's Victory stela and in two stelas dating to the regnal years 36 and 38 of Shoshenq V. It is uncertain if he ever adopted an official royal title. However, Olivier Perdu[1] has now argued that a certain Shepsesre Tefnakhte of Sais was not, in fact, Piye's famous nemesis. Perdu published a recently discovered donation stela which came from a private collection; the document is dated to Year 2 of Necho I of Sais and is similar in style, epigraphy and text with the donation stela of Shepsesre. However, Perdu's arguments are not accepted by most Egyptologists at present, who believe that the Year 8 Shepsesre Tefnakht Athens stela was most likely Tefnakht I. The later king Tefnakht II, if he existed, would have been a close predecessor of Necho I. Both Tefnakht II and Necho I ruled as local Saite kings during the Nubian era under Taharqa.


Tefnakht I's successor, Bakenranef, definitely assumed the throne of Sais and took the royal name Wahkare. His authority was recognised in much of the Delta including Memphis where several Year 5 and Year 6 Serapeum stelas from his reign have been found. This Dynasty came to a sudden end when Shebitqo, the second king of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, attacked Sais, captured Bakenrenef and burned him alive.

Pharaohs of the 24th Dynasty[edit]

Name of Pharaoh Image Reign Throne Name Comments
Tefnakht I 732-725 BC Shepsesre
Bakenranef 725-720 BC Wahkare

Timeline of the 24th Dynasty[edit]

BakenranefTefnakht I

Family tree[edit]

Bakenranefunnamed son[3]unnamed son[3]


  1. ^ Olivier Perdu, "La Chefferie de Sébennytos de Piankhy à Psammétique Ier", Revue d'Égyptology 55 (2004), pp. 95-111.
  2. ^ a b P.R. Del Francia, "Di una statuetta dedicata ad Amon-Ra dal grande capo dei Ma Tefnakht nel Museo Egizio di Firenze", S. Russo (ed.) Atti del V Convegno Nazionale di Egittologia e Papirologia, Firenze, 10-12 dicembre 1999, Firenze, 2000, pp. 63-112; 76-82
  3. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2004, p. 233