Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt

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Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt
398 BC–380 BC
Sphinx of Hakor
Sphinx of Hakor
Common languagesEgyptian language
Ancient Egyptian Religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Historical eraClassical antiquity
• Deposition of Amyrtaeus
398 BC
• Deposition of Nefaarud II
380 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIX, alternatively 29th Dynasty or Dynasty 29) is usually classified as the fourth Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Late Period. It was founded after the overthrow of Amyrtaeus, the only Pharaoh of the 28th Dynasty, by Nefaarud I in 398 BC, and disestablished upon the overthrow of Nefaarud II in 380 BC.


Nefaarud I founded the 29th Dynasty (according to an account preserved in a papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum) by defeating Amyrtaeus in open battle, and later putting him to death at Memphis. Nefaarud then made Mendes his capital.

On Nefaarud's death, two rival factions fought for the throne: one behind his son Muthis, and the other supporting a usurper Psammuthes; although Psammuthes was successful, he only managed to reign for a year.

Psammuthes was overthrown by Hakor, who claimed to be the grandson of Nefaarud I. He successfully resisted Persian attempts to reconquer Egypt, drawing support from Athens (until the Peace of Antalcidas in 387 BC), and from the rebel king of Cyprus, Evagoras. Although his son Nefaarud II became king on his death, the younger Nefaarud was unable to keep hold of his inheritance.

Pharaohs of the 29th Dynasty[edit]

Name of Pharaoh Image Reign Comments
Nefaarud I Neferites I-E 5339-IMG 8073-gradient.jpg 398–393 BC Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed
Statue of 29th Dynasty King Psamuthis LACMA M.71.73.57.jpg
393 BC Reigned for only a year. Overthrown by Hakor.
Hakor (Achoris) Statue Achoris Petrie 01.jpg 393–380BC Overthrew his predecessor Psammuthes. Father of Nefaarud II.
Nefaarud II 380 BC Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months.

Timeline of the 29th Dynasty[edit]

Nefaarud IIHakorPsammuthesNefaarud I


  • Clarysse, Willy (1974), "Nephorites, Founder of the 29th Dynasty and His Name", Chronique d'Égypte: Bulletin Périodique de la Fondation égyptologique Reine Élisabeth, 69: 215–217.
  • Lloyd, Alan Brian (2000), "The Late Period (664–332 BC)", in Shaw, Ian (ed.), The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 369–394, ISBN 0-8109-1020-9.
  • Myśliwiec, Karol (2000), The Twilight of Ancient Egypt: First Millennium B.C.E, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-8630-0. Translated by David Lorton.
  • Ray, John D. (1986), "Psammuthis and Hakoris", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Egypt Exploration Society, 72: 149–158, doi:10.2307/3821486, JSTOR 3821486.
  • Traunecker, Claude (1979), "Essai sur l'histoire de la XXIXe dynastie" (PDF), Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 79: 395–436, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-04-23.