Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt

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Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt
945 BC–720 BC
Pendant bearing the cartouche of Osorkon II seated Osiris flanked by Horus and Isis
Pendant bearing the cartouche of Osorkon II
seated Osiris flanked by Horus and Isis
Common languagesEgyptian language
Religion
Ancient Egyptian Religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Historical eraClassical antiquity
• Established
945 BC
• Disestablished
720 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt is also known as the Bubastite Dynasty, since the pharaohs originally ruled from the city of Bubastis.[1] It was founded by Shoshenq I.

The Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-fifth dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group designation of the Third Intermediate Period.

Rulers[edit]

The pharaohs of the Twenty-second Dynasty were a series of Meshwesh (ancient Libyan tribe) chieftains, who ruled from c. 943 BC until 716 BC. They had settled in Egypt since the Twentieth Dynasty and were known in Egypt as the 'Great Chiefs of the Ma' (Ma being a synonym of Meshwesh). Manetho states that this Berber dynasty originated at Bubastis, but its rulers almost certainly governed from Tanis, which was their capital and the city where their tombs have been excavated.

Another pharaoh who belongs to this group is Tutkheperre Shoshenq. His period of rule within this dynasty is currently uncertain, although he is now thought to have governed Egypt early in the 9th century BC for a short time between Osorkon I and Takelot I. The next ruler at Tanis after Shoshenq V was Osorkon IV. This pharaoh is sometimes not believed to be a member of the 22nd Dynasty since he only controlled a small portion of Lower Egypt together with Tefnakhte of Sais, whose authority was recognised at Memphis—and Iuput II of Leontopolis.

Pharaohs[edit]

The known rulers during the Twenty-second Dynasty include:

Twenty-Second Dynasty pharaohs
Pharaoh Throne name Image Reign (BC) Consort(s) Comments
Shoshenq I Hedjkheperre-Setepenre
Karnak Sheshonq I.jpg
943–922 BC Patareshnes
Karomama A
Possibly to be identified with the biblical Shishak
Osorkon I Sekhemkheperre-Setepenre
Statue of Pharaoh Osorkon I-AO 9502-IMG 7653-gradient.jpg
922–887 BC Maatkare B
Tashedkhonsu
Shepensopdet A
Shoshenq II Heqakheperre-Setepenre
Sheshonq II mask2004.jpg
887–885 BC Nesitanebetashru
Nesitaudjatakhet
Enjoyed an independent reign of two years at Tanis according to Von Beckerath
Takelot I Hedjkheperre-Setepenre
Takelot I a.jpg
885–872 BC Kapes
Osorkon II Usermaatre-Setepenamun
Egypte louvre 066.jpg
872–837 BC Isetemkheb G
Karomama B
Djedmutesankh
An ally of Israel who fought Shalmaneser III of Assyria at the battle of Qarqar in 853 BC.[citation needed]
Shoshenq III Usermaatre-Setepenre
Shoshenq III.jpg
837–798 BC Tadibast II
Tentamenopet
Djedbastiusankh
Shoshenq IV Hedjkheperre-Setepenre
Stele Shoshenq V Y8 Spiegelberg.png
798–785 BC Not to be confused with Shoshenq VI; the original Shoshenq IV in publications before 1993
Pami Usermaatre-Setepenamun
Louvre 122006 015.jpg
785–778 BC Buried two Apis bulls in his reign
Shoshenq V Akheperre
List of pharaohs, Louvre.jpg
778–740 BC Tadibast III? Successor of Shoshenq V was often stated as Osorkon IV;some say it is Pedubast II
Pedubast II Sehetepibenre
Pedubast II 2.jpg
740–730 BC Tadibast III? Not mentioned in all Pharaoh lists, placement disputed
Osorkon IV Usermaatre
Louvre egide tete lionne.JPG
730–716 BC Not always listed as a true member of the XXII Dynasty, but succeeded Shoshenq V at Tanis. Perhaps the biblical Pharaoh So (2 Kings 17:4).

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The so-called Twenty-Third Dynasty was an offshoot of this dynasty perhaps based in Upper Egypt, though there is much debate concerning this issue. All of its kings reigned in Middle and Upper Egypt including the Western Desert Oases.

See also[edit]

References[edit]