Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt

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The Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt is also known as the Bubastite Dynasty, since the pharaohs originally ruled from the city of Bubastis.[1] It was founded by Shoshenq I.

The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth, and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group designation of the Third Intermediate Period.

22nd Dynasty rulers[edit]

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty of Egypt were a series of Meshwesh ancient Libyans who ruled from c. 943 BCE until 720 BCE. They had settled in Egypt since the Twentieth Dynasty. Manetho states that the Berber dynasty originated at Bubastis, but they almost certainly ruled from Tanis, which was their capital and the city where their tombs have been excavated.

Another pharaoh who belongs to this group is Tutkheperre Shoshenq, whose precise position within this dynasty is currently uncertain although he is now thought to have ruled Egypt early in the 9th century BCE for a short time between Osorkon I and Takelot I. The next ruler at Tanis after Shoshenq V was Osorkon IV but this pharaoh is sometimes not believed to be a member of the 22nd Dynasty since he only controlled a small portion of Lower Egypt together with Tefnakhte of Sais—whose authority was recognised at Memphis—and Iuput II of Leontopolis.

Pharaohs[edit]

The known rulers during the Twenty-Second Dynasty include:

Twenty-Second Dynasty pharaohs
Pharaoh Throne name Reign (BCE) Consort(s) Comments
Shoshenq I Hedjkheperre-Setepenre 943–922 BC Patareshnes
Karomama A
possibly to be identified with the biblical Shishaq
Osorkon I Sekhemkheperre-Setepenre 922–887 BC Maatkare B
Tashedkhonsu
Shepensopdet A
Shoshenq II Heqakheperre-Setepenre 887–885 BC Nesitanebetashru
Nesitaudjatakhet
enjoyed an independent reign of 2 Years at Tanis according to Von Beckerath
Takelot I Hedjkheperre-Setepenre 885–872 BC Kapes
Osorkon II Usermaatre-Setepenamun 872–837 BC Isetemkheb G
Karomama B
Djedmutesankh
an ally of Israel who fought Shalmaneser III of Assyria at the battle of Qarqar in 853 BC.
Shoshenq III Usermaatre-Setepenre 837–798 BC Tadibast II
Tentamenopet
Djedbastiusankh
Shoshenq (IV)"quartus" Hedjkheperre-Setepenre 798–785 BC not to be confused with Shoshenq VI; the original Shoshenq IV in publications before 1993
Pami Usermaatre-Setepenamun 785–778 BC buried two Apis bulls in his reign
Shoshenq V Akheperre 778–740 BC Tadibast III?
Pedubast II Sehetepibenre 740–730 BC Tadibast III? Not mentioned in all Pharaoh lists, placement disputed
Osorkon IV Usermaatre 730–716 BC Not always listed as a true member of the XXII Dynasty, but succeeded Shoshenq V at Tanis. The biblical Pharaoh So.


Twenty-Third Dynasty

The so-called Twenty-Third Dynasty was an offshoot of this dynasty perhaps based in Upper Egypt, though there is much debate concerning this issue. All of its kings reigned in Middle and Upper Egypt including the Western Desert Oases.

See also[edit]

References[edit]